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Prevention of Vector-borne Infection

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1. Public health guidance on prevention and control of blood-borne viruses in prison settings

of the ad-hoc scientific panel 9 4. Conclusions 11 4.1 Prevention of blood-borne viruses infections 11 4.2 Active case finding for blood-borne viruses 14 4.3 HBV vaccination 20 4.4 HIV treatment 23 4.5 Viral hepatitis treatment 25 4.6 Throughcare 28 5. Implications for public health practice and research 33 5.1 Public health practice 33 5.2 Research 47 6. Next steps 48 References 49 Appendix. Ad-hoc scientific panel members 60 Tables Table 1. Evidence for the effectiveness of interventions (...) prophylaxis PWID People who inject drugs RBV Ribavirin RCT Randomised controlled trial SAT Self-administered treatment SSTI Skin and soft tissue infection SVR Sustained viral response WHO World Health Organization SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Public health guidance on prevention and control of blood-borne viruses in prison settings v Glossary Acceptability The degree to which a given intervention is acceptable to the target population in relation to the effect of the intervention Accessibility The degree to which

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

2. Guidance in brief: Prevention and control of blood-borne viruses in prison settings

high-burden blood-borne viruses (BBV) in the prison population, namely hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ( 1 ). The infections caused by these viruses are characterised by the same modes of blood-borne transmission and similar prevention and control interventions. The key areas covered by this guidance are prevention, treatment and care of BBVs in prison settings. This guidance is intended for policymakers responsible for the planning (...) much of the burden of blood-borne infections is linked to a history of injecting drug use among this population. Prisons are settings of increased risk for BBV transmission, where enhanced and effective prevention and control measures are required to protect the health of people in detention and staff. At the same time, incarceration represents a unique opportunity to address the healthcare needs of those people in prison who belong to hard-to-reach and medically underserved groups in the community

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

3. Prevention of Vector-borne Infection

Prevention of Vector-borne Infection Prevention of Vector-borne Infection Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Prevention (...) of Vector-borne Infection Prevention of Vector-borne Infection Aka: Prevention of Vector-borne Infection , Prevention of Mosquito Bite , Prevention of Tick-borne Infection , Vector-borne Disease Prevention II. Management: General Preventive measures Repellant to skin to clothes Perform tick checks daily after outdoor activity (at least within 36 hours of exposure) Ticks typically crawl and embed at a constriction point (e.g. skin fold, waist line) Prompt may prevent disease transmission Perform tick

2018 FP Notebook

4. Increased risk for autochthonous vector-borne infections transmitted by <i>Aedes albopictus</i> in continental Europe. (PubMed)

Increased risk for autochthonous vector-borne infections transmitted by Aedes albopictus in continental Europe. Autochthonous outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue during the past decade showed that continental Europe is vulnerable to Aedes albopictus-borne infections. Ae. albopictus has spread geographically, resulting in more people exposed to risk. Timely application of adequate mosquito suppression measures may delay, or even prevent, the vector population from crossing the potential (...) epidemic abundance threshold should a pathogen be introduced. Health authorities should be on alert to detect early cases to prevent autochthonous outbreaks.

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2018 Euro Surveillance

5. Clinical evaluation of outdoor cats exposed to ectoparasites and associated risk for vector-borne infections in southern Italy (PubMed)

Clinical evaluation of outdoor cats exposed to ectoparasites and associated risk for vector-borne infections in southern Italy Cats can be carriers of infected arthropods and be infected with several vector-borne pathogens (VBP) but there is limited knowledge about their pathogenic role in cats.A cross-sectional controlled study investigated the clinical status and antibody (Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia conorii, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti and Leishmania (...) creatinine.A very high prevalence of exposure to zoonotic VBP was found in cats, with Rickettsia and Bartonella infections being most prevalent. Some risk factors were documented namely for Mycoplasma spp. and Bartonella spp. The lifestyle of cats is clinically relevant and requires specific preventative measures to protect their health.

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2018 Parasites & vectors

6. Management of newborns born to women with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection

Management of newborns born to women with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection Management of newborns born to women with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection Document ID CHQ-GDL-01243 Version no. 3.1 Approval date 28/05/2019 Executive sponsor Executive Director Medical Services Effective date 28/05/2019 Author/custodian Infectious Diseases Physician - Infection Management and Prevention services Review date 28/05/2021 Supercedes 3.0 Applicable to All Children’s Health Queensland (...) staff Authorisation Executive Director Clinical Services (QCH) Purpose This guideline provides best practice recommendations for obstetricians, paediatricians, neonatologists and Human Immunodeficient Virus (HIV) physicians regarding management of infants born to women with HIV infection. Scope This Guideline provides information for all Children’s Health Queensland (CHQ) employees (permanent, temporary and casual) and all organisations and individuals acting as its agents (including Visiting

2019 Queensland Health

7. Preventing sexually transmitted and blood borne infections (STBBIs) among sex workers: a critical review of the evidence on determinants and interventions in high-income countries. (PubMed)

Preventing sexually transmitted and blood borne infections (STBBIs) among sex workers: a critical review of the evidence on determinants and interventions in high-income countries. Across diverse regions globally, sex workers continue to face a disproportionate burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted and blood borne infections (STBBIs). Evidence suggests that behavioural and biomedical interventions are only moderately successful in reducing STBBIs at the population level, leading to calls (...) and interpersonal factors (e.g., mental health, substance use, unprotected sex). Sub-optimal access to health and STBBI prevention services remains concerning. Full decriminalization of sex work has been shown to have the largest potential to avert new infections in sex work, through reducing workplace violence and increasing access to safer workspaces. Promising practices and strategies that should be scaled-up and evaluated to prevent STBBIs are highlighted.The high burden of STBBIs among sex workers across

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2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

8. Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease. (PubMed)

Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease. Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap (...) of Guillain-Barrι syndrome and microcephaly were associated with Zika virus infection, giving rise to fears of further global spread of the virus. Prevention and vector control strategies have to be urgently implemented by national health authorities in order to contain future outbreaks in vulnerable populations. This review summarizes the existing information on Zika virus characteristics, pathogenesis and epidemiology, the available methods for the diagnosis of Zika virus infection and recent approaches

2017 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

9. The prevention of blood-borne infection transmission during immunization: clinical evidence and guidelines

The prevention of blood-borne infection transmission during immunization: clinical evidence and guidelines The prevention of blood-borne infection transmission during immunization: clinical evidence and guidelines The prevention of blood-borne infection transmission during immunization: clinical evidence and guidelines CADTH Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been (...) made for the HTA database. Citation CADTH. The prevention of blood-borne infection transmission during immunization: clinical evidence and guidelines. Ottawa: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH). Rapid Response - Summary of Abstracts. 2013 Authors' conclusions No literature was identified regarding the use of non-sterile gloves during routine immunizations. Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Immunizations; Infection Control Language

2014 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

10. The Prevention of Blood-Borne Infection Transmission During Immunization: Clinical Evidence and Guidelines

The Prevention of Blood-Borne Infection Transmission During Immunization: Clinical Evidence and Guidelines TITLE: The Prevention of Blood-Borne Infection Transmission During Immunization: Clinical Evidence and Guidelines DATE: 04 June 2013 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What is the evidence that non-sterile gloves worn by health care professionals during routine administration of immunizations reduces the likelihood of blood-borne pathogen transmission in the event of a needle stick? 2. What (...) -sterile gloves during routine immunizations; therefore, no summary can be provided. Prevention of Blood-Borne Infection Transmission During Immunization 2 REFERENCES SUMMARIZED Health Technology Assessments No literature identified. Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses No literature identified. Randomized Controlled Trials No literature identified. Non-Randomized Studies No literature identified. Guidelines and Recommendations No literature identified. PREPARED BY: Canadian Agency for Drugs

2013 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

11. Anal Cancer Prevention Perspectives Among Foreign-Born Latino HIV-Infected Gay and Bisexual Men (PubMed)

Anal Cancer Prevention Perspectives Among Foreign-Born Latino HIV-Infected Gay and Bisexual Men This study explores understanding of primary and secondary prevention of anal cancer among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected foreign-born Latino gay and bisexual men (GBM). Between August 2015 and December 2016, researchers conducted 33 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with HIV-infected foreign-born Latino GBM. Interview questions sought to determine participants' knowledge (...) was the most common screening facilitator. Men reported stigma related to their HIV status, sexual orientation, and anal Pap smear procedures as anal cancer screening barriers. Participants reported willingness to use a self-screening anal Pap smear test if it was commercially available. Health providers continue to be the leading source of health information. Therefore, provider recommendation for HPV vaccination and anal cancer screening among age-eligible foreign-born Latino HIV-infected GBM is critical

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2018 Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center

12. Determinants of HIV infection among children born to mothers on prevention of mother to child transmission program of HIV in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a case control study. (PubMed)

Determinants of HIV infection among children born to mothers on prevention of mother to child transmission program of HIV in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a case control study. Despite wide spread use of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) by pregnant women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the transmission rate is still higher by 18% after breastfeeding ends. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting mother-to-child HIV transmission.Unmatched case-control study was conducted

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2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

13. Preventing blood-borne virus infection in people who inject drugs in the UK: systematic review, stakeholder interviews, psychosocial intervention development and feasibility randomised controlled trial. (PubMed)

Preventing blood-borne virus infection in people who inject drugs in the UK: systematic review, stakeholder interviews, psychosocial intervention development and feasibility randomised controlled trial. Opioid substitution therapy and needle exchanges have reduced blood-borne viruses (BBVs) among people who inject drugs (PWID). Some PWID continue to share injecting equipment.To develop an evidence-based psychosocial intervention to reduce BBV risk behaviours and increase transmission knowledge (...) intervention, a future definitive randomised controlled trial of the intervention is not feasible. Exposure to information on improving injecting techniques did not encourage riskier injecting practices or injecting frequency, and benefits were reported among attendees. The intervention has the potential to positively influence BBV prevention. Harm reduction services should ensure that the intervention content is routinely delivered to PWID to improve vein care and prevent BBVs.The intervention did

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2017 Health technology assessment (Winchester, England)

14. Microbiota-induced peritrophic matrix regulates midgut homeostasis and prevents systemic infection of malaria vector mosquitoes (PubMed)

Microbiota-induced peritrophic matrix regulates midgut homeostasis and prevents systemic infection of malaria vector mosquitoes Manipulation of the mosquito gut microbiota can lay the foundations for novel methods for disease transmission control. Mosquito blood feeding triggers a significant, transient increase of the gut microbiota, but little is known about the mechanisms by which the mosquito controls this bacterial growth whilst limiting inflammation of the gut epithelium. Here, we (...) investigate the gut epithelial response to the changing microbiota load upon blood feeding in the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii. We show that the synthesis and integrity of the peritrophic matrix, which physically separates the gut epithelium from its luminal contents, is microbiota dependent. We reveal that the peritrophic matrix limits the growth and persistence of Enterobacteriaceae within the gut, whilst preventing seeding of a systemic infection. Our results demonstrate that the peritrophic

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2017 PLoS pathogens

15. Strategies to link people with undiagnosed HIV infection to HIV testing, care, and prevention services

Strategies to link people with undiagnosed HIV infection to HIV testing, care, and prevention services Strategies to link people with undiagnosed HIV infection to HIV testing, care, and prevention services | The Ontario HIV Treatment Network The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Strategies to link people with undiagnosed HIV infection to HIV testing, care, and prevention services Strategies to link people with undiagnosed HIV infection to HIV testing, care, and prevention services , , , , Questions (...) What strategies have been successful at linking people with undiagnosed HIV infection to HIV testing, care, and prevention services? Key take-home messages A variety of strategies have shown promise for identifying individuals with undiagnosed HIV and engaging them with HIV testing using clinical, community-based, network-based, and self-directed approaches. Various service delivery models for implementing rapid initiation of antiretroviral treatment have demonstrated benefits for linking the newly

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

16. Surveillance of vector-borne pathogens under imperfect detection: lessons from Chagas disease risk (mis)measurement (PubMed)

Surveillance of vector-borne pathogens under imperfect detection: lessons from Chagas disease risk (mis)measurement Vector-borne pathogens threaten human health worldwide. Despite their critical role in disease prevention, routine surveillance systems often rely on low-complexity pathogen detection tests of uncertain accuracy. In Chagas disease surveillance, optical microscopy (OM) is routinely used for detecting Trypanosoma cruzi in its vectors. Here, we use replicate T. cruzi detection data (...) was ~100% specific but only ~55% sensitive. In routine surveillance, examination of a single OM slide per vector missed ~50-75% of infections and wrongly scored as infected ~7% of the bugs. qPCR-based and model-based infection frequency estimates were nearly three times higher, on average, than OM-based indices. We conclude that the risk of vector-borne Chagas disease may be substantially higher than routine surveillance data suggest. The hierarchical modelling approach we illustrate can help enhance

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2018 Scientific reports

17. Clustered Breeding Sites: Shelters for Vector-Borne Diseases (PubMed)

Clustered Breeding Sites: Shelters for Vector-Borne Diseases Here, the propagation of vector-borne diseases is modeled by using a probabilistic cellular automaton. Numerical simulations considering distinct spatial distributions and time variations of the vector abundance are performed, in order to investigate their impacts on the number of infected individuals of the host population. The main conclusion is as follows: in the clustered distributions, the prevalence is lower, but the eradication (...) is more difficult to be achieved, as compared to homogeneous distributions. This result can be relevant in the implementation of preventive surveillance measures.

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2018 Computational and mathematical methods in medicine

18. Serological and molecular prevalence of canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) in Korea (PubMed)

prevalence rates of both "Ca. M. haematoparvum" and Mycoplasma haemocanis in dogs from Korea indicate that these organisms may be transmitted by vectors other than Rhipicephalus sanguineus because this tick species has rarely been found in Korea. This is the first nationwide survey for canine haemotropic mycoplasma infections in Korea.This study showed that the risk of exposure to major vector-borne diseases in dogs is quite high throughout all areas of South Korean Peninsula. Since achieving full (...) elimination of many pathogens causing CVBDs from infected animals is often impossible even when they are clinically cured, dogs once exposed to CVBDs can remain as lifetime reservoirs of disease for both other animals and humans in the close vicinity, and should therefore be treated with preventative medications to minimise the risk of pathogen transmission by the competent vectors.

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2017 Parasites & vectors

19. Tick-Pathogen Interactions and Vector Competence: Identification of Molecular Drivers for Tick-Borne Diseases (PubMed)

Tick-Pathogen Interactions and Vector Competence: Identification of Molecular Drivers for Tick-Borne Diseases Ticks and the pathogens they transmit constitute a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. Vector competence is a component of vectorial capacity and depends on genetic determinants affecting the ability of a vector to transmit a pathogen. These determinants affect traits such as tick-host-pathogen and susceptibility to pathogen infection. Therefore, the elucidation (...) response to infect vectors and facilitate multiplication and transmission. Furthermore, some of these strategies may be used by pathogens to infect both tick and mammalian hosts. Identification of interactions that promote tick survival, spread, and pathogen transmission provides the opportunity to disrupt these interactions and lead to a reduction in tick burden and the prevalence of tick-borne diseases. Targeting some of the similar mechanisms used by the pathogens for infection and transmission

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2017 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

20. Integrating Environmental Monitoring and Mosquito Surveillance to Predict Vector-borne Disease: Prospective Forecasts of a West Nile Virus Outbreak (PubMed)

Integrating Environmental Monitoring and Mosquito Surveillance to Predict Vector-borne Disease: Prospective Forecasts of a West Nile Virus Outbreak Predicting the timing and locations of future mosquito-borne disease outbreaks has the potential to improve the targeting of mosquito control and disease prevention efforts. Here, we present and evaluate prospective forecasts made prior to and during the 2016 West Nile virus (WNV) season in South Dakota, a hotspot for human WNV transmission (...) in the United States.We used a county-level logistic regression model to predict the weekly probability of human WNV case occurrence as a function of temperature, precipitation, and an index of mosquito infection status. The model was specified and fitted using historical data from 2004-2015 and was applied in 2016 to make short-term forecasts of human WNV cases in the upcoming week as well as whole-year forecasts of WNV cases throughout the entire transmission season. These predictions were evaluated

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2017 PLoS currents

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