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Prevention of Vector-borne Infection

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101. Malaria prophylaxis

[ ], Guidelines for malaria prevention in travellers from the UK 2017 [ ] and the CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health information for international travel [ ], the Travel Health Pro factsheet Malaria [ ] and expert opinion in monographs and review articles [ ] [ ; ]. Personal protective measures What personal protective measures should I recommend? Advise the person that the first line of defence against malaria infection (and other vector-borne diseases) is effective bite prevention. Recommend: Application (...) line of defence against vector-borne diseases is effective bite prevention. Chemoprophylaxis (if appropriate for the area to be visited) taking into account contra-indications and co-morbid conditions. Provision of emergency standby treatment — this is not required for most travellers but should be considered if taking chemoprophylaxis and visiting remote areas not within 24 hours of medical facilities Chemoprophylaxis and measures to prevent mosquito bites do not eliminate the risk of contracting

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

102. Human and entomologic investigations of chikungunya outbreak in Mandera, Northeastern Kenya, 2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human and entomologic investigations of chikungunya outbreak in Mandera, Northeastern Kenya, 2016. Chikungunya is a reemerging vector borne pathogen associated with severe morbidity in affected populations. Lamu, along the Kenyan coast was affected by a major chikungunya outbreak in 2004. Twelve years later, we report on entomologic investigations and laboratory confirmed chikungunya cases in northeastern Kenya. Patient blood samples were received at the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI (...) algorithms with the capacity to capture multiple causes of arbovirus infections as these two viruses share common vectors and eco-systems. In addition sustained entomological surveillance and vector control programs targeting most productive containers are needed to monitor changes in vector densities, for early detection of the viruses and initiate vector control efforts to prevent possible outbreaks.

2018 PLoS ONE

103. Infant feeding in areas of Zika virus transmission

) with postnatally acquired, vector- borne Zika infection (34). RECOMMENDATION Infants born to mothers with suspected, probable or confirmed Zika virus infection, or who reside in or have travelled to areas of ongoing Zika virus transmission, should be fed according to normal infant feeding guidelines. They should start breastfeeding within one hour of birth, be exclusively breastfed for six months and have timely introduction of adequate, safe and properly fed complementary foods, while continuing breastfeeding (...) of health, policy-makers and health-care workers in regions affected by transmission of Zika virus, in the development of local and national protocols and policies on infant feeding, including breastfeeding practices in areas of Zika virus transmission, and their implementation. It may also be used to inform communication to the general public. Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes; the same mosquito also transmits other vector-borne diseases – dengue, chikungunya

2016 World Health Organisation Guidelines

104. Expert Opinion on the public health needs of irregular migrants, refugees or asylum seekers across the EU's southern and south-eastern borders

should be paid to healthcare workers’ PH needs of migrants, refugees or asylum seekers across the EU's southern and south-eastern borders SCIENTIFIC ADVICE 8 immunisation status for their own protection and as they can play an important role in introducing highly contagious infectious diseases into vulnerable populations or can transmit infections prevalent among migrants into the host country. Among the vaccine-preventable diseases, measles, poliomyelitis and meningococcal disease present (...) to infections [38]. The lack of environmental sanitation and a safe water supply make personal hygiene very difficult. Thus, ensuring an adequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene promotion programmes can be seen as a cohesive agenda to prevent the spread of communicable diseases in these settings. ECDC has initiated a project to assist needs assessment at migrant reception centres. The output will be a check-list for establishing quick and flexible reception centre needs related to communicable disease

2015 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Expert Opinion

105. Environmental Risk Factors for Community-Acquired MRSA

) depending on the strain’s susceptibility profile. 8 2 MRSA can be classified into different strains depending on the environmental source of the infection: Hospitals (hospital-acquired MRSA); livestock (livestock-acquired MRSA); and communities (community-acquired MRSA). 9 According to the Writing Group of the Expert Panel of Canadian Infectious Disease, Infection Prevention and Control, and Public Health Specialists, hospital-acquired MRSA is defined as “MRSA strains that circulate and are transmitted (...) the etiology and treatment of CA-MRSA infections are well understood, the environmental risk factors for CA-MRSA infections are largely unknown. 2 A greater awareness of these risk factors may help to suggest more targeted primary prevention strategies. Objective The objective of this evidence review was to determine the environmental risk factors for CA-MRSA by conducting a comprehensive search of the current published and grey literature, and to identify gaps in knowledge and/or policy that can

2015 National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health

106. Climate change impact on migration, travel, travel destinations and the tourism industry: Implications for public health. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of climate change, many temperate regions, including high-income countries, are now suitable for vector-borne disease transmission. This is providing opportunities for importation of vectors and pathogens from endemic areas that can lead to cases or outbreaks of communicable diseases with which health professionals may be unfamiliar.Health systems need to be prepared for the potential population health consequences of migration, travel and tourism and the impact of climate change on these. Integrated (...) surveillance, early detection of cases and other public health interventions are critical to protect population health and prevent and control communicable disease outbreaks.© International Society of Travel Medicine 2019. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

2019 Journal of Travel Medicine

107. Molecular detection and characterization of Bartonella spp. in pet cats and dogs in Shenzhen, China. (Abstract)

Molecular detection and characterization of Bartonella spp. in pet cats and dogs in Shenzhen, China. Bartonella spp. are emerging vector-borne pathogens distributed worldwide that can infect humans and a wide range of mammals including small companion animals (cats and dogs). An increasing number of studies from the worldwide have reported cat and dog Bartonella infections in recently years. Cats and dogs are the primary reservoir or accidental hosts for Bartonella henselae, the main causal (...) , no positive sample was detected from pet dog samples. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the eight sequences of Bartonella identified here shared the highest identity with B. henselae. Given the intimate contact between pet animals and humans, many attentions should be paid to prevent the Bartonella infections originate from pet cats or dogs, although the Bartonella infection rate in pet cats and dogs might be rather low.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2019 Acta Tropica

108. Epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis through two surveillance systems: the national Sentinelles GP network and the national hospital discharge database, France, 2005 to 2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis through two surveillance systems: the national Sentinelles GP network and the national hospital discharge database, France, 2005 to 2016. Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most frequent vector-borne disease in France. Since 2009, surveillance of LB is conducted by a sentinel network of general practitioners (GPs). This system, in conjunction with the national hospitalisation database was used to estimate the incidence and describe the characteristics of LB (...) age groups and regions during the months with the highest incidences and should emphasise prevention measures such as regular tick checks after exposure and prompt removal to avoid infection.

2019 Euro Surveillance

109. Peripheral serotonin causes dengue-induced thrombocytopenia through 5HT<sub>2</sub> receptors. (Abstract)

Peripheral serotonin causes dengue-induced thrombocytopenia through 5HT2 receptors. Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent vector-borne viral pathogen, infecting millions of patients annually. Thrombocytopenia, a reduction in circulating platelet counts, is the most consistent sign of DENV-induced disease, independent of disease severity. However, the mechanisms leading to DENV-induced thrombocytopenia are unknown. Here, we show that thrombocytopenia is caused by serotonin (...) to deficiency in the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1), restored the thrombocytopenic phenotype. Exogenous serotonin was also sufficient to overcome the effects of drugs that inhibit platelet activation in vitro and to restore thrombocytopenia in DENV-infected MC-deficient mice. Therapeutic targeting of 5HT2A receptors during DENV infection effectively prevented thrombocytopenia in mice. Similarly, serotonin derived from DENV-activated human MCs led to increased human platelet activation. Thus MC

2019 Blood

110. Prophylactic platelet transfusion plus supportive care versus supportive care alone in adults with dengue and thrombocytopenia: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, superiority trial. (Abstract)

Prophylactic platelet transfusion plus supportive care versus supportive care alone in adults with dengue and thrombocytopenia: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, superiority trial. Dengue is the commonest vector-borne infection worldwide. It is often associated with thrombocytopenia, and prophylactic platelet transfusion is widely used despite the dearth of robust evidence. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusion in the prevention of bleeding (...) maculopapular rash, one pruritus, and one chest pain, as well as one case each of anaphylaxis, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and fluid overload that resulted in serious adverse events. No death was reported.In adult patients with dengue and thrombocytopenia, prophylactic platelet transfusion was not superior to supportive care in preventing bleeding, and might be associated with adverse events.National Medical Research Council, Singapore.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2017 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

111. Illness among US Resident Student Travelers after Return to the United States: A GeoSentinel Analysis, 2007-2017. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-181) after travel; 98% were outpatients. Of 581 confirmed diagnoses, the most common diagnosis category was gastrointestinal (45%). Acute diarrhoea was the most common gastrointestinal diagnosis (113 of 261; 43%). Thirty-one (7%) students had vector-borne diseases [14 (41%) malaria and 11 (32%) dengue]. Three had vaccine-preventable diseases (two typhoid; one hepatitis A); two had acute human immunodeficiency virus infection.Students experienced travel-related infections, despite the majority (...) having a pre-travel consultation. US students should receive pre-travel advice, vaccinations and chemoprophylaxis to prevent gastrointestinal, vector-borne, sexually transmitted and vaccine-preventable infections.

2018 Journal of Travel Medicine

112. Molecular Detection of <i>Bartonella bacilliformis</i> in <i>Lutzomyia maranonensis</i> in Cajamarca, Peru: A New Potential Vector of Carrion's Disease in Peru? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis in Lutzomyia maranonensis in Cajamarca, Peru: A New Potential Vector of Carrion's Disease in Peru? Carrion's disease is a neglected, vector-borne illness that affects Colombia, Ecuador, and especially Peru. The phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia verrucarum and Lutzomyia peruensis are the main illness vectors described, although other species may be implicated in endemic areas such as some northern Peruvian regions, in which Carrion's (...) disease vector has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Bartonella bacilliformis DNA in Lutzomyia maranonensis from Cajamarca, northern Peru. This sand fly has not been defined as a vector yet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps were used to collect adult phlebotomine sand flies from 2007 to 2008 in the Cajamarca department. Female specimens were identified using morphological keys and were grouped into pools of five sand flies, taking

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

113. Could violent conflict derail the London Declaration on NTDs? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Public Health. 2008 Feb;122(2):125-39 17663010 PLoS One. 2008;3(11):e3680 18997865 PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Mar 8;11(3):e0005445 28273080 Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Dec;11(12):1822-7 16485465 PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 May 26;10 (5):e0004545 27227772 Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Apr;16(4):473-9 26725446 Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Mar;11(3):247-58 20846030 Lancet. 2015 Aug 22;386(9995):743-800 26063472 Lancet. 2002 Dec;360 Suppl:s17-8 12504487 PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008 Jan 30;2(1):e154 18357340 PLoS Negl (...) of America. James A Baker III Institute, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America. Scowcroft Institute for International Affairs, Bush School of Public Policy and Public Service, College Station, Texas, United States of America. eng Journal Article 2018 04 19 United States PLoS Negl Trop Dis 101291488 1935-2727 IM Armed Conflicts Consensus Disease Eradication Global Health trends Humans Neglected Diseases epidemiology prevention & control therapy 2018 4 20 6 0 2018 4 20 6 0 2018 6 15 6 0

2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

114. Access to primaquine in the last mile: challenges at the service delivery points in pre-elimination era, Myanmar Full Text available with Trip Pro

/regions. The team used an observation checklist for documenting primaquine supplies at SDPs. Semi-structured interviews, key informant, and in-depth interviews focused both public and private sectors including staff from the Vector-Borne Diseases Control (VBDC) teams in each state/region and rural health centers (n = 25), those from the non-governmental organizations (NGOs), general practitioners and drug sellers (n = 11), and recently infected malaria patients (n = 11). Triangulation of quantitative (...) substitution of new batches of primaquine. Respondents from the private sector demanded for the refresher training course on updated antimalarial treatment guidelines.Monitoring compliance and safety of primaquine treatment was found as a barrier especially among mobile migrant workers and those who were in conflict areas. An alternative strategy by the NMCP could enable to prevent the underutilization of primaquine in vivax malaria to reach the malaria elimination targets.

2018 Tropical medicine and health

115. Health preparedness plan for dengue detection during the 2020 summer Olympic and Paralympic games in Tokyo Full Text available with Trip Pro

dengue in Japan is robust. However, in the case of large assemblies of international visitors for special events when the spread of communicable and vector-borne diseases increases, there are three main gaps that could be reinforced. First, cyclical training or a certification program on tropical disease management is warranted for physicians, especially those working in non-infectious disease-designated hospitals or clinics. Second, multi-language communication methods need to be strengthened (...) of this study is to identify strategies for early detection and prevention of dengue infection during the 2020 summer Olympics and Paralympics in Tokyo.We modified and adapted the failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) methodology, generally used in industrial manufacturing, to examine the current controls for dengue detection and assessment. Information on existing controls were obtained from publicly available resources. Our analysis revealed that the national infectious disease control system to detect

2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

116. Characterization of recombinant OspA in two different Borrelia vaccines with respect to immunological response and its relationship to functional parameters Full Text available with Trip Pro

Characterization of recombinant OspA in two different Borrelia vaccines with respect to immunological response and its relationship to functional parameters Prevention of Lyme disease in dogs in North America depends on effective vaccination against infection by the tick vector-born spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Most vaccines effectively prevent spirochete transmission to dogs during tick feeding based on immunization with the outer-surface lipoprotein A (OspA) of B. burgdorferi. More

2018 BMC veterinary research

117. Defeating re-emerging Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus outbreak in Saudi Arabia and worldwide Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oct;5(10):e1352 21991403 Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Mar;106(3):180-5 22154975 Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 May;11(5):683-8 15890119 Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Dec;17(12):2316-8 22172587 Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010 Nov;36 Suppl 1:S53-7 20800999 Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Dec;16(12):1979-82 21122237 Infect Dis Poverty. 2015 Aug 19;4:37 26286631 PLoS One. 2014 Feb 06;9(2):e85564 24516520 Adv Virus Res. 2003;59:277-314 14696332 Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Mar-Apr;91(2):179-81 9196762 Vector Borne Zoonotic (...) prevention & control Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne isolation & purification Encephalitis, Tick-Borne epidemiology prevention & control virology Female Global Health Humans Male Saudi Arabia epidemiology Young Adult The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. 2018 9 28 6 0 2018 9 28 6 0 2019 1 10 6 0 epublish 30260960 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006707 PNTD-D-18-00613 PMC6159858 Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 May;24(5):879-882 29664386 J Infect. 2005 Aug;51(2):91-7 16038757 PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011

2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

118. Exhaustive TORCH Pathogen Diagnostics Corroborate Zika Virus Etiology of Congenital Malformations in Northeastern Brazil Full Text available with Trip Pro

to 14.1]). Our data support an association between maternal ZIKV exposure and congenital malformations. Parallels between the discrepant ZIKV and CHIKV seroprevalence rates between cases and controls and similar seroprevalence rates between cases and controls for the sexually transmitted T. pallidum and HSV-2 may suggest the occurrence of predominantly vector-borne transmission in our study population. High seroprevalence of TORCH pathogens suggests that exhaustive diagnostics will be necessary (...) malformations and suggest the occurrence of predominantly vector-borne ZIKV transmission in these cases. In addition, some highly prevalent TORCH pathogens may be misinterpreted as representative of ongoing ZIKV activity in the absence of exhaustive diagnostics in northeastern Brazil.Copyright © 2018 Moreira-Soto et al.

2018 mSphere

119. Influence of climatic factors on Ixodes ricinus nymph abundance and phenology over a long-term monthly observation in Switzerland (2000–2014) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Influence of climatic factors on Ixodes ricinus nymph abundance and phenology over a long-term monthly observation in Switzerland (2000–2014) One of the major public health challenges in the field of communicable diseases consists of being able to predict where and when a population is at risk of being infected by a pathogen. In the case of vector-borne diseases, such predictions often require strong ecological knowledge of the vector life-cycle and the environmental conditions promoting (...) or preventing its establishment and maintenance. In this study, we analyse how climatic factors influence the abundance and phenology of the Lyme borreliosis vector Ixodes ricinus in a Swiss temperate forest, based on a long-term monthly observation over a period of 15 years (2000 and 2014).Our results show that questing nymph density significantly decreased during the study period in the sampling area. Although the analyses of climatic variables point out the relative importance of air temperature

2018 Parasites & vectors

120. Malaria Derived Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Enhances Anti-Pfs25 Functional Antibodies That Block Malaria Transmission Full Text available with Trip Pro

Malaria Derived Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Enhances Anti-Pfs25 Functional Antibodies That Block Malaria Transmission Malaria, one of the most common vector borne human diseases, is a major world health issue. In 2015 alone, more than 200 million people were infected with malaria, out of which, 429 000 died. Even though artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) are highly effective at treating malaria infections, novel efforts toward development of vaccines to prevent transmission

2018 Biochemistry

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