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Prevention of Vector-borne Infection

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61. Clinical and molecular investigation of a canine distemper outbreak and vector-borne infections in a group of rescue dogs imported from Hungary to Switzerland (PubMed)

the cessation of clinical signs, which emphasised the roles of asymptomatic carriers in CDV epidemiology. A long-term follow-up using sensitive PCR and strict quarantine measures is of upmost importance in preventing the spread of infection. Dog owners and animal welfare organisations should be educated regarding the importance of complete vaccinations and the impact of dog imports on the spread of viral and vector-borne pathogens. (...) Clinical and molecular investigation of a canine distemper outbreak and vector-borne infections in a group of rescue dogs imported from Hungary to Switzerland Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major pathogen of dogs and wild carnivores worldwide. In Switzerland, distemper in domestic dogs is rarely reported. In recent years, the import of dogs from Eastern Europe to Switzerland has steadily increased. In the present study, we describe a distemper outbreak in 15 rescue dogs that were imported

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2015 BMC veterinary research

62. Management Guidelines for Obstetric Patients and Neonates Born to Mothers With Suspected or Probable Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Sponsors The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Recommendations 1. All hospitals should have infection control systems in place to ensure that alerts regarding changes in exposure risk factors for SARS or other potentially serious communicable diseases are conveyed promptly to clinical units, including the labour and delivery unit (III-C). 2. At times of SARS outbreaks, all pregnant patients being assessed (...) be actively monitored for fever and other symptoms of SARS. Such individuals should not work in the presence of any SARS symptoms within 10 days of exposure to a SARS patient (III-C). 9. All health care personnel, trainees, and support staff should be trained in infection control management and containment to prevent spread of the SARS virus (III-A). 10. Regional health authorities in conjunction with hospital staff should consider designating specific facilities or health care units, including primary

2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada

63. Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women: US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement. (PubMed)

Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women: US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement. Screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during pregnancy identifies women whose infants are at risk of perinatal transmission. Data from a nationally representative sample showed a prevalence of maternal HBV infection of 85.8 cases per 100 000 deliveries from 1998 to 2011 (0.09% of live-born singleton deliveries in the United States). Although (...) there are guidelines for universal infant HBV vaccination, rates of maternal HBV infection have increased annually by 5.5% since 1998. Children infected with HBV during infancy or childhood are more likely to develop chronic infection. Chronic HBV infection increases long-term morbidity and mortality by predisposing infected persons to cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer.To update the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for HBV infection in pregnant women.The USPSTF

2019 JAMA

64. Two Cases of Severe Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Rituximab-Treated Patients in Germany: Implications for Diagnosis and Prevention (PubMed)

Two Cases of Severe Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Rituximab-Treated Patients in Germany: Implications for Diagnosis and Prevention Rituximab (RTX) has become a standard therapy for certain B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. We report 2 RTX-treated patients who developed severe tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection. The inability to generate new antibody responses renders RTX-treated patients susceptible to TBEV, impedes laboratory diagnosis, and necessitates preventive

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2017 Open forum infectious diseases

65. Management of Neonates Born at ?34 6/7 Weeks’ Gestation With Suspected or Proven Early-Onset Bacterial Sepsis

of incubation, unless there is evidence of site-specific infection. Persistent cardiorespiratory instability is common among infants with VLBW and is not alone an indication for prolonged empirical antibiotic administration. Continuing empirical antibiotic administration in response to laboratory test abnormalities alone is rarely justified, particularly among preterm infants born in the setting of maternal obstetric conditions known to affect fetal hematopoiesis. Prevention Strategies The only proven (...) and cervical structural defects in the pathogenesis of spontaneous PROM. , The clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis has been used as a primary risk factor for identifying infants at risk for EOS. Most preterm infants with EOS are born to women with this clinical diagnosis. , – The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recently advocated for using the term “intraamniotic infection” rather than chorioamnionitis (which is primarily a histologic diagnosis) and published guidance for its

2018 American Academy of Pediatrics

66. Rat Fall Surveillance Coupled with Vector Control and Community Education as a Plague Prevention Strategy in the West Nile Region, Uganda. (PubMed)

Rat Fall Surveillance Coupled with Vector Control and Community Education as a Plague Prevention Strategy in the West Nile Region, Uganda. Plague, primarily a disease of rodents, is most frequently transmitted by fleas and causes potentially fatal infections in humans. In Uganda, plague is endemic to the West Nile region. Primary prevention for plague includes control of rodent hosts or flea vectors, but targeting these efforts is difficult given the sporadic nature of plague epizootics (...) in the region and limited resource availability. Here, we present a community-based strategy to detect and report rodent deaths (rat fall), an early sign of epizootics. Laboratory testing of rodent carcasses is used to trigger primary and secondary prevention measures: indoor residual spraying (IRS) and community-based plague education, respectively. During the first 3 years of the program, individuals from 142 villages reported 580 small mammal deaths; 24 of these tested presumptive positive for Yersinia

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2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

67. A safe and efficient BCG vectored vaccine to prevent the disease caused by the human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (PubMed)

A safe and efficient BCG vectored vaccine to prevent the disease caused by the human Respiratory Syncytial Virus The human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) causes lower respiratory tract infections including pneumonia and bronchiolitis. Such infections also cause a large number of hospitalizations and affects mainly newborns, young children and the elderly worldwide. Symptoms associated with hRSV infection are due to an exacerbated immune response characterized by low levels of IFN-γ (...) , recruitment of neutrophils and eosinophils to the site of infection and lung damage. Although hRSV is a major health problem, no vaccines are currently available. Different immunization approaches have been developed to achieve a vaccine that activates the immune system, without triggering an unbalanced inflammation. These approaches include live attenuated vaccine, DNA or proteins technologies, and the use of vectors to express proteins of the virus. In this review, we discuss the host immune response

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2017 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

68. Antibody Gene Transfer with Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors as a Method for HIV Prevention (PubMed)

Antibody Gene Transfer with Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors as a Method for HIV Prevention Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) show great promise in HIV prevention as they are capable of potently neutralizing a considerable breadth of genetically diverse strains. Passive transfer of monoclonal bNAb proteins can confer protection in animal models of HIV infection at modest concentrations, inspiring efforts to develop an HIV vaccine capable (...) of eliciting bNAb responses. However, these antibodies demonstrate high degrees of somatic mutation and other unique characteristics that may hinder the ability of conventional approaches to consistently and effectively produce bNAb analogs. As an alternative strategy, we and others have proposed vector-mediated gene transfer to generate long-term, systemic production of bNAbs in the absence of immunization. Herein, we review the use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors for delivery of HIV bNAbs

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2017 Immunological reviews

69. Coverage and beliefs about temephos application for control of dengue vectors and impact of a community-based prevention intervention: secondary analysis from the Camino Verde trial in Mexico. (PubMed)

Coverage and beliefs about temephos application for control of dengue vectors and impact of a community-based prevention intervention: secondary analysis from the Camino Verde trial in Mexico. Temephos in domestic water containers remains a mainstay of Latin American government programmes for control of Aedes aegypti and associated illnesses, including dengue. There is little published evidence about coverage of routine temephos programmes. A cluster randomised controlled trial of community (...) mobilisation in Mexico and Nicaragua reduced vector indices, dengue infection, and clinical dengue cases. Secondary analysis from the Mexican arm of the trial examined temephos coverage and beliefs, and the impact of the trial on these outcomes.The trial impact survey in December 2012, in 10,491 households in 45 intervention and 45 control clusters, asked about visits from the temephos programme, retention of applied temephos, and views about temephos and mosquito control. Fieldworkers noted if temephos

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2017 BMC Public Health Controlled trial quality: predicted high

70. Cost-effectiveness of Testing and Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Residents Born Outside the United States With and Without Medical Comorbidities in a Simulation Model. (PubMed)

Cost-effectiveness of Testing and Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Residents Born Outside the United States With and Without Medical Comorbidities in a Simulation Model. Testing for and treating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is among the main strategies to achieve TB elimination in the United States. The best approach to testing among non-US born residents, particularly those with comorbid conditions, is uncertain.To estimate health outcomes, costs, and cost-effectiveness (...) of LTBI testing and treatment among non-US born residents with and without medical comorbidities.Decision analytic tree and Markov cohort simulation model among non-US born residents with no comorbidities, with diabetes, with HIV infection, or with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) using a health care sector perspective with 3% annual discounting. Strategies compared included no testing, tuberculin skin test (TST), interferon gamma release assay (IGRA), confirm positive (initial TST, IGRA only for TST

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2017 JAMA Internal Medicine

71. Online interventions to address HIV and other sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections among young gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Online interventions to address HIV and other sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections among young gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men: a systematic review. Globally, young gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) continue to experience disproportionately high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs). As such, there are strong public health imperatives to evaluate innovative prevention, treatment and care interventions (...) , including online interventions. This study reviewed and assessed the status of published research (e.g. effectiveness; acceptability; differential effects across subgroups) involving online interventions that address HIV/STBBIs among young gbMSM.We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Google Scholar to identify relevant English-language publications from inception to November 2016. Studies that assessed an online intervention regarding the prevention, care, or treatment of HIV/STBBIs were

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2017 Journal of the International AIDS Society

72. Estimated Perinatal HIV Infection Among Infants Born in the United States, 2002-2013. (PubMed)

Estimated Perinatal HIV Infection Among Infants Born in the United States, 2002-2013. Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be reduced through services including antiretroviral treatment and prophylaxis. Data on the national incidence of perinatal HIV transmission and missed prevention opportunities are needed to monitor progress toward elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission.To estimate the number of perinatal HIV cases among infants born in the United (...) States.Data were obtained from the National HIV Surveillance System on infants with HIV born in the United States (including the District of Columbia) and their mothers between 2002 and 2013 (reported through December 31, 2015). Estimates were adjusted for delay in diagnosis and reporting by weighting each reported case based on a model incorporating time from birth to diagnosis and report. Analysis was performed from April 1 to August 15, 2016.Maternal HIV infection and antiretroviral medication

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2017 JAMA pediatrics

73. Double gloves for prevention of transmission of blood borne pathogens to patients: a review of the clinical evidence

of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation CADTH. Double gloves for prevention of transmission of blood borne pathogens to patients: a review of the clinical evidence. Ottawa: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH). 2012 Authors' conclusions One systematic review was identified which aimed to evaluate the comparative clinical effectiveness of double gloving versus single gloves for preventing transmission of blood borne pathogens from infected healthcare workers (...) Double gloves for prevention of transmission of blood borne pathogens to patients: a review of the clinical evidence Double gloves for prevention of transmission of blood borne pathogens to patients: a review of the clinical evidence Double gloves for prevention of transmission of blood borne pathogens to patients: a review of the clinical evidence CADTH Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality

2012 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

74. Entomological characterization of malaria in northern Colombia through vector and parasite species identification, and analyses of spatial distribution and infection rates. (PubMed)

Entomological characterization of malaria in northern Colombia through vector and parasite species identification, and analyses of spatial distribution and infection rates. Malaria remains a worldwide public health concern and, in Colombia, despite the efforts to stop malaria transmission, the incidence of cases has increased over the last few years. In this context, it is necessary to evaluate vector diversity, infection rates, and spatial distribution, to better understand disease (...) transmission dynamics. This information may contribute to the planning and development of vector control strategies.A total of 778 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in fifteen localities of Córdoba from August 2015 to October 2016. Six species were identified and overall, Anopheles albimanus was the most widespread and abundant species (83%). Other species of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus were collected, including Anopheles triannulatus (13%), Anopheles nuneztovari (1%), Anopheles argyritarsis (< 1

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2017 Malaria journal

75. Vaccinomics Approach to the Identification of Candidate Protective Antigens for the Control of Tick Vector Infestations and Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection (PubMed)

Vaccinomics Approach to the Identification of Candidate Protective Antigens for the Control of Tick Vector Infestations and Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), tick-borne fever (TBF) in small ruminants, and other forms of anaplasmosis in different domestic and wild animals. The main vectors of this pathogen are Ixodes tick species, particularly I. scapularis in the United States and I (...) . ricinus in Europe. One of the main limitations for the development of effective vaccines for the prevention and control of A. phagocytophilum infection and transmission is the identification of effective tick protective antigens. The objective of this study was to apply a vaccinomics approach to I. scapularis-A. phagocytophilum interactions for the identification and characterization of candidate tick protective antigens for the control of vector infestations and A. phagocytophilum infection

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2017 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

76. Developmental follow-up of children and young people born preterm.

Impact on day-to-day living, such as social isolation because of fear of infection. Involve the social support networks (which may include partners, grandparents or other family members) of parents or carers of a baby born preterm when planning discharge and during follow-up. Information Before Discharge About Ongoing Support and Follow-up Inform parents or carers of all preterm babies about the routine postnatal care and support available, as described in the NICE guideline on . Explain to parents (...) Developmental follow-up of children and young people born preterm. Developmental follow-up of children and young people born preterm. | National Guideline Clearinghouse success fail JUN 09 2017 2018 2019 14 Apr 2018 - 13 Jul 2018 COLLECTED BY Organization: Formed in 2009, the Archive Team (not to be confused with the archive.org Archive-It Team) is a rogue archivist collective dedicated to saving copies of rapidly dying or deleted websites for the sake of history and digital heritage. The group

2017 National Guideline Clearinghouse (partial archive)

77. Vector control with a focus on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes - Literature review and analysis

Increased risk for autochthonous vector-borne infections transmitted by aedes albopictus in continental europe 2018 Follow us: Footer Navigation © European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) 2019 Other sites: Search Search Search Search (...) for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). A call for evidence was launched by ECDC’s emerging and vector-borne diseases (EVD) programme to collect further technical materials, which may not have been published by the EU Member States. Once identified, documents were sifted using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was extracted into tables using headings based on ECDC’s pre-specified areas of interest. These headings form the basis of the analysis, with additional themes reported in the findings

2017 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Literature Reviews

78. Antenatal lower genital tract infection screening and treatment programs for preventing preterm delivery. (PubMed)

Antenatal lower genital tract infection screening and treatment programs for preventing preterm delivery. Genital tract infection is associated with preterm birth (before 37 weeks' gestation). Screening for infections during pregnancy may therefore reduce the numbers of babies being born prematurely. However, screening for infections may have some adverse effects, such as increased antibiotic drug resistance and increased cost of treatment.To assess the effectiveness of antenatal lower genital (...) birthweight. Infection screening and treatment programs are associated with cost savings when used for the prevention of preterm birth. Future trials should evaluate the effects of different types of infection screening programs.

2015 Cochrane

79. Prevention and Control Strategies for Parasitic Infections in the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (PubMed)

Prevention and Control Strategies for Parasitic Infections in the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Korea is successfully controlled intestinal parasitic infections owing to economic development and high health consciousness. The Division of Vectors and Parasitic Diseases (formerly the Division of Malaria and Parasitology) is in the Center for Laboratory Control of Infectious Diseases of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It has been the governmental agency (...) responsible for controlling and leading scientific research on parasitic diseases. The Division of Vectors and Parasitic Diseases has conducted and funded basic research and disseminated the research results to various medical fields, ultimately promoting public health in Korea. Among the noteworthy achievements of this division are the national surveillance of healthcare-associated parasitic infections, prevention and control for parasitic infections, and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis from

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2018 The Korean journal of parasitology

80. Vaginal chlorhexidine during labour for preventing maternal and neonatal infections (excluding Group B Streptococcal and HIV). (PubMed)

Vaginal chlorhexidine during labour for preventing maternal and neonatal infections (excluding Group B Streptococcal and HIV). The incidence of chorioamnionitis occurs in between eight and 12 women for every 1000 live births and 96% of cases of chorioamnionitis are due to ascending infection. Following spontaneous vaginal delivery, 1% to 4% of women develop postpartum endometritis. The incidence of neonatal sepsis is 0.5% to 1% of all infants born. Maternal vaginal bacteria are the main agents (...) for these infections. It is reasonable to speculate that prevention of maternal and neonatal infections might be possible by washing the vagina and cervix with an antibacterial agent for all women during labour. Chlorhexidine belongs to the class of compounds known as the bis-biguanides. Chlorhexidine has antibacterial action against a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including those implicated in peripartal infections.To evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of chlorhexidine vaginal douching

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2014 Cochrane

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