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Prevention of Vector-borne Infection

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101. Modeling a dynamic bi-layer contact network of injection drug users and the spread of blood-borne infections (PubMed)

Modeling a dynamic bi-layer contact network of injection drug users and the spread of blood-borne infections Injection drug users (IDUs) are at high risk of acquiring and spreading various blood-borne infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and a number of sexually transmitted infections. These infections can spread among IDUs via risky sexual and needle-sharing contacts. To accurately model the spread of such contagions among (...) IDUs, we build a bi-layer network that captures both types of risky contacts. We present methodology for inferring important model parameters, such as those governing network structure and dynamics, from readily available data sources (e.g., epidemiological surveys). Such a model can be used to evaluate the efficacy of various programs that aim to combat drug addiction and contain blood-borne diseases among IDUs. The model is especially useful for evaluating interventions that exploit the structure

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2016 Mathematical Biosciences

102. Food-borne Diarrheal Infection

Food-borne Diarrheal Infection Food-borne Diarrheal Infection Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Food-borne Diarrheal (...) Infection Food-borne Diarrheal Infection Aka: Food-borne Diarrheal Infection , Foodborne Illness , Food-Borne Disease , Food Poisoning From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology increasing in United States Cases per year: 48 million Hospitalizations: 128,000 l related deaths per year: 3000 Medical and associated costs per year: $4-14 billion Most cases are not seen by medical care Expanded fast food industry in part responsible Large scale food production affects many people More virulent organisms may

2018 FP Notebook

103. Pet-Borne Infection

Pet-Borne Infection Pet-Borne Infection Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Pet-Borne Infection Pet-Borne Infection Aka (...) : Pet-Borne Infection , Pet-Borne Parasitic Zoonoses , Pet Borne Disease , Pet Borne Zoonoses , Zoonoses From Related Chapters II. Transmission: Skin Contact with contaminated soil or water (or skin-to-skin contact) ( from dog or cat feces exposure) (fish tanks) ( , esp. microsporum canis) III. Transmission: Fecal-oral route - ingestion of contaminated soil or feces ( from dogs) (Cat litter) (Cats and dogs) sis (Cats and dogs) (Cats and dogs) (Cats, dogs, chickens and reptiles) (Dogs, rodents

2018 FP Notebook

104. Get Checked… Where? The Development of a Comprehensive, Integrated Internet-Based Testing Program for Sexually Transmitted and Blood-Borne Infections in British Columbia, Canada (PubMed)

Get Checked… Where? The Development of a Comprehensive, Integrated Internet-Based Testing Program for Sexually Transmitted and Blood-Borne Infections in British Columbia, Canada Testing for sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBI) is an effective public health strategy that can promote personal control of one's health and prevent the spread of these infections. Multiple barriers deter access to testing including fear of stigmatization, inaccurate health care provider (...) perceptions of risk, and reduced availability of clinic services and infrastructure. Concurrent increases in sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates and demands on existing clinical services make this an even more pressing concern. Web-based testing offers several advantages that may alleviate existing clinical pressures and facilitate appropriate testing access.This paper describes the planning, development, and usability testing of a novel Web-based testing service, GetCheckedOnline (GCO

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2016 JMIR Research Protocols

105. Evidence for Personal Protective Measures to Reduce Human Contact With Blacklegged Ticks and for Environmentally Based Control Methods to Suppress Host-Seeking Blacklegged Ticks and Reduce Infection with Lyme Disease Spirochetes in Tick Vectors and Rodent (PubMed)

Evidence for Personal Protective Measures to Reduce Human Contact With Blacklegged Ticks and for Environmentally Based Control Methods to Suppress Host-Seeking Blacklegged Ticks and Reduce Infection with Lyme Disease Spirochetes in Tick Vectors and Rodent In the 1980s, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and rodents were recognized as the principal vector and reservoir hosts of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in the eastern United States, and deer were incriminated (...) as principal hosts for I. scapularis adults. These realizations led to pioneering studies aiming to reduce the risk for transmission of B. burgdorferi to humans by attacking host-seeking ticks with acaricides, interrupting the enzootic transmission cycle by killing immatures infesting rodent reservoirs by means of acaricide-treated nesting material, or reducing deer abundance to suppress tick numbers. We review the progress over the past three decades in the fields of: 1) prevention of human-tick contact

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2016 Journal of medical entomology

106. Highly-Immunogenic Virally-Vectored T-cell Vaccines Cannot Overcome Subversion of the T-cell Response by HCV during Chronic Infection (PubMed)

Highly-Immunogenic Virally-Vectored T-cell Vaccines Cannot Overcome Subversion of the T-cell Response by HCV during Chronic Infection An effective therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as an adjunct to newly developed directly-acting antivirals (DAA), or for the prevention of reinfection, would significantly reduce the global burden of disease associated with chronic HCV infection. A recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd3) vector and a modified (...) vaccinia Ankara (MVA), encoding the non-structural proteins of HCV (NSmut), used in a heterologous prime/boost regimen induced multi-specific, high-magnitude, durable HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in healthy volunteers, and was more immunogenic than a heterologous Ad regimen. We now assess the immunogenicity of this vaccine regimen in HCV infected patients (including patients with a low viral load suppressed with interferon/ribavirin therapy), determine T-cell cross-reactivity

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2016 Vaccines

107. Viral vector vaccines expressing nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein genes of avian bornaviruses ameliorate homologous challenge infections in cockatiels and common canaries (PubMed)

Viral vector vaccines expressing nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein genes of avian bornaviruses ameliorate homologous challenge infections in cockatiels and common canaries Avian bornaviruses are causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an often fatal disease of parrots and related species (order Psittaciformes) which is widely distributed in captive psittacine populations and may affect endangered species. Here, we established a vaccination strategy employing two different (...) well described viral vectors, namely recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) that were engineered to express the phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein genes of two avian bornaviruses, parrot bornavirus 4 (PaBV-4) and canary bornavirus 2 (CnBV-2). When combined in a heterologous prime/boost vaccination regime, NDV and MVA vaccine viruses established self-limiting infections and induced a bornavirus-specific humoral immune response in cockatiels (Nymphicus

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2016 Scientific reports

108. Bites and mites: prevention and protection of vector-borne disease. (PubMed)

Bites and mites: prevention and protection of vector-borne disease. Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are difficult to prevent and control because it is hard to predict the complex habits of mosquitoes, ticks and fleas; most vector-borne viruses or bacteria infect animals as well as humans, which further adds to this difficulty. Thus, prevention is the best protection against VBD.Vaccines are available for yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis and several vaccines (...) are in clinical trials for dengue fever. Antimalarial intermittent preventive therapy (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine) and insecticide-treated mosquito nets are associated with a decreased risk of neonatal mortality and lower birth-weight. Permethrin-impregnated clothing for the prevention of tick bites has been shown effective in reducing tick bites.Much progress has been made in terms of development of preventive vaccines and medicines, but there is more work that needs to be done. Efforts still need to continue

2013 Current Opinion in Pediatrics

109. Eric D Perakslis: Cyber security modeled as infection prevention and control in the healthcare delivery setting

Eric D Perakslis: Cyber security modeled as infection prevention and control in the healthcare delivery setting Eric D Perakslis: Cyber security modeled as infection prevention and control in the healthcare delivery setting - The BMJ ---> In the wake of the recent global cyber attack, Eric Perakslis discusses some basic principles of cyber security. The that has struck institutions across many nations, including a large number of hospitals in the UK, is just the latest reminder that cyber (...) defense is a fundamental necessity of the connected age. While the variety and velocity of the risks appears massive, the simplest of solutions can still be the most effective. [1] Proficient use of cyber security best practices requires an understanding that can be difficult to achieve given the barriers of expertise and jargon. However, medical personnel are well-trained in the basics of infection prevention and control (IPC) and these same principles can be used as a model of cyber security

2017 The BMJ Blog

110. Prevention of Healthcare and Associated Infection in Surgery

patients. It is also important that they receive expert specialist advice in the event they do contract an infectious blood-borne virus. It is also acknowledged that testing for blood-borne viruses can be associated with significant false- positive rates, and for these various reasons the College does not support the concept of regular mandatory testing for BBVs for health care workers. POSITION PAPER ROYAL AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Subject: Prevention of Healthcare Associated Infection (...) Prevention of Healthcare and Associated Infection in Surgery POSITION PAPER ROYAL AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Subject: Prevention of Healthcare Associated Infection in Surgery Ref. No. FES-PST-009 Division: Document Owner: Authorised By: Page 1 of 3 Fellowship and Standards Manager, Professional Standards Professional Development and Standards Board Original Issue: Version: Approval Date: Review Date: February 2010 2 May 2015 May 2018 BACKGROUND This position paper outlines key principles

2015 ASERNIP-S

111. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Recurrent Wheezing in Black Infants Who Were Born Preterm: The D-Wheeze Randomized Clinical Trial. (PubMed)

Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Recurrent Wheezing in Black Infants Who Were Born Preterm: The D-Wheeze Randomized Clinical Trial. Black infants born preterm face high rates of recurrent wheezing throughout infancy. Vitamin D supplementation has the potential to positively or negatively affect wheezing through modulation of the pulmonary and immune systems.To assess the effectiveness of 2 vitamin D dosing strategies in preventing recurrent wheezing.A randomized clinical trial enrolled (...) , -17.1% to 7.0%]). Lower respiratory infections were experienced by 33 of 153 infants (21.6%) in the sustained group and 37 of 147 infants (25.2%) in the diet-limited group (difference, -3.6% [95% CI, -16.4% to 4.4%]).Among black infants born preterm, sustained supplementation with vitamin D, compared with diet-limited supplementation, resulted in a reduced risk of recurrent wheezing by 12 months' adjusted age. Future research is needed to better understand the mechanisms and longer-term effects

2018 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

112. Viral Vectors Take On HIV Infection. (PubMed)

use Dependovirus Gene Transfer Techniques Genetic Vectors HIV Envelope Protein gp120 HIV Infections immunology prevention & control HIV-1 immunology Humans Receptors, CCR5 metabolism Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome prevention & control 2015 8 20 6 0 2015 8 20 6 0 2015 8 26 6 0 ppublish 26287853 10.1056/NEJMcibr1504232 (...) Viral Vectors Take On HIV Infection. 26287853 2015 08 25 2015 08 20 1533-4406 373 8 2015 Aug 20 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Viral Vectors Take On HIV Infection. 770-2 10.1056/NEJMcibr1504232 Mellins Elizabeth D ED Kay Mark A MA eng Journal Article United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 0 Antibodies, Neutralizing 0 HIV Envelope Protein gp120 0 Receptors, CCR5 0 gp120 protein, Human immunodeficiency virus 1 AIM IM Animals Antibodies, Neutralizing blood therapeutic

2015 NEJM

113. Bacterial and protozoal agents of canine vector-borne diseases in the blood of domestic and stray dogs from southern Portugal (PubMed)

by DNA sequencing, including one animal confirmed with both A. platys and H. canis. Furthermore, Wolbachia spp. was amplified in blood from four dogs. None of the tested dogs was positive by PCR for Bartonella spp. or Babesia spp.The molecular identification of CVBD agents in southern Portugal, some of them with zoonotic concern, reinforces the importance to alert the veterinary community, owners and public health authorities to prevent the risk of transmission of vector-borne pathogens among dogs (...) Bacterial and protozoal agents of canine vector-borne diseases in the blood of domestic and stray dogs from southern Portugal The so-called canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD) are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted by arthropods. In addition to their veterinary importance, many of these canine vector-borne pathogens can also affect the human population due to their zoonotic potential, a situation that requires a One Health approach. As the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens

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2015 Parasites & vectors

114. Spatial Repellent Products for Control of Vector Borne Diseases

Enrollment : 0 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor) Primary Purpose: Prevention Official Title: Spatial Repellent Products for Control of Vector Borne Diseases - Malaria - Zambia Study Start Date : March 2016 Actual Primary Completion Date : April 2016 Actual Study Completion Date : April 2016 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: resources: Arms (...) Spatial Repellent Products for Control of Vector Borne Diseases Spatial Repellent Products for Control of Vector Borne Diseases - Malaria - Zambia (SR-M-ZM) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2015 Clinical Trials

115. March 2014 supplement to the 2013 consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection

March 2014 supplement to the 2013 consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection MARCH 2014 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2013 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV INFECTION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH SUPPLEMENTSUPPLEMENT MARCH 2014 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2013 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV INFECTION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A PUBLIC (...) HEALTH APPROACH4 WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data MARCH 2014 SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2013 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV INFECTION. Recommendations for a public health approach. I.World Health Organization. ISBN 978 92 4 150683 0 Subject headings are available from WHO institutional repository © World Health Organization 2014 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization are available on the WHO web site (www

2014 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

116. Combination Adenovirus and Protein Vaccines Prevent Infection or Reduce Viral Burden after Heterologous Clade C Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Mucosal Challenge (PubMed)

Combination Adenovirus and Protein Vaccines Prevent Infection or Reduce Viral Burden after Heterologous Clade C Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Mucosal Challenge HIV vaccine development is focused on designing immunogens and delivery methods that elicit protective immunity. We evaluated a combination of adenovirus (Ad) vectors expressing HIV 1086.C (clade C) envelope glycoprotein (Env), SIV Gag p55, and human pegivirus GBV-C E2 glycoprotein. We compared replicating simian (SAd7 (...) in animals vaccinated with the SAd7 vectors, suggesting superior immunity conferred by the replicating simian vectors. Furthermore, higher V1V2-specific binding antibody titers correlated with viral control in the SAd7 vaccine group. Thus, recombinant Ad plus protein vaccines generated humoral and cellular immunity that was effective in either protecting from SHIV acquisition or significantly reducing viremia in animals that became infected, consequently supporting additional development of replicating

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2018 Journal of virology

117. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (PubMed)

Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV) IS TRANSMITTED VIA BLOOD OR SEXUAL CONTACT. PERSONS WITH CHRONIC HBV INFECTION ARE AT INCREASED RISK FOR CIRRHOSIS AND LIVER CANCER AND REQUIRE MEDICAL CARE. THIS REPORT UPDATES AND SUMMARIZES PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON IMMUNIZATION PRACTICES (ACIP) AND CDC REGARDING THE PREVENTION OF HBV INFECTION (...) IN THE UNITED STATES. ACIP RECOMMENDS TESTING ALL PREGNANT WOMEN FOR HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN (HBSAG), AND TESTING HBSAG-POSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN FOR HEPATITIS B VIRUS DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (HBV DNA); ADMINISTRATION OF HEPB VACCINE AND HEPATITIS B IMMUNE GLOBULIN (HBIG) FOR INFANTS BORN TO HBV-INFECTED WOMEN WITHIN 12 HOURS OF BIRTH, FOLLOWED BY COMPLETION OF THE VACCINE SERIES AND POSTVACCINATION SEROLOGIC TESTING; UNIVERSAL HEPATITIS B VACCINATION WITHIN 24 HOURS OF BIRTH, FOLLOWED BY COMPLETION

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2018 MMWR Recommendations and Reports

118. Epidemiology of severe fever and thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection and the need for therapeutics for the prevention (PubMed)

Epidemiology of severe fever and thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection and the need for therapeutics for the prevention Over the past ten years there has been a marked increase in cases of severe fever and thrombocytopenia syndrome in East Asia. This tick-borne hemorrhagic fever presents along with clinical signs including high fever and leukopenia. In addition to humans, the virus has also been detected with shared genetic homology in farm animals including goats, cattle, horses, and pigs (...) . In this review, we comprehensively summarize the virology, genotypes, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of SFTSV infection in humans and animals. Currently, a collaborative global approach against SFTSV infection is being undertaken; however, the need for continuous disease surveillance and production of an effective vaccine is imperative as this virus may lead to an epidemic of irreversible status in both humans and animals.

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2018 Clinical and experimental vaccine research

119. Impact of Improved "Injera" Baking Stove Use on Childhood Acute Respiratory Infection Prevention in Northwest Ethiopia

Impact of Improved "Injera" Baking Stove Use on Childhood Acute Respiratory Infection Prevention in Northwest Ethiopia Impact of Improved "Injera" Baking Stove Use on Childhood Acute Respiratory Infection Prevention in Northwest Ethiopia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum (...) number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Impact of Improved "Injera" Baking Stove Use on Childhood Acute Respiratory Infection Prevention in Northwest Ethiopia The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details

2018 Clinical Trials

120. Is a Human CD8 T-Cell Vaccine Possible, and if So, What Would It Take?: Could a CD8+ T-Cell Vaccine Prevent Persistent HIV Infection? (PubMed)

Is a Human CD8 T-Cell Vaccine Possible, and if So, What Would It Take?: Could a CD8+ T-Cell Vaccine Prevent Persistent HIV Infection? Vaccines that stimulate CD8+ T cells could clear early virus infection or control ongoing infection and prevent disease. This could be valuable to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) where it has not yet been possible to generate broadly reacting neutralizing antibodies with a vaccine. However, HIV-1 vaccines aimed at stimulating CD8+ T cells have (...) had no success. In contrast, a cytomegalovirus vectored simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine enabled clearance of early SIV infection. This may open the door to the design of an effective HIV vaccine.Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

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2018 Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology

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