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Prevention of Vector-borne Infection

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181. The Health Impact of Exposure to Outdoor Tobacco Smoke

The Health Impact of Exposure to Outdoor Tobacco Smoke The Health Impacts of Exposure to Outdoor Tobacco Smoke: A Rapid Review of the Evidence Franca Ursitti, Research and Policy Analyst, Health Hazard Investigation & Vector Borne Disease Program Andrea Chiefari, Manager, Environmental Health Region of Peel Public Health July 2011 The Health Effects of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke: A Rapid Review of the Evidence Ursitti & Chiefari, 2011 i Table of Contents Key Messages 2 Executive Summary 3 Executive (...) for consideration as a regional by-law. A multi-jurisdictional policy working group was established in December 2010 including representatives from the Cities of Mississauga and Brampton and the Town of Caledon. This report focuses on the potential health impacts associated with exposure to secondhand smoke in outdoor spaces to inform the by-law development process. This report does not address the behavioural (cessation support) and social benefits (denormalization and prevention) of reducing smoking

2011 Peel Health Library

182. Risk of Zika virus transmission in the Euro-Mediterranean area and the added value of building preparedness to arboviral threats from a One Health perspective. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, comprises 55 laboratories of virology and medical entomology and 19 public health institutions in 19 countries in the Balkans, North-Africa, the Middle-East and the Black Sea regions. It aims to set up awareness, risk assessment, monitoring and control of emerging and re-emerging vector-borne viruses. We here examine the actions and strategies that MediLabSecure has been implementing and how they will contribute to the prevention and control of the ZIKV threat in the Euro-Mediterranean area.Capacity (...) Risk of Zika virus transmission in the Euro-Mediterranean area and the added value of building preparedness to arboviral threats from a One Health perspective. In the alarming context of risk of Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission in the Euro-Mediterranean area, there is a need to examine whether capacities to detect, diagnose and notify ZIKV infections in the region are in place and whether ongoing capacity-building initiatives are filling existing gaps.The MediLabSecure network, created in 2014

2016 BMC Public Health

183. What Do We Know about Chagas Disease in the United States? Full Text available with Trip Pro

What Do We Know about Chagas Disease in the United States? Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects more than 5 million people worldwide leading to serious heart and gastrointestinal disease in a proportion of chronically infected patients. Important modes of transmission include vector-borne, congenital, and via blood transfusion or organ transplant from an infected donor. Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease occurs in the Americas, including the southern half (...) . Studies defining risks for locally acquired infection and effective prevention strategies are needed to help prevent domestic transmission of T. cruzi To help address Chagas disease in the United States, improved health-care provider awareness and knowledge, better tools for screening and diagnosing patients, and wider availability of treatment drugs are needed.© The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

2016 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

184. Molecular detection of Leishmania infantum, filariae and Wolbachia spp. in dogs from southern Portugal Full Text available with Trip Pro

-borne disease (CVBD) agents, some of which are zoonotic, reinforces the need to implement efficient prophylactic measures, such as insect repellents and macrocyclic lactones (including compliance to administration), in the geographical areas where these agents are distributed, with the view to prevent infection and disease among mammalian hosts including humans. (...) Molecular detection of Leishmania infantum, filariae and Wolbachia spp. in dogs from southern Portugal Leishmaniosis caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis caused by the nematodes Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens are vector-borne zoonoses widely present in the Mediterranean basin. In addition, some studies reported that the endosymbiont Wolbachia spp. play a role in the biology and pathogenesis of filarial parasites. The aim of this work was to evaluate

2016 Parasites & vectors

185. Superinfection Exclusion of the Ruminant Pathogen Anaplasma marginale in Its Tick Vector Is Dependent on the Time between Exposures to the Strains Full Text available with Trip Pro

to multiple strains frequently prevents establishment of the second strain, a phenomenon termed superinfection exclusion. As a consequence, superinfection exclusion may greatly limit genetic diversity in the host population, which is difficult to reconcile with the high degree of genetic diversity maintained among vector-borne pathogens. Using Anaplasma marginale, a tick-borne bacterial pathogen of ruminants, we hypothesized that superinfection exclusion is temporally dependent and that longer intervals (...) Superinfection Exclusion of the Ruminant Pathogen Anaplasma marginale in Its Tick Vector Is Dependent on the Time between Exposures to the Strains The remarkable genetic diversity of vector-borne pathogens allows for the establishment of superinfection in the mammalian host. To have a long-term impact on population strain structure, the introduced strains must also be transmitted by a vector population that has been exposed to the existing primary strain. The sequential exposure of the vector

2016 Applied and environmental microbiology

186. Possibilities and challenges for developing a successful vaccine for leishmaniasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Possibilities and challenges for developing a successful vaccine for leishmaniasis Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by different species of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. It is a major health problem yet neglected tropical diseases, with approximately 350 million people worldwide at risk and more than 1.5 million infections occurring each year. Leishmaniasis has different clinical manifestations, including visceral (VL or kala-azar), cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (...) , effective, and affordable vaccine for the prevention of leishmaniasis. Although in recent years a large body of researchers has concentrated their efforts on this issue, yet only three vaccine candidates have gone for clinical trial, until date. These are: (i) killed vaccine in Brazil for human immunotherapy; (ii) live attenuated vaccine for humans in Uzbekistan; and (iii) second-generation vaccine for dog prophylaxis in Brazil. Nevertheless, there are at least half a dozen vaccine candidates

2016 Parasites & vectors

187. Control of Urban Zika Vectors: Should We Return to the Successful PAHO/WHO Strategy? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cities Insect Vectors physiology virology Insecticides Mosquito Control methods Public Health World Health Organization Zika Virus physiology Zika Virus Infection epidemiology prevention & control 2016 6 2 6 0 2016 6 2 6 0 2017 3 31 6 0 epublish 27249063 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004769 PNTD-D-16-00480 PMC4889139 Bull World Health Organ. 1967;36(4):602-3 5299460 Vaccine. 2015 Mar 3;33(10):1233 25597939 Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007 Summer;7(2):261-73 17627447 Arch Med Res. 2002 Jul-Aug;33(4):330-42

2016 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

188. Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Refugee Crises in the Middle East and North Africa Full Text available with Trip Pro

):e162 16605301 PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Feb 03;9(2):e0003449 25646796 Eur J Public Health. 2014 Aug;24 Suppl 1:6-10 25107992 Med Trop (Mars). 2006 Apr;66(2):185-8 16775945 PLoS Pathog. 2014 Nov 13;10(10):e1004438 25393545 Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1993 May-Jun;87(3):247-9 8236380 Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Oct;20(10):1712-5 25279543 Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Mar;11(3):247-58 20846030 Trop Med Int Health. 2009 Sep;14(9):1071-85 19624480 Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Mar;92(3):518-22 25561563 Lancet. 2015 (...) Diseases Humans Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous epidemiology ethnology parasitology prevention & control Libya epidemiology Neglected Diseases epidemiology ethnology parasitology Refugees Syria epidemiology Warfare Yemen epidemiology 2016 5 27 6 0 2016 5 27 6 0 2017 3 31 6 0 epublish 27227772 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004545 PNTD-D-15-01885 PMC4882064 Lancet. 2015 Nov 28;386(10009):2145-91 26321261 Lancet Infect Dis. 2007 Sep;7(9):581-96 17714672 PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Sep 24;9(9):e0003852 26402466 PLoS Negl

2016 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

189. Cats are not small dogs: is there an immunological explanation for why cats are less affected by arthropod-borne disease than dogs? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cats are not small dogs: is there an immunological explanation for why cats are less affected by arthropod-borne disease than dogs? It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most (...) common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit. A number of simple possibilities might account for the lower prevalence of these diseases in cats, including factors related to the lifestyle and behaviour of the cat, lesser spend on preventative healthcare for cats and reduced opportunities for research funding for these animals. The dog and cat have

2016 Parasites & vectors

190. One Health: Addressing Global Challenges at the Nexus of Human, Animal, and Environmental Health Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012 Dec;12(12):1005-18 23199265 Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Feb;22(2):289-91 26811984 Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Feb;22(2):295-7 26812218 PLoS Pathog. 2012;8(10):e1002877 23055920 Science. 2013 Aug 2;341(6145):514-9 23908230 N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 16;371(16):1481-95 25244186 Trends Microbiol. 2014 Aug;22(8):456-63 24794572 Infect Dis Poverty. 2014 Aug 05;3:29 25120913 Lancet. 2012 Dec 1;380(9857):1936-45 23200502 Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015 Jul;28(3):593-601 25972518 J Infect Dis (...) prevention & control The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. 2016 9 16 6 0 2016 9 16 6 0 2017 11 29 6 0 epublish 27631500 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005731 PPATHOGENS-D-15-02980 PMC5025119 PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Apr 09;9(4):e0003706 25856072 Nature. 2005 Dec 1;438(7068):575-6 16319873 Virology. 2004 Feb 20;319(2):176-84 15015499 Curr Opin Virol. 2013 Feb;3(1):84-91 23265969 Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Jun;22(6):956-63 27070842 Ecohealth. 2016 Jun;13(2):405-9 27138290 PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014

2016 PLoS pathogens

191. Community Willingness to Participate in a Dengue Study in Aceh Province, Indonesia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Community Willingness to Participate in a Dengue Study in Aceh Province, Indonesia Dengue virus infection is the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease in the world. Essential research on dengue virus transmission and its prevention requires community participation. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors that are associated with the willingness of communities in high prevalence areas to participate in dengue research. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated (...) with the willingness of healthy community members in Aceh province, Indonesia, to participate in dengue research that would require phlebotomy.A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in nine regencies and municipalities of Aceh from November 2014 to March 2015. Interviews using a set of validated questionnaires were conducted to collect data on demography, history of dengue infection, socioeconomic status, and knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue fever. Two-step logistic regression

2016 PloS one

192. Yellow Fever—More a Policy and Planning Problem than a Biological One Full Text available with Trip Pro

):1599-600 27116054 Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Aug;11(8):1181-6 21254912 Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1985 Nov;34(6):1219-24 3834804 Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Jul;48:98-103 27156836 J Glob Infect Dis. 2009 Jul;1(2):111-6 20300401 Bull Pan Am Health Organ. 1978;12(2):134-42 698451 JAMA. 2016 Jun 28;315(24):2661-2 27158803 (...) Yellow Fever—More a Policy and Planning Problem than a Biological One 27479749 2018 02 01 2018 11 13 1080-6059 22 10 2016 10 Emerging infectious diseases Emerging Infect. Dis. Yellow Fever-More a Policy and Planning Problem than a Biological One. 1859-60 10.3201/eid2210.160875 Calisher Charles H CH Woodall John P JP eng Letter 2016 10 15 United States Emerg Infect Dis 9508155 1080-6040 0 Yellow Fever Vaccine IM Aedes virology Animals Global Health Humans Insect Vectors virology Yellow Fever

2016 Emerging Infectious Diseases

193. Chagas Disease Has Not Been Controlled in Ecuador Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chagas Disease Has Not Been Controlled in Ecuador 27351178 2017 11 17 2018 11 13 1932-6203 11 6 2016 PloS one PLoS ONE Chagas Disease Has Not Been Controlled in Ecuador. e0158145 10.1371/journal.pone.0158145 Dumonteil Eric E 0000-0001-9376-0209 Laboratorio de Parasitología, Centro de Investigaciones Regionales ''Hideyo Noguchi", Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, Yucatán, México. Department of Tropical Medicine, Vector-Borne Infectious Disease Research Center, School of Public Health (...) and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, United States of America. Herrera Claudia C Department of Tropical Medicine, Vector-Borne Infectious Disease Research Center, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, United States of America. Martini Luiggi L Laboratorio de Parasitología "L. Martini y colaboradores", Guayaquil, Ecuador. Grijalva Mario J MJ Tropical Disease Institute, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic

2016 PloS one

194. Rickettsia in mosquitoes, Yangzhou, China Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rickettsia in mosquitoes, Yangzhou, China 27729642 2017 02 06 2018 11 13 2222-1751 5 10 2016 Oct 12 Emerging microbes & infections Emerg Microbes Infect Rickettsia in mosquitoes, Yangzhou, China. e108 10.1038/emi.2016.107 Zhang Jilei J Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu Province, China. John Kelly Patrick P Department of Clinical Sciences, Ross (...) for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu Province, China. Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA. eng Letter 2016 10 12 United States Emerg Microbes Infect 101594885 2222-1751 0 DNA, Bacterial IM Animals China epidemiology Culicidae microbiology DNA, Bacterial Humans Multilocus Sequence Typing Phylogeny Polymerase Chain Reaction

2016 Emerging Microbes & Infections

195. Vector-control response in a post-flood disaster setting, Honiara, Solomon Islands, 2014 Full Text available with Trip Pro

people were housed in emergency evacuation centres at the peak of the post-flood emergency. At the time of the floods, the number of dengue cases was increasing, following a record outbreak in 2013.The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme with the assistance of the World Health Organization implemented an emergency vector-control response plan to provide protection to the at-risk populations in the evacuation centres. The National Surveillance Unit also activated an early warning disease (...) surveillance system to monitor communicable diseases, including dengue and malaria.Timely and strategic application of the emergency interventions probably prevented an increase in dengue and malaria cases in the affected areas.Rapid and appropriate precautionary vector-control measures applied in a post-natural disaster setting can prevent and mitigate vectorborne disease incidences. Collecting vector surveillance data allows better analysis of vector-control operations' effectiveness.

2016 Western Pacific surveillance and response journal : WPSAR

196. Knowledge and prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis among residents of Kachia grazing reserve, Kachia local government area, Kaduna state, Nigeria, 2012 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Knowledge and prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis among residents of Kachia grazing reserve, Kachia local government area, Kaduna state, Nigeria, 2012 Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a vector borne parasitic disease transmitted to humans by infected tse-tse flies cause morbidity including delayed child mental development. Reports of nuisance and bites from tse-tse flies by residents of Kachia grazing led to the study to determine the knowledge, practices and prevalence of HAT (...) among residents of the grazing reserve.We conducted active case search in a cross-sectional study using multi-stage sampling with probability proportionate to size. We administered structured questionnaire on Knowledge, practices relating to HAT prevention and screened for HAT using card agglutination test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT). Knowledge of HAT was scored 0-5 and categorized good (3-5) and poor (0-2) based on score, predisposition to risk of HAT as exposure to ≥two risk factors and, a case

2016 The Pan African medical journal

197. Understanding the transmission dynamics of Leishmania donovani to provide robust evidence for interventions to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India Full Text available with Trip Pro

Understanding the transmission dynamics of Leishmania donovani to provide robust evidence for interventions to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected vector-borne disease. In India, it is transmitted to humans by Leishmania donovani-infected Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. In 2005, VL was targeted for elimination by the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh by 2015. The elimination strategy consists of rapid case detection, treatment (...) to infection and 3) have had past exposure to sand flies.It is crucial to keep in mind that close to elimination, and post-elimination, VL cases will become infrequent, so it is vital to define what the surveillance programme should target and how it should be designed to prevent resurgence. Therefore, a better understanding of the transmission dynamics of VL, in particular of how rates of infection in humans and sand flies vary as functions of each other, is required to guide VL elimination efforts

2016 Parasites & vectors

198. An unusual presentation of leishmaniasis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive individual Full Text available with Trip Pro

An unusual presentation of leishmaniasis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive individual Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by vector-borne protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms result in disfiguration or mutilation, whilst visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects multiple organs and is fatal if untreated. Notably, Leishmania are capable of establishing a chronic infection, which may reactivate years after initial infection when the host becomes (...) small intracellular bodies suggestive of Leishmania amastigotes. A bone marrow biopsy was performed and demonstrated similar intracellular forms. Anal condyloma tissue and bone marrow aspirate were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Parasitic Diseases Branch for confirmation of Leishmania and speciation. Specific immunohistochemical staining for Leishmania in the tissue section was positive and the species was confirmed as Leishmania donovani by PCR. Subsequently, the patient

2016 JMM Case Reports

199. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico An estimated 2 million inhabitants are infected with Chagas disease in Mexico, with highest prevalence coinciding with highest demographic density in the southern half of the country. After vector-borne transmission, Trypanosoma cruzi is principally transmitted to humans via blood transfusion. Despite initiation of serological screening of blood donations or donors for T. cruzi since 1990 in most Latin American (...) to incomplete compliance of Mexico's national legislation during 2013 and 2014, the MoH has failed to confirm 15,162 T. cruzi infections, has not prevented 2,347 avoidable infections, and has lost 333,483 life-years. Although there is a vast difference in T. cruzi prevalence between Bolivia and Mexico, Bolivia established mandatory blood screening for T.cruzi in 1996 and until 2002 detected and discarded 11,489 T. cruzi -infected blood units and prevented 2,879 potential infections with their transfusion

2016 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

200. Problématique de l'utilisation des Moustiquaires Imprégnées d'insecticide à Longue Durée (MILD) chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans en République Démocratique du Congo Full Text available with Trip Pro

Problématique de l'utilisation des Moustiquaires Imprégnées d'insecticide à Longue Durée (MILD) chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans en République Démocratique du Congo Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by parasites, which represents a major public health problem in tropical countries, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to identify the level of LLIN use in children less than 5 years in Mumbunda health zone.The crosscutting study was conducted from 25 to 27 (...) was spread under shade for 24h before being used, for the first time, by 77.9% of the households. The respondents reported (15.3%, n=63) receiving information by the media about the use of mosquito net. Healthcare personnel was the most important source to demonstrate the correct way to use LLIN for 51.2% of the households.The success of Roll Back Malaria must necessarily pass through prevention, follow-up and evaluation of the use of impregnated mosquito nets in Mumbunda health zone.

2016 The Pan African medical journal

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