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Prevention of Vector-borne Infection

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8121. Experimental Vaccine for Prevention of Ebola Virus Infection

Experimental Vaccine for Prevention of Ebola Virus Infection Experimental Vaccine for Prevention of Ebola Virus Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Experimental Vaccine for Prevention (...) of Health Clinical Center (CC) Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This study will determine if an experimental vaccine to prevent Ebola virus infection is safe and what side effects, if any, it causes. Ebola virus infection may range from mild to severe, and may cause breathing problems, severe bleeding, kidney problems and shock that can lead to death. The vaccine used in this study contains man-made genetic material similar to one part of the Ebola virus, which is designed

2006 Clinical Trials

8122. Revised indications for the use of palivizumab and respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections. (PubMed)

Revised indications for the use of palivizumab and respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections. Palivizumab and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immune Globulin Intravenous (RSV-IGIV) are licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for use in preventing severe lower respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in high-risk infants, children younger than 24 months with chronic lung disease (formerly (...) called bronchopulmonary dysplasia), and certain preterm infants. This statement provides revised recommendations for administering RSV prophylaxis to infants and children with congenital heart disease, for identifying infants with a history of preterm birth and chronic lung disease who are most likely to benefit from immunoprophylaxis, and for reducing the risk of RSV exposure and infection in high-risk children. On the basis of results of a recently completed clinical trial, prophylaxis

2003 Pediatrics

8123. Revised indications for the use of palivizumab and respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections. (PubMed)

Revised indications for the use of palivizumab and respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections. Palivizumab and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immune Globulin Intravenous (RSV-IGIV) are licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for use in preventing severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in high-risk infants, children younger than 24 months with chronic lung disease (formerly called bronchopulmonary dysplasia (...) with hemodynamically significant heart disease. Palivizumab is preferred for most high-risk infants and children because of ease of intramuscular administration. Monthly administration of palivizumab during the RSV season results in a 45% to 55% decrease in the rate of hospitalization attributable to RSV. Because of the large number of infants born after 32 to 35 weeks' gestation and because of the high cost, immunoprophylaxis should be considered for this category of preterm infants only if 2 or more risk factors

2003 Pediatrics

8124. Transmission and prevention of occupational infections in orthopaedic surgeons. (PubMed)

Transmission and prevention of occupational infections in orthopaedic surgeons. Microorganisms are transmitted in hospitals mainly by contact, droplet, and airborne routes. Orthopaedic surgeons have a substantial occupational risk of contracting a blood-borne infection because of frequent handling of sharp instruments and objects during operative procedures. Aerosolization means the formation of aerosols and droplets when blood or other body fluids are mechanically disturbed. Smaller particles (...) (<5 microm) will remain suspended in air. Pathogens that can survive in these small airborne particles may cause infection if they are inhaled. Aerosol-generating procedures in patients with tuberculosis or severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) may facilitate airborne transmission. The Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have established guidelines for isolation precautions in hospitals.

2004 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume

8125. Prophylactic fluconazole is effective in preventing fungal colonization and fungal systemic infections in preterm neonates: a single-center, 6-year, retrospective cohort study. (PubMed)

Prophylactic fluconazole is effective in preventing fungal colonization and fungal systemic infections in preterm neonates: a single-center, 6-year, retrospective cohort study. Despite the promising preliminary results observed in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) populations, the use of fluconazole to prevent fungal colonization and infection in preterm neonates in the NICU is still an open question and not yet recommended as a standard of care. We have reviewed our 6-year series to assess (...) the effectiveness and safety of this form of prophylaxis.This retrospective study consisted of 465 neonates who weighed < 1500 g at birth and were admitted to our NICU in the period 1998-2003. Those who were born between 1998 and 2000 and did not receive fluconazole prophylaxis (group A, n = 240) were compared with those who were born between 2001 and 2003 and treated with fluconazole until the 30th day of life (45th for neonates < 1000 g at birth; group B, n = 225). Weekly surveillance cultures were obtained

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2006 Pediatrics

8126. Prospective evaluation of a multi-factorial prevention strategy on the impact of nosocomial infection in very-low-birthweight infants. (PubMed)

Prospective evaluation of a multi-factorial prevention strategy on the impact of nosocomial infection in very-low-birthweight infants. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a multi-factorial intervention on nosocomial infection in very-low-birthweight infants. Consecutive infants with a birth weight less than 1500 g, born between February 2002 and February 2003, were included in this prospective study. The first six-month period (control) included surveillance of current practice (...) . Bloodstream infections (BSIs), length of stay (LOS), length of ventilation (LOV) and death were recorded and the rate of nosocomial BSI was calculated. Overall, 174 newborns required 1359 devices. The two cohorts were similar for birth weight and gestation. There was a reduction in nosocomial BSIs from 21% to 9% (control vs. intervention) (P = 0.05, confidence intervals 0.19-1.0). There was no significant difference in LOS, LOV, or mortality. Four infants had complications from 2% chlorhexidine

2005 Journal of Hospital Infection

8127. Sexually transmitted infections in travelers: implications for prevention and control. (PubMed)

Sexually transmitted infections in travelers: implications for prevention and control. Sexually transmissible diseases (STDs), the most common notifiable infectious conditions, remain major threats to reproductive and public health worldwide. Travelers are particularly vulnerable to STDs, because of voluntary or involuntary sexual behavior while abroad, and are significant vectors who introduce new pathogens and resistant strains to unaffected parts of the world. This article outlines some key

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2004 Clinical Infectious Diseases

8128. Prevention and control of antimicrobial-resistant infections in intensive care patients. (PubMed)

with antibiotic-resistant organisms have been linked to increases in morbidity, length of hospitalization, increased healthcare costs, and increased mortality. A comprehensive approach is necessary to prevent antimicrobial resistance in ICUs. This includes (1) preventing infections; (2) diagnosing and treating infections appropriately; (3) using antimicrobials wisely; and (4) preventing transmission.The reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant organisms are colonized patients, and the vectors are often healthcare (...) Prevention and control of antimicrobial-resistant infections in intensive care patients. To review the literature summarizing important aspects of infection control in the critical care setting and to provide recommendations to reduce infections with resistant bacteria in the intensive care unit.Computer searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library.The frequency of antibiotic-resistant, health care-associated infections has increased every year for the past 2 decades. Infections

2005 Critical Care Medicine

8129. Prevention of persistent infection in calves by vaccination of dams with noncytopathic type-1 modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus prior to breeding. (PubMed)

Prevention of persistent infection in calves by vaccination of dams with noncytopathic type-1 modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus prior to breeding. To determine the ability of a modified-live virus (MLV) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 (BVDV1) vaccine administered to heifers prior to breeding to stimulate protective immunity that would block transmission of virulent heterologous BVDV during gestation, thus preventing persistent infection of a fetus.40 crossbred Angus heifers (...) -five heifers were confirmed pregnant and were challenge exposed at 55 to 100 days of gestation by IV administration of virulent BVDV1 (7443 strain).All control heifers were viremic following challenge exposure, and calves born to control heifers were persistently infected with BVDV. Viremia was not detected in the vaccinated heifers, and 92% of calves born to vaccinated heifers were not persistently infected with BVDV.These results document that vaccination with BVDV1 strain WRL protects fetuses

2003 American journal of veterinary research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

8130. The flexible sigmoidoscope as a potential vector of infectious disease, including suggestions for decontamination of the flexible sigmoidoscope. (PubMed)

depth of insertion, and a higher yield of neoplastic lesions than rigid sigmoidoscopy, with surprisingly few associated risks. Although reported infrequently, infection is an acknowledged risk of flexible sigmoidoscopy and other endoscopic procedures. The most efficient means of preventing endoscopy-associated infection is uncompromising aseptic practice. Clinical and experimental data obtained from studies designed to investigate endoscopic transmission of infectious organisms and from our own (...) The flexible sigmoidoscope as a potential vector of infectious disease, including suggestions for decontamination of the flexible sigmoidoscope. The flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscope has gained widespread acceptance as a diagnostic tool in the detection and diagnosis of colorectal disease. Since its introduction nearly a decade ago, studies have thus far indicated that in the hands of experienced physicians, flexible sigmoidoscopy is a safe procedure affording greater patient comfort, greater

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1987 The Yale journal of biology and medicine

8131. Varicella-zoster virus as a live vector for the expression of foreign genes. (PubMed)

Varicella-zoster virus as a live vector for the expression of foreign genes. The previous demonstration of the efficacy and tolerability of the Oka strain of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in clinical trials involving vaccination of both normal and immunocompromised individuals has laid the foundation for its use in preventing chickenpox. In this context, VZV could be useful as a vector for vaccinating against other infectious agents as well. As an initial application, a live recombinant VZV (...) presentation of gp350/220 in cells infected with the recombinant virus were similar to those seen in EBV-infected cells. In addition, the expression of VZV-specific glycoproteins was unaltered by the concomitant expression of this large foreign glycoprotein. Thus, VZV can be used as a live viral vector for active immunization against EBV and other pathogens.

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1987 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

8132. Adenovirus Vector Pseudotyping in Fiber-Expressing Cell Lines: Improved Transduction of Epstein-Barr Virus-Transformed B Cells (PubMed)

to host cells via the viral fiber protein, and Ad vectors have previously been retargeted by modifying the fiber gene on the viral chromosome. This requires that the modified fiber be able to bind to the cell in which the vector is grown, which prevents truly specific vector targeting. We previously reported a gene delivery system based on a fiber gene-deleted Ad type 5 (Ad5) vector (Ad5.betagal.DeltaF) and packaging cells that express the viral fiber protein. Expression of different fibers (...) Adenovirus Vector Pseudotyping in Fiber-Expressing Cell Lines: Improved Transduction of Epstein-Barr Virus-Transformed B Cells While adenovirus (Ad) gene delivery vectors are useful in many gene therapy applications, their broad tropism means that they cannot be directed to a specific target cell. There are also a number of cell types involved in human disease which are not transducible with standard Ad vectors, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B lymphocytes. Adenovirus binds

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2000 Journal of virology

8133. Expression of gp19K increases the persistence of transgene expression from an adenovirus vector in the mouse lung and liver. (PubMed)

Expression of gp19K increases the persistence of transgene expression from an adenovirus vector in the mouse lung and liver. Activation of the cellular immune system and subsequent lysis of vector-transduced cells by adenovirus- or transgene-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes have been shown to limit transgene expression in animal models. The adenovirus gp19K gene product associates with major histocompatibility complex class I proteins and prevents their maturation by sequestering them (...) in the endoplasmic reticulum. gp19K has been shown to block the ability of adenovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes to recognize virus-infected cells in vitro. To determine if gp19K expression in an adenovirus vector would increase transgene persistence, a vector that replaces the E1 region of adenovirus with an expression cassette encoding both gp19K and beta-glucuronidase was constructed. This vector produced high levels of functional gp19K in infected cells. RNase protection analysis revealed efficient

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1997 Journal of virology

8134. Scaffold Attachment Region-Mediated Enhancement of Retroviral Vector Expression in Primary T Cells (PubMed)

in quiescent cells. The SAR element functioned in an orientation-dependent manner and enhanced expression of Moloney murine leukemia virus- and murine embryonic stem cell-based vectors. Clonal analysis of transduced T cells showed that the SAR sequence did not confer position-independent expression on a transgene but rather prevented the decrease of expression when cells became quiescent. The SAR sequence also enhanced transgene expression in T cells generated from retrovirally transduced CD34-enriched (...) hematopoietic progenitor-stem cells in a SCID-hu thymus-liver mouse model. We have used the SAR-containing retroviral vector to express the RevM10 gene, a trans-dominant mutant of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev gene. Compared to a standard retroviral vector, the SAR-containing vector was up to 2 orders of magnitude more efficient in inhibiting replication of the HIV-1 virus in infected CD4+ peripheral blood lymphocyte populations in vitro. This is the first demonstration that SAR

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1998 Journal of virology

8135. Tissue-Specific Transcriptional Targeting of a Replication-Competent Retroviral Vector (PubMed)

Tissue-Specific Transcriptional Targeting of a Replication-Competent Retroviral Vector The inability of replication-defective viral vectors to efficiently transduce tumor cells in vivo has prevented the successful application of such vectors in gene therapy of cancer. To address the need for more efficient gene delivery systems, we have developed replication-competent retroviral (RCR) vectors based on murine leukemia virus (MLV). We have previously shown that such vectors are capable (...) of transducing solid tumors in vivo with very high efficiency. While the natural requirement of MLV infection for cell division imparts a certain degree of specificity for tumor cells, additional means for confining RCR vector replication to tumor cells are desirable. Here, we investigated the parameters critical for successful tissue-specific transcriptional control of RCR vector replication by replacing various lengths of the MLV enhancer/promoter with sequences derived either from the highly prostate

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2002 Journal of virology

8136. When the physician is the vector (PubMed)

When the physician is the vector 9679486 1998 08 07 2018 11 13 0820-3946 159 1 1998 Jul 14 CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne CMAJ When the physician is the vector. 45-6 Hoey J J eng Editorial Canada CMAJ 9711805 0820-3946 AIM E IM X Blood-Borne Pathogens Canada Guidelines as Topic HIV Infections transmission Health Policy Hepatitis B diagnosis prevention & control transmission Hepatitis C transmission Humans Infectious Disease (...) Transmission, Professional-to-Patient prevention & control Internationality Mandatory Testing Physicians 62206 Health Care and Public Health KIE BoB Subject Heading: public health Editorial Full author name: Hoey, John 1998 7 29 1998 7 29 0 1 1998 7 29 0 0 ppublish 9679486 PMC1229481 Surg Clin North Am. 1995 Dec;75(6):1189-203 7482144 BMJ. 1997 Jan 25;314(7076):250 9022485 N Engl J Med. 1996 Feb 29;334(9):555-60 8569822

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1998 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

8137. Environmental management for vector control : Is it worth a dam if it worsens malaria? (PubMed)

because of the modulating effects of immunity and other factors. Nevertheless, increased malarial infection is likely to constitute a serious health risk to children, particularly in the region of Ethiopia. Some of the environmental management strategies for vector control, which may be applied to dam projects include locating dams at high altitude, using insecticide-treated beds for personal protection, and adopting a range of environmental manipulations. These measures, which incorporate local (...) Environmental management for vector control : Is it worth a dam if it worsens malaria? 10480801 1999 10 22 2018 11 13 0959-8138 319 7211 1999 Sep 11 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Environmental management for vector control. Is it worth a dam if it worsens malaria? 651-2 Brewster D D eng Comment Editorial England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 AIM IM J BMJ. 1999 Sep 11;319(7211):663-6 10480820 Child Disease Vectors Environmental Health Ethiopia epidemiology Humans Incidence Malaria epidemiology Water

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1999 BMJ : British Medical Journal

8138. Trapping the Vector: Community Action to Curb Sleeping Sickness in Southern Sudan (PubMed)

Trapping the Vector: Community Action to Curb Sleeping Sickness in Southern Sudan South Sudan experienced a resurgence of trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in the 1990s. In 1997 in Tambura County, public health officials combined standard mass screening and treatment techniques for infected persons with an additional component-trapping the vectors of the disease. The intent of this integrated approach was to lower the number and concentration of the tsetse flies that spread the disease while (...) reducing the level of infection in the human population to make the likelihood of transmission extremely low. Because the trapping project depends on village participation (making, setting, and maintaining the traps), village volunteers and their neighbors learned more about the causes and prevention of sleeping sickness and became much more willing to participate in serosurveys and to seek treatment.

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2001 American Journal of Public Health

8139. Use of floating layers of polystyrene beads to control populations of the filaria vector Culex quinquefasciatus. (PubMed)

greatly and sustainably reduced the vector populations. Comparison of the communities after drug treatment ceased showed that this form of vector control contributed markedly to the prevention of a resurgence of filarial infection. Where Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding in pits form a major component of the vector population, use of polystyrene-bead layers could assist considerably in the process of eliminating lymphatic filariasis by mass drug administration. (...) Use of floating layers of polystyrene beads to control populations of the filaria vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Floating layers of polystyrene beads suffocate mosquito larvae and pupae and inhibit egg laying. The layers are very durable in breeding sites with water contained within walls, as in wet pit latrines and soakage pits. In some areas such pits constitute an important breeding site for Culex quinquefasciatus. Trials have been conducted in communities in Zanzibar, Tanzania, and in Tamil

2002 Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology

8140. A canarypox vector-expressing cytomegalovirus (CMV) phosphoprotein 65 induces long-lasting cytotoxic T cell responses in human CMV-seronegative subjects. (PubMed)

A canarypox vector-expressing cytomegalovirus (CMV) phosphoprotein 65 induces long-lasting cytotoxic T cell responses in human CMV-seronegative subjects. The major matrix phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) of cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important target of HLA-restricted cytotoxic T cells (CTL) after natural infection. A canarypox-CMV pp65 recombinant was studied for its ability to induce CMV pp65-specific CTL, helper T lymphocytes, and antibodies in a phase I clinical trial. Twenty-one CMV-seronegative (...) . Canarypox-CMV pp65 is the first recombinant vaccine to elicit CMV-specific CTL responses, which suggests the potential usefulness of this approach in preventing disease caused by CMV.

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2001 The Journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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