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Prevention of Secondary Infection in HIV

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1. Sexual risk during pregnancy and postpartum periods among HIV-infected and -uninfected South African women: Implications for primary and secondary HIV prevention interventions. (PubMed)

Sexual risk during pregnancy and postpartum periods among HIV-infected and -uninfected South African women: Implications for primary and secondary HIV prevention interventions. HIV acquisition in pregnancy and breastfeeding contributes significantly toward pediatric HIV infection. However, little is known about how sexual behavior changes during pregnancy and postpartum periods which will help develop targeted HIV prevention and transmission interventions, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (...) had increased odds of reporting condomless sex at last sex (aOR = 2.96;95%CI = 1.84-4.78) and ever having condomless sex in past 3-months (aOR = 2.65;95%CI = 1.30-5.44) adjusting for age, HIV status, and sex frequency compared to postpartum women.We identified that sexual behaviors and risk behaviors were high and changing during pregnancy and postpartum periods, presenting challenges to primary and secondary HIV prevention efforts, including PrEP delivery to pregnant and breastfeeding women.

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2018 PLoS ONE

2. Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children

Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children More than 1 in 10 HIV-related deaths are as a result of cryptococcal me n i n g i t i s. Three quarters of deaths from cryptococcal meningitis are in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO/CDS/HIV/18.2 POLICY BRIEF WHO / James Oatway: Namibia Living with HIV / AIDS at the Katatura State Hospital in Windhoek, Namibia. GUIDELINES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS, PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT (...) OF CRYPTOCOCCAL DISEASE IN HIV-INFECTED ADULTS, ADOLESCENTS AND CHILDREN SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2016 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV INFECTION MARCH 2018 HIV TREATMENT 1 Cryptococcal meningitis is by far the commonest manifestation of cryptococcal disease representing 70–90% of HIV-related cryptococcal disease. Other less common disease presentations include pulmonary disease and skin, lymph node and bone involvement. The burden of morbidity and mortality

2018 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

3. Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children

DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS Adult Age older than 19 years Adolescent Age 10–19 years Advanced HIV disease For adults, adolescents and children five years or older, advanced HIV disease is defined as a CD4 cell count 750 cells/mm 3 . Maintenance treatment for cryptococcal disease should not be discontinued for children younger than two years.30 Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children Secondary prophylaxis for cryptococcal (...) . Discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis for cryptococcal meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective, multicenter, randomized study. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1329–31. 93. Model List of Essential Medicines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017 (http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/en, accessed 17 January 2018). 40 Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV

2018 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

4. School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents. (PubMed)

School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents. School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).To evaluate (...) the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System

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2016 Cochrane

5. Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the Prevention of Malaria among HIV-infected Pregnant Women

Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the Prevention of Malaria among HIV-infected Pregnant Women Daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and insecticide-treated nets remain the main interventions for prevention of malaria in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women in Africa. However, antifolate and pyrethroid resistance threaten the effectiveness of these interventions, and new ones are needed.We conducted a double-blinded (...) , randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing daily TMP-SMX plus monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) to daily TMP-SMX alone in HIV-infected pregnant women in an area of Uganda where indoor residual spraying of insecticide had recently been implemented. Participants were enrolled between gestation weeks 12 and 28 and given an insecticide-treated net. The primary outcome was detection of active or past placental malarial infection by histopathologic analysis. Secondary outcomes included incidence

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2017 EvidenceUpdates

6. Telephone delivered interventions for preventing HIV infection in HIV-negative persons. (PubMed)

Telephone delivered interventions for preventing HIV infection in HIV-negative persons. This is one of the three Cochrane reviews that examine the role of the telephone in HIV/AIDS services. Although HIV infection can be prevented, still a large number of new infections occur. More effective HIV prevention interventions are needed to reduce the number of people newly infected with HIV. Phone calls can be used to potentially more effectively deliver HIV prevention interventions. They have (...) the potential to save time, reduce costs and facilitate easier access.To assess the effectiveness of voice landline and mobile telephone delivered HIV prevention interventions in HIV-negative persons.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed Central, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health, the World Health Organization's Global Health Library and Current Controlled Trials from 1980 to June 2011. We searched the following grey

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2013 Cochrane

7. Effect of secondary preventive therapy on recurrence of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Effect of secondary preventive therapy on recurrence of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals successfully treated for tuberculosis (TB) remain at risk of recurrence of the disease, especially in high TB incidence settings. We performed a systematic review, investigating whether secondary preventive therapy (sPT) with anti-TB drugs (preventive therapy in former TB patients with treatment success) is an effective (...) strategy to prevent recurrence of TB in this patient group. We searched the databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords HIV-infections, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, isoniazid, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), tuberculosis, TB, recurrence and recurrent disease, resulting in 253 potential publications. We identified eight publications for full text assessment, after which four articles qualified for inclusion in this systematic review

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2016 Infectious diseases (London, England)

8. Prevention of Secondary Infection in HIV

Prevention of Secondary Infection in HIV Prevention of Secondary Infection in HIV Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 (...) Prevention of Secondary Infection in HIV Prevention of Secondary Infection in HIV Aka: Prevention of Secondary Infection in HIV , HIV Prophylaxis of Secondary Infection From Related Chapters II. Management: General Strategies to avoid secondary infections Always use s Avoid oral-to-anal sex Sterile technique for s, piercings, Avoid raw eggs or fish, unpasterized juices or milk See Avoid higher risk environments for secondary infection Work at homeless shelters, day care centers, prisons Exposure

2018 FP Notebook

9. Vaginal chlorhexidine during labour for preventing maternal and neonatal infections (excluding Group B Streptococcal and HIV). (PubMed)

Vaginal chlorhexidine during labour for preventing maternal and neonatal infections (excluding Group B Streptococcal and HIV). The incidence of chorioamnionitis occurs in between eight and 12 women for every 1000 live births and 96% of cases of chorioamnionitis are due to ascending infection. Following spontaneous vaginal delivery, 1% to 4% of women develop postpartum endometritis. The incidence of neonatal sepsis is 0.5% to 1% of all infants born. Maternal vaginal bacteria are the main agents (...) during labour in reducing maternal and neonatal infections (excluding group B streptococcal and HIV).We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2014), reference lists of retrieved reports and journal letters and editorials.Randomized or quasi-randomized trials comparing chlorhexidine vaginal douching during labour with placebo or other vaginal disinfectant to prevent (reduce) maternal and neonatal infections (excluding group B streptococcal and HIV).Two review

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2014 Cochrane

10. Prevention and Treatment Continuum for Youth at HIV Risk, Acutely Infected and With Established HIV Infection

Prevention and Treatment Continuum for Youth at HIV Risk, Acutely Infected and With Established HIV Infection Prevention and Treatment Continuum for Youth at HIV Risk, Acutely Infected and With Established HIV Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (...) (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Prevention and Treatment Continuum for Youth at HIV Risk, Acutely Infected and With Established HIV Infection The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier

2017 Clinical Trials

11. Assessment of the relative effectiveness and safety of vaginal microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted hiv infection: a network meta-analysis

Assessment of the relative effectiveness and safety of vaginal microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted hiv infection: a network meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content (...) as assessed by Jablonski scale; continuous; Jablonski score. ">Data to be extracted: secondary outcome(s) Example: 1st author, year of publication, language, journal. ">Data to be extracted: other as well as a to meta-analysis of pre-clinical studies are available. Example: A meta‐analysis will be performed for all outcome measures reported in 10 or more articles. For subgroup analysis a minimum of 8 studies per subgroup is required. If meta‐analysis is not possible, data will be reported through

2019 PROSPERO

12. Combination of a Latency-Reversing Agent With a Smac Mimetic Minimizes Secondary HIV-1 Infection in vitro (PubMed)

Combination of a Latency-Reversing Agent With a Smac Mimetic Minimizes Secondary HIV-1 Infection in vitro Latency-reversing agents (LRAs) are considered a potential tool to cure human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, but when they are taken alone, virus production by reactivated cells and subsequent infection will occur. Hence, it is crucial to simultaneously take appropriate measures to prevent such secondary HIV-1 infection. In this regard, a strategy to minimize (...) the production of infectious viruses from LRA-reactivated cells is worth pursuing. Here, we focused on a second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic, birinapant, to induce apoptosis in latent HIV-1-infected cells. When birinapant was administered alone, it only slightly increased the expression of caspase-3. However, in combination with an LRA (e.g., PEP005), it strongly induced the expression of caspase-3 followed by enhanced apoptosis. Importantly, the combination eliminated

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2018 Frontiers in microbiology

13. Intramuscular 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prevent preterm birth among HIV-infected women in Zambia: study protocol of the IPOP randomized trial. (PubMed)

Intramuscular 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prevent preterm birth among HIV-infected women in Zambia: study protocol of the IPOP randomized trial. Each year, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, a global burden borne disproportionately by families in lower-income countries. Maternal HIV infection increases a woman's risk of delivering prematurely, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) may compound this risk. While prenatal progesterone prophylaxis prevents preterm birth among some (...) high-risk women, it is unknown whether HIV-infected women could benefit from this therapy. We are studying the efficacy of progesterone supplementation to reduce the risk of preterm birth among pregnant women with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia.The Improving Pregnancy Outcomes with Progesterone (IPOP) study is a Phase III double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of intramuscular 17-alpha hydroxprogesterone caproate (17P) to prevent preterm birth in HIV-infected women. A total of 800 women

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2019 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

14. Effect of isoniazid preventive therapy on tuberculosis incidence and associated risk factors among HIV infected adults in Tanzania: a retrospective cohort study. (PubMed)

Effect of isoniazid preventive therapy on tuberculosis incidence and associated risk factors among HIV infected adults in Tanzania: a retrospective cohort study. Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in Sub Saharan Africa including Tanzania. Provision of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is one of the public health interventions to reduce the burden of TB among HIV infected persons. However (...) -0.8) and CD4 count above 350 cells/μl (aHR = 0.5, 95% CI; 0.4-0.6) were associated with lower risk of developing TB.Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) has shown to be effective in reducing TB incidence among HIV infected adults in Dar es Salaam. More efforts are needed to increase the provision and coverage of IPT.

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2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

15. HIV-related opportunistic infections

infections (TB and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex ), but may also develop with other OIs. Primary and secondary prophylaxis against OIs is essential in the prevention of an initial or recurrent episode of OIs in HIV-infected patients. Prophylaxis against many OIs can be discontinued for patients who respond to ART and maintain a CD4+ count above the recommended threshold for more than 3 months. However, if the CD4+ count decreases below that threshold, prophylaxis should be resumed. Definition (...) practice and are covered in this topic. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1992 Dec 18;41(RR-17):1-19. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00018871.htm http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1361652?tool=bestpractice.com Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Institutes of Health; HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious

2018 BMJ Best Practice

16. HIV-related opportunistic infections

infections (TB and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex ), but may also develop with other OIs. Primary and secondary prophylaxis against OIs is essential in the prevention of an initial or recurrent episode of OIs in HIV-infected patients. Prophylaxis against many OIs can be discontinued for patients who respond to ART and maintain a CD4+ count above the recommended threshold for more than 3 months. However, if the CD4+ count decreases below that threshold, prophylaxis should be resumed. Definition (...) practice and are covered in this topic. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1992 Dec 18;41(RR-17):1-19. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00018871.htm http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1361652?tool=bestpractice.com Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Institutes of Health; HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious

2018 BMJ Best Practice

17. Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines for treatment of paediatric HIV-1 infection 2015: optimizing health in preparation for adult life

Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines for treatment of paediatric HIV-1 infection 2015: optimizing health in preparation for adult life Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines for treatment of paediatric HIV-1 infection 2015: optimizing health in preparation for adult life ABamford,*ATurkova,*HLyall, CFoster, NKlein, DBastiaans, DBurger, SBernardi, KButler, EChiappini, 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 P Clayden, 9 M Della Negra, 10 V Giacomet, 11 C (...) Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Emma Children’s Hospital Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 24 Imperial College, London, UK and 25 Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK The 2015 Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines provide practical recommendations on the management of HIV-1 infection in children in Europe and are an update to those published in 2009. Aims of treatment have progressed signi?cantly over the last decade, moving far beyond limitation

2018 The Children's HIV Association

18. Standards and Model for Psychological Care for Children and Young People Living with HIV Infection (Summary)

Standards and Model for Psychological Care for Children and Young People Living with HIV Infection (Summary) Summary Psychology Standards 2018 Standards and Model for Psychological Care for Children and Young People Living with HIV Infection (Summary) This summary about effective psychological support in paediatric health care services for children and families with HIV is based on the principles behind the standards for psychological care: a document first produced by Paediatric HIV Psychology (...) of psychological standards of care for adults with HIV infection (BHIVA 2011). Whilst recognising that emotional and psychological support is equally important in the care of children and young people with HIV infection, as it is for adults, developmental and family factors influence the nature and timing of effective approaches. This summary provides a background to the general principles behind the standards of psychological care for children and young people with HIV (CLWH) and their families and introduces

2018 The Children's HIV Association

19. Systematic review and meta-analysis of secondary prophylaxis for prevention of HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis relapse using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (PubMed)

Systematic review and meta-analysis of secondary prophylaxis for prevention of HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis relapse using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. A recent systematic literature and meta-analysis reported relative efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in HIV-infected adults. Here, we estimated relapse rates during secondary prophylaxis with TMP-SMX, and further explored differences in relapse rates prior

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2017 Pathogens and global health

20. A Study to Assess the Efficacy of a Heterologous Prime/Boost Vaccine Regimen of Ad26.Mos4.HIV and Aluminum Phosphate-Adjuvanted Clade C gp140 in Preventing Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) -1 Infection in Women in Sub-Saharan Africa

A Study to Assess the Efficacy of a Heterologous Prime/Boost Vaccine Regimen of Ad26.Mos4.HIV and Aluminum Phosphate-Adjuvanted Clade C gp140 in Preventing Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) -1 Infection in Women in Sub-Saharan Africa A Study to Assess the Efficacy of a Heterologous Prime/Boost Vaccine Regimen of Ad26.Mos4.HIV and Aluminum Phosphate-Adjuvanted Clade C gp140 in Preventing Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) -1 Infection in Women in Sub-Saharan Africa - Full Text View (...) Vaccines & Prevention B.V. Information provided by (Responsible Party): Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V. Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the preventive vaccine efficacy (VE), safety and tolerability of a heterologous prime/boost regimen utilizing Ad26.Mos4.HIV and aluminum-phosphate adjuvanted Clade C gp 140 for the prevention of Human Immuno Virus (HIV) infection in HIV-seronegative women residing in sub-Saharan Africa from

2017 Clinical Trials

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