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Prevention of Vector-borne Infection

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181. A heterogeneous human immunodeficiency virus-like particle (VLP) formulation produced by a novel vector system (PubMed)

A heterogeneous human immunodeficiency virus-like particle (VLP) formulation produced by a novel vector system First identified as the etiological agent behind Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the early 1980s, HIV-1 has continued to spread into a global pandemic and major public health concern. Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy at reducing HIV-1 viremia and preventing the dramatic CD4+ T-cell collapse, infected individuals remain HIV positive for life. Unfortunately (...) , it is increasingly clear that natural immunity is not, and may never be, protective against this pathogen. Therefore, efficacious vaccine interventions, which can either prevent infection or eradicate the latent viral reservoir and effect cure, are a major medical priority. Here we describe the development of a safe vaccine platform, currently being utilized in on-going prophylactic and therapeutic preclinical studies and consisting of highly heterogeneous virus-like particle formulations that represent

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2018 NPJ Vaccines

182. Single-cycle adenovirus vectors in the current vaccine landscape (PubMed)

Single-cycle adenovirus vectors in the current vaccine landscape Traditional inactivated and protein vaccines generate strong antibodies, but struggle to generate T cell responses. Attenuated pathogen vaccines generate both, but risk causing the disease they aim to prevent. Newer gene-based vaccines drive both responses and avoid the risk of infection. While these replication-defective (RD) vaccines work well in small animals, they can be weak in humans because they do not replicate antigen (...) genes like more potent replication-competent (RC) vaccines. RC vaccines generate substantially stronger immune responses, but also risk causing their own infections. To circumvent these problems, we developed single-cycle adenovirus (SC-Ad) vectors that amplify vaccine genes, but that avoid the risk of infection. This review will discuss these vectors and their prospects for use as vaccines.This review provides a background of different types of vaccines. The benefits of gene-based vaccines

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2018 Expert review of vaccines

183. The containment of potential outbreaks triggered by imported Chikungunya cases in Italy: a cost utility epidemiological assessment of vector control measures (PubMed)

The containment of potential outbreaks triggered by imported Chikungunya cases in Italy: a cost utility epidemiological assessment of vector control measures The arrival of infected travelers from endemic regions can trigger sustained autochthonous transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens in Europe. In 2007 a Chikungunya outbreak was observed in central Italy, mostly affecting two villages characterised by a high density of Aedes albopictus. The outbreak was mitigated through intervention (...) strategies reducing the mosquito abundance. Ten years later, in 2017, sustained Chikungunya transmission was documented in both central and southern Italy. The proposed analysis identifies suitable reactive measures for the containment and mitigation of future epidemics by combining epidemiological modeling with a health economic approach, considering different arrival times of imported infections and possible delays in the notification of cases. Obtained estimates suggest that, if the first notification

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2018 Scientific reports

184. A Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Intranasal Sendai Virus Vectored Respiratory Syncytial Virus (SeVRSV) Vaccine in Healthy Adults

A Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Intranasal Sendai Virus Vectored Respiratory Syncytial Virus (SeVRSV) Vaccine in Healthy Adults A Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Intranasal Sendai Virus Vectored Respiratory Syncytial Virus (SeVRSV) Vaccine in Healthy Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You (...) have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. A Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Intranasal Sendai Virus Vectored Respiratory Syncytial Virus (SeVRSV) Vaccine in Healthy Adults The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03473002

2018 Clinical Trials

185. Development of a Live Recombinant BCG Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Gag Using a pMyong2 Vector System: Potential Use As a Novel HIV-1 Vaccine (PubMed)

Development of a Live Recombinant BCG Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Gag Using a pMyong2 Vector System: Potential Use As a Novel HIV-1 Vaccine Even though the rate of new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections is gradually decreasing worldwide, an effective preventive vaccine for HIV-1 is still urgently needed. The recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG (rBCG) is promising for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Recently, we showed that a recombinant (...) Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing HIV-1 gag in a pMyong2 vector system (rSmeg-pMyong2-p24) increased the efficacy of a vaccine against HIV-1 in mice. Here, we evaluated the potential of an rBCG expressing HIV-1 p24 antigen Gag in pMyong2 (rBCG-pMyong2-p24) in a vaccine application for HIV-1 infection. We found that rBCG-pMyong2-p24 elicited an enhanced HIV-1 p24 Gag expression in rBCG and infected antigen-presenting cells. We also found that compared to rBCG-pAL-p24 in a pAL5000 derived vector system, rBCG

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2018 Frontiers in immunology

186. Spatial prediction of risk areas for vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil (PubMed)

present high climatic and landscape suitability values for occurrence of their vectors. The frequent invasion of houses by infected triatomines clearly indicates a greater risk of transmission of T. cruzi to the inhabitants. More public health attention should be given in the northern areas of the State of Paraná, which presents high climate and landscape suitabilities for the disease vectors. In conclusion, our results-through spatial analysis and predictive maps-showed to be effective in identifying (...) Spatial prediction of risk areas for vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil After obtaining certification of the absence of transmission of the Trypanosoma cruzi by Triatoma infestans in 2006, other native species of protozoan vectors have been found in human dwellings within municipalities of the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. However, the spatial distribution of T. cruzi vectors and how climatic and landscape combined variables explain

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2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

187. Efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A subunit vaccine in cattle using a direct contact transmission model (PubMed)

Efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A subunit vaccine in cattle using a direct contact transmission model A direct contact transmission challenge model was used to simulate natural foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) spread from FMDV A24/Cruzeiro/BRA/55 infected 'seeder' steers to naïve or vaccinated steers previously immunized with a replication-deficient human adenovirus-vectored FMDV A24/Cruzeiro/BRA/55 capsid-based subunit vaccine (AdtA24). In two (...) independent vaccine efficacy trials, AdtA24 was administered once intramuscularly in the neck 7 days prior to contact with FMDV A24/Cruzeiro/BRA/55-infected seeder steers.In Efficacy Study 1, we evaluated three doses of AdtA24 to estimate the 50%/90% bovine protective dose (BPD50/90) for prevention of clinical FMD. In vaccinated, contact-challenged steers, the BPD50/90 was 3.1 × 1010 / 5.5 × 1010 AdtA24 particles formulated without adjuvant. In Efficacy Study 2, steers vaccinated with 5 × 1010 AdtA24

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2018 BMC veterinary research

188. Community-directed vector control to supplement mass drug distribution for onchocerciasis elimination in the Madi mid-North focus of Northern Uganda (PubMed)

Community-directed vector control to supplement mass drug distribution for onchocerciasis elimination in the Madi mid-North focus of Northern Uganda Onchocerciasis a neglected tropical disease that historically has been a major cause of morbidity and an obstacle to economic development in the developing world. It is caused by infection with Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted by black flies of the genus Simulium. The discovery of the potent effect of Mectizan (ivermectin) on O. volvulus (...) microfilariae and the decision by its manufacturer to donate the drug for onchocerciasis spurred the implementation of international programs to control and, more recently, eliminate this scourge. These programs rely primarily on mass distribution of ivermectin (MDA) to the afflicted populations. However, MDA alone will not be sufficient to eliminate onchocerciasis where transmission is intense and where ivermectin MDA is precluded by co-endemicity with Loa loa. Vector control will likely be required

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2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

189. Dengue knowledge, attitudes and practices and their impact on community-based vector control in rural Cambodia (PubMed)

Dengue knowledge, attitudes and practices and their impact on community-based vector control in rural Cambodia Globally there are an estimated 390 million dengue infections per year, of which 96 million are clinically apparent. In Cambodia, estimates suggest as many as 185,850 cases annually. The World Health Organization global strategy for dengue prevention aims to reduce mortality rates by 50% and morbidity by 25% by 2020. The adoption of integrated vector management approach using community (...) an entomology survey was conducted (1200 households), during which Aedes larval/pupae and adult female Aedes mosquito densities were recorded. Participants had high levels of knowledge regarding the transmission of dengue, Aedes breeding, and biting prevention methods; the majority of participants believed they were at risk and that dengue transmission is preventable. However, self-reported vector control practices did not match observed practices recorded in our surveys. No correlation was found between

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2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

190. N-glycosylation of Viral E Protein Is the Determinant for Vector Midgut Invasion by Flaviviruses (PubMed)

N-glycosylation of Viral E Protein Is the Determinant for Vector Midgut Invasion by Flaviviruses Transmission of flaviviruses by hematophagous insects such as mosquitoes requires acquisition of the virus during blood feeding on the host, with midgut as the primary infection site. Here, we report that N-glycosylation of the E protein, which is conserved among most flaviviruses, is critical for the Zika virus (ZIKV) to invade the vector midgut by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species (ROS (...) ) pathway of the mosquito immune system. Our data further show that removal of the ZIKV E glycosylation site prevents mosquito infection by flaviviruses via the oral route, whereas there is no effect on infection by intrathoracic microinjection, which bypasses the midgut. Interestingly, the defect in infection of the mosquito midgut by the mutant virus through blood feeding is rescued by reduction of the ROS level by application of vitamin C, a well-known antioxidant. Therefore, our data demonstrate

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2018 mBio

191. PGRP-LD mediates A. stephensi vector competency by regulating homeostasis of microbiota-induced peritrophic matrix synthesis (PubMed)

PGRP-LD mediates A. stephensi vector competency by regulating homeostasis of microbiota-induced peritrophic matrix synthesis Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) and commensal microbes mediate pathogen infection outcomes in insect disease vectors. Although PGRP-LD is retained in multiple vectors, its role in host defense remains elusive. Here we report that Anopheles stephensi PGRP-LD protects the vector from malaria parasite infection by regulating gut homeostasis. Specifically, knock (...) microbiota in antibiotic treated mosquitoes (Abx) led to PM loss and increased vectorial competence. Recolonization of Abx mosquitoes with indigenous Enterobacter sp. restored PM integrity and decreased mosquito vectorial capacity. Silencing PGRP-LD in mosquitoes without PM didn't influence their vector competence. Our results indicate that PGPR-LD protects the gut microbiota by preventing hyper-immunity, which in turn promotes PM structurally integrity. The intact PM plays a key role in limiting P

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2018 PLoS pathogens

192. Molecular Detection of <i>Bartonella bacilliformis</i> in <i>Lutzomyia maranonensis</i> in Cajamarca, Peru: A New Potential Vector of Carrion's Disease in Peru? (PubMed)

Molecular Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis in Lutzomyia maranonensis in Cajamarca, Peru: A New Potential Vector of Carrion's Disease in Peru? Carrion's disease is a neglected, vector-borne illness that affects Colombia, Ecuador, and especially Peru. The phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia verrucarum and Lutzomyia peruensis are the main illness vectors described, although other species may be implicated in endemic areas such as some northern Peruvian regions, in which Carrion's (...) disease vector has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Bartonella bacilliformis DNA in Lutzomyia maranonensis from Cajamarca, northern Peru. This sand fly has not been defined as a vector yet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps were used to collect adult phlebotomine sand flies from 2007 to 2008 in the Cajamarca department. Female specimens were identified using morphological keys and were grouped into pools of five sand flies, taking

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2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

193. Early hospital discharge of infants born to group B streptococci-positive mothers: a decision analysis

; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Infectious /drug therapy /economics /microbiology; Streptococcal Infections /drug therapy /economics /prevention & Streptococcus agalactiae /isolation & United States; control; purification AccessionNumber 22012009072 Date bibliographic record published 12/04/2012 Date abstract record published 20/10/2012 NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) Produced by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Copyright © 2019 University of York Homepage Options Print PubMed (...) Early hospital discharge of infants born to group B streptococci-positive mothers: a decision analysis Early hospital discharge of infants born to group B streptococci-positive mothers: a decision analysis Early hospital discharge of infants born to group B streptococci-positive mothers: a decision analysis Berger MB, Xu X, Williams JA, Van de Ven CJM, Mozurkewich EL Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each

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2012 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

194. Prevention of Ophthalmia Neonatorum

or caregiver may not recognize the signs of Ophthalmia Neonatorum, and/or respond appropriately? 2,6 ? ? Asymptomatic infants born to mothers with untreated Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection at the time of birth should receive a single dose of cefotaxime 100 mg/kg IV/IM? 2 ? ? Infants born to mothers with untreated Neisseria gonorrhoeae at the time of birth that are unwell require: ? A full septic work-up (urine, blood and CSF specimens) for routine septic workup as well as gram stain and gonorrhea culture (...) gonorrhoeae? This document is provided for guidance and is not meant to replace clinical judgment? Executive Summary4 Perinatal Services BC Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection in Canada 11 , and the most common pathogen causing Ophthalmia Neonatorum? Approximately 23 per cent 12 of infants born to women with active and untreated Chlamydia trachomatis infections typically present with mild to moderate conjunctivitis? Fifty per cent of these infants will also

2018 British Columbia Perinatal Health Program

195. 2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Arnett et al. 2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Page 1 of 98 2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines Endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation, the American Geriatrics Society, the American (...) Society of Preventive Cardiology, and the Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association WRITING COMMITTEE MEMBERS Donna K. Arnett, PhD, MSPH, FAHA, Co-Chair Roger S. Blumenthal, MD, FACC, FAHA, Co-Chair Michelle A. Albert, MD, MPH, FAHA* Erin D. Michos, MD, MHS, FACC, FAHA* Andrew B. Buroker, Esq† Michael D. Miedema, MD, MPH* Zachary D. Goldberger, MD, MS, FACC, FAHA‡ Daniel Muñoz, MD, MPA, FACC* Ellen J. Hahn, PhD, RN* Sidney C. Smith, Jr, MD, MACC, FAHA* Cheryl D. Himmelfarb, PhD, RN, ANP, FAHA

2019 American Heart Association

196. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Accepted Manuscript 2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease WRITING COMMITTEE MEMBERS, Donna K. Arnett, PhD, MSPH, FAHA, Co-Chair, Roger S. Blumenthal, MD, FACC, FAHA, Co-Chair, Michelle A. Albert, MD, MPH, FAHA, Erin D. Michos, MD, MHS, FACC, FAHA, Andrew B. Buroker, Esq, Michael D. Miedema, MD, MPH, Zachary D. Goldberger, MD, MS, FACC, FAHA, Daniel Muñoz, MD, MPA, FACC, Ellen J. Hahn, PhD, RN, Sidney C. Smith, Jr (...) , Cigarroa JE, Joglar JA, Deswal A, Mauri L, Fleisher LA, Piano MR, Gentile F, Riegel B, Goldberger ZD, Wijeysundera DN, 2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2019), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.03.010.This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting

2019 American College of Cardiology

197. Prevention of Early-Onset Group B Streptococcal Disease in Newborns

organizations are addressed by those organizations. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has neither solicited nor accepted any commercial involvement in the development of the content of this published product. Prevention of Group B Streptococcal Early-Onset Disease in Newborns ABSTRACT: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of newborn infection (1). The primary risk factor for neonatal GBS early-onset disease (EOD) is maternal colonization of the genitourinary (...) prophylaxis has demonstrated efficacy for prevention of GBS early-onset disease (EOD) in neonates born to women with positive antepartum GBS cultures and women who have other risk factors for intrapartum GBS colonization. Neither antepartum nor intrapartum oral or intramuscular regimens have been shown to be comparably effective in reducing GBS EOD. Regardless of planned mode of birth, all pregnant women should undergo antepartum screening for GBS at 36 0/7–37 6/7 weeks of gestation, unless intrapartum

2019 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

198. Information for women considering preventive mastectomy

factors in? uencing a woman’s decision about preventive mastectomy. These may include: • Having an inherited change identi? ed in one of the breast cancer protection genes (BRCA1 or BRCA2) that makes the gene faulty. Being born with these faulty genes means the woman has an increased risk of developing breast cancer. • Having already had breast cancer in one breast and being concerned about the risk of cancer occurring in the other breast. • Having multiple breast biopsies, which may increase anxiety (...) preventive mastectomy involves removing healthy tissue, there is no need to take out lymph nodes, so swelling of the arm and hand is very unlikely. Possible complications All surgery has a risk of complications. The main possible complications are infection, bleeding and/or a blood clot forming in the leg (known as deep vein thrombosis or DVT), which may then lead to a blood clot on the lung (called a pulmonary embolus). These are rare and clinicians will make every effort to prevent them. As with all

2019 European Society of Endocrinology

199. Long-Term Drug Therapy and Drug Holidays for Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: A Systematic Review

Long-Term Drug Therapy and Drug Holidays for Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: A Systematic Review Long-Term Drug Therapy and Drug Holidays for Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: A Systematic Review Comparative Effectiveness Review Number 218 RComparative Effectiveness Review Number 218 Long-Term Drug Therapy and Drug Holidays for Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: A Systematic Review Prepared for: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 5600 (...) website at www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov. Search on the title of the report. Persons using assistive technology may not be able to fully access information in this report. For assistance contact epc@ahrq.hhs.gov. Suggested citation: Fink HA, MacDonald R, Forte ML, Rosebush CE, Ensrud KE, Schousboe JT, Nelson VA, Ullman K, Butler M, Olson CM, Taylor BC, Brasure M, Wilt TJ. Long-Term Drug Therapy and Drug Holidays for Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: A Systematic Review. Comparative Effectiveness

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

200. Prevention and Control of Methecillin-Resistant Staphylcoccus Aureus (MRSA)

Prevention and Control of Methecillin-Resistant Staphylcoccus Aureus (MRSA) Prevention and Control Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) National Clinical Guideline No. 2 December 2013Guideline Development Group The Prevention and Control of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) National Clinical Guideline was developed by the Royal College of Physicians Ireland (RCPI) Clinical Advisory Group on healthcare associated infections (HCAI) - Subgroup MRSA Guideline (...) organisations. Information on the NCEC and endorsed National Clinical Guidelines is available on the Patient Safety First website at www.patientsafetyfirst.ie Table of Contents 1.0 Definition of methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) and scope of the National Clinical Guideline 5 1.1 Definition of MRSA 5 1.2 Scope of the National Clinical Guideline 5 1.3 Aim of guideline 6 1.4 Objectives 6 2.0 Recommendations 8 2.1 Prevention and control 8 2.1.1 Screening 8 2.1.2 Infection prevention and control

2019 National Clinical Guidelines (Ireland)

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