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killing them. This dramatic neutralization of vector-borne spirochetes was not observed, however, when ticks and blood-meal hosts carried heterologous B. burgdorferi s.l. strains, or when mice lacking humoral immunity replaced wild-type mice as blood-meal hosts in similar experiments. Mechanistically, serum-mediated neutralization does not block induction of host-adapted OspC+ spirochetes during tick feeding, nor require tick midgut components. Significantly, this study demonstrates that strain (...) -specific antibodies elicited by B. burgdorferi s.l. infection neutralize homologous bacteria within feeding ticks, before the Lyme disease spirochetes enter a host. The blood meal ingested from an infected host thereby prevents super-infection by homologous spirochetes, while facilitating transmission of heterologous B. burgdorferi s.l. strains. This finding suggests that Lyme disease spirochete diversity is stably maintained within endemic populations in local geographic regions through frequency
identification of clusters or outbreaks of infectious diseases prompts further investigation and can lead to the identification of a source of infection. Public health action will be carried out in response to outbreaks and prevents the further spread of disease. Without the use of a national infectious disease notification system, early identification of national outbreaks would not be possible. HIQA identified that, overall, there is a strong emphasis on data quality and the effective use of information (...) of information management practices in the CIDR system Health Information and Quality Authority Page 5 of 146 Glossary of abbreviations Abbreviation Explanation AND-PH Assistant National Director – Public Health, Health Protection and Child Health CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CEO Chief Executive Officer CHO Community Healthcare Organisation CIDR Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting DoH Department of Health DPH Director of Public Health DPIA Data Protection Impact Assessment DPO Data
VectorBorne Disease VectorBorne Disease Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 VectorBorne Disease VectorBorne Disease (...) English Vector-borne transmission of infection Hungarian vector-által terjesztett fertőzés Portuguese Transmissão da infecção por meio de vector Spanish Transmisión de la infección por vectores Dutch vectoriële overdracht van infectie French Transmission par un vecteur German durch einen Vektor uebertragene Infektion Derived from the NIH UMLS ( ) Related Topics in Tick-Borne Disease About FPnotebook.com is a rapid access, point-of-care medical reference for primary care and emergency clinicians
]. Step 1 of a ranking process involves identifying the objectives of the ranking process – they should be as clearly formulated as possible. As the process may be time-consuming, sufficient resources should be allocated, and a project plan and timeline should be made. One approach for refining the scope and the objectives of a study is to clearly answer these questions: ? What is being prioritised? (For example, all communicable diseases, vector-borne diseases, vaccine- preventable diseases.) ? Why (...) in emerging infectious diseases. Nature 2008, 451:990-993. 5. Engering A, Hogerwerf L, Slingenbergh J. Pathogen-host-environment interplay and disease emergence. Emerg Microbes Infect 2013, 2:e5. 6. Lindgren E, Andersson Y, Suk JE, Sudre B, Semenza JC. Monitoring EU emerging infectious disease risk due to climate change. Science. 2012 Apr 27;336(6080):418-9. 7. Tatem AJ, Huang Z, Das A, Qi Q, Roth J, Qiu Y. Air travel and vector-borne disease movement. Parasitology 2012, 139:1816-1830. 8. Brookes VJ
Prevalence and Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruziInfection in a Military Population in Texas. Recent biosurveillance findings at Joint Base San Antonio (JBSA), a large military installation located in south-central Texas, indicate the potential for vector-borne human Chagas disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in highest risk subpopulations on the installation, including students and instructors who (...) work and sleep in triatomine-endemic field settings. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay were performed on enrolled subjects (N = 1,033), none of whom tested positive for T. cruzi or anti-T. cruzi antibodies. Current countermeasures used during field training on JBSA appear to be sufficient for preventing autochthonous human Chagas disease.
Volatile organic compounds associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in vitro In order to identify new ways to prevent transmission of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, efforts have been made to understand how insects are attracted to humans. Vector-host interaction studies have shown that several volatile compounds play an important role in attracting mosquitoes to human targets. A headspace solid-phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSPME GC-MS) analysis (...) of the volatile organic composition of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and supernatants of ultracentrifugation (SNUs) was carried out in Plasmodium falciparum-infected cultures with high and low parasitemias.A list of 18 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was obtained from the EVs of both infected and uninfected RBCs with 1,2,3-Propanetriol, diacetate (diacetin) increased in the infected EVs, regardless of the parasitemia of the culture. The supernatant analysis, however, gave off 56 VOCs, with pentane 2,2,4
West Nile virus infection in suspected febrile typhoid cases in Xinjiang, China 28588289 2018 08 30 2018 11 13 2222-1751 6 6 2017 06 07 Emerging microbes & infections Emerg Microbes Infect West Nile virus infection in suspected febrile typhoid cases in Xinjiang, China. e41 10.1038/emi.2017.27 Cao Lei L State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (...) and Control, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China. Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou 310058, China. eng Letter 2017 06 07 United States Emerg Microbes Infect 101594885 2222-1751 0 Antibodies, Viral IM Adult Aged Aged, 80 and over Antibodies, Viral blood Child China Diagnostic Errors Female Humans Male Middle Aged Salmonella typhi isolation
Seven Cases of Zika Virus Infection in South Florida Zika virus, an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, is a mosquito-borne virus known to cause microcephaly through vertical transmission. Infection presents with mild, self-limiting symptoms. Currently, a Zika virus outbreak has spread across most of South and Central America. Travel-related and sexually transmitted cases have been reported across the United States. However, the vector-borne transmission has been limited to Florida and Texas (...) . We present seven cases of Zika virus infection that presented at a single institution in South Florida.Patients were included that had real-time polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) for Zika virus RNA in urine or serum or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody against Zika virus in serum.All seven patients reported recent travel or employment in areas of active Zika virus transmission and at least two of the four most commonly reported symptoms (fever
designs, Horby  and Ng et al. [18-20] both used surveys to rank communicable disease risks, but their methods differed. Horby used a questionnaire to rank 58 diseases and three ‘generic disease groups’ (e.g. infections in the immunocompromised) based on five ‘importance’ criteria (e.g. burden of disease) and to identify priority areas for work (e.g. diagnosis, surveillance). Diseases were ranked based on their mean score across all TECHNICAL REPORT Best practices in ranking emerging infectious (...) Best practices in ranking emerging infectious disease threats: A literature review TECHNICAL REPORT Best practices in ranking emerging infectious disease threats A literature review www.ecdc.europa.eu ECDC TECHNICAL REPORT Best practices in ranking emerging infectious disease threats A literature review ii This report was commissioned by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), coordinated by Jonathan Suk, and produced by Bazian Ltd, London. Declarations of interest were
of ZIKV-specific antibodies two weeks or more after the last possible exposure implies that the individual has never been infected, and is not contagious to sexual partners or to the fetus. Such seronegative individuals could consider discontinuing measures to intensively follow the pregnancy for ZIKV-related complications, as well as measures to prevent sexual transmission. The absence of ZIKV RNA in a semen sample might indicate absence of contagiousness, but there are no data to support (...) A, Haddow AD, et al. Probable non-vector-borne transmission of Zika virus, Colorado, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 2011;17(5):880-882. 15. Dallas County Health and Human Services. DCHHS Reports First Zika Virus Case in Dallas County Acquired Through Sexual Transmission. 2016. http://www.dallascounty.org/department/ hhs/press/documents/PR2-2-16DCHHSReportsFirstCaseofZikaVi rusThroughSexualTransmission.pdf. Accessed Feb. 2, 2016. Screening and management Infants with suspected or confirmed congenital ZIKV
of long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing for the prevention of tick bites. VectorBorne Zoonotic Dis 2011;11(7):869-875. Footnote 40 Soto J, Medina F, Dember N, Berman J. Efficacy of permethrin-impregnated uniforms in the prevention of malaria and leishmaniasis in Colombian soldiers. Clin Infect Dis 1995 Sep;21(3):599-602. Footnote 41 Shanks GD, Kremsner PG, Sukwa TY, Van Der Berg JD, Shapiro TA, Scott TR, et al. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride for prophylaxis of malaria. J Travel Med (...) (Atlantic) (Halifax, NS) 4 Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba (Winnipeg, MB) 5 Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Branch, Public Health Agency of Canada (Ottawa, ON) 6 Infectious Diseases and Internal Medicine, University of British Columbia (Victoria, BC) 7 Therapeutic Products Directorate, Health Canada (Ottawa, ON) 8 Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba (Winnipeg, MB) 9 Riverside Travel Medicine Clinic (Ottawa, ON) 10 Communicable Disease Control Program, Directorate
, vector-borne, and animal transmission diseases.The study found that oral-transmission diseases were spatially distributed across the country; whereas, the airborne-transmission diseases were more clustered in the Northwest and vector-borne transmission diseases were more clustered in the South. Most of diseases were sensitive with climatic factors. For instance, a 1°C increase in average temperature is significantly associated with 0.4% (95CI, 0.3-0.5), 2.5% (95%CI, 1.4-3.6), 0.9% (95%CI, 0.6-1.4 (...) should be considered to strengthen communicable disease prevention in Vietnam.
, and Respond" to those threats. The GDDOC monitors approximately 30 to 40 public health events each day. In this article, we describe the top threats to public health monitored during 2012 to 2016: avian influenza, cholera, Ebola virus disease, and the vector-borne diseases yellow fever, chikungunya virus, and Zika virus, with updates to the previously described threats from Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and poliomyelitis. (...) What We Are Watchingâ€”Top Global Infectious Disease Threats, 2013-2016: An Update from CDC's Global Disease Detection Operations Center To better track public health events in areas where the public health system is unable or unwilling to report the event to appropriate public health authorities, agencies can conduct event-based surveillance, which is defined as the organized collection, monitoring, assessment, and interpretation of unstructured information regarding public health events
Low to medium-low risk perception for dengue, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks by infectious diseases physicians in France, Western Europe. Many tropical countries are currently experiencing dengue (DEN), chikungunya (CHIK) and also more recently Zika (ZIKA) epidemics (particularly in Latin America). Although the risk of transmission and spread of these infections in temperate regions remains a controversial issue, vector-borne diseases have been widely reported in the media and have been (...) the focus of preventive strategies by national and international policy-makers and public health authorities. In this context, we wanted to determine the extent of risk perception in infectious diseases (ID) physicians of the current and future risk of arboviral disease introduction, autochthonous case development and epidemic scenarios in France, Western Europe.To this aim, we developed an original standardized questionnaire survey which was disseminated by the French Infectious Diseases Society to ID
Adherence to anti-vectorial prevention measures among travellers with chikungunya and malaria returning to Australia: comparative epidemiology Compare the adoption and adherence to health protection behaviours prior to and during travel among international Australian travellers who return to Australia with notified chikungunya or malaria infection. This information could inform targeted health promotion and intervention strategies to limit the establishment of these diseases within (...) Australia.Seeking travel advice prior to departure was moderate (46%, N = 21/46) yet compliance with a range of recommended anti-vectorial prevention measures was low among both chikungunya and malaria infected groups (16%, N = 7/45). Reasons for not seeking advice between groups was similar and included 'previous overseas travel with no problems' (45%, N = 9/20) and 'no perceived risk of disease' (20%, N = 4/20). Most chikungunya cases (65%, N = 13/20) travelled to Indonesia and a further 25% (N = 5/20
vector-borneinfections, under-utilization of clinics and non-compliance with recommended treatment. Enhanced high level commitment for MMDP, wider publicity and referral systems, integration of MMDP with other disease management services and collaboration with welfare organizations and research groups were identified as opportunities to overcome weaknesses and challenges.The recommended basic package of MMDP was functional in most of the LF-endemic region. The highlighted weaknesses and challenges (...) Morbidity management and disability prevention for lymphatic filariasis in Sri Lanka: Current status and future prospects Sri Lanka was acknowledged to have eliminated lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem in 2016, largely due to its success in Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to interrupt disease transmission. Analysis of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) of the national Morbidity Management and Disability Prevention (MMDP) program, the other pillar
Overview of Japanese encephalitis disease and its prevention. Focus on IC51 vaccine (IXIAROÂ®) Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). JEV is transmitted by mosquitoes to a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including birds and mammals. Domestic animals, especially pigs, are generally implicated as reservoirs of the virus, while humans are not part of the natural transmission cycle and cannot pass the virus to other hosts. Although JEV (...) infection is very common in endemic areas (many countries in Asia), less than 1% of people affected develop clinical disease, and severe disease affects about 1 case per 250 JEV infections. Although rare, severe disease can be devastating; among the 30,000-50,000 global cases per year, approximately 20-30% of patients die and 30-50% of survivors develop significant neurological sequelae. JE is a significant public health problem for residents in endemic areas and may constitute a substantial risk