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Prenatal Vitamin

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1181. Presumptive eligibility for pregnant Medicaid enrollees: its effects on prenatal care and perinatal outcome. (PubMed)

Medicaid in the 6-month period before presumptive eligibility was enacted were compared with those obtained for pregnant women who enrolled in the 6-month period after presumptive eligibility had been in effect for 5 months.Women in the "after" group were 40% more likely to enroll and 30% more likely to obtain prenatal care in the first trimester. They were 300% more likely to fill a prescription for prenatal vitamins in the first trimester and 16% more likely to have begun prenatal care before (...) Presumptive eligibility for pregnant Medicaid enrollees: its effects on prenatal care and perinatal outcome. "Presumptive eligibility" permits pregnant prospective Medicaid enrollees to obtain services during the application period. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of presumptive eligibility on the receipt of prenatal care and the occurrence of low-birthweight births and neonatal, perinatal, and infant mortality.Outcome rates for pregnant women who enrolled in Tennessee

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1994 American Journal of Public Health

1182. Comparing mothers' reports on the content of prenatal care received with recommended national guidelines for care. (PubMed)

Comparing mothers' reports on the content of prenatal care received with recommended national guidelines for care. The Public Health Service's Expert Panel on the Content of Prenatal Care Report in 1989 provided detailed guidelines for the components of each prenatal visit. However, the extent to which women were receiving the recommended care when the guidelines were being formulated has yet to be determined. The 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey results permit an examination (...) of the proportion of women who reported receiving some of the recommended procedures. Women were asked if they received six of the recommended procedures (blood pressure measurement, urine test, blood test, weight and height taken, pelvic examination, and pregnancy history) in the first two visits, and whether they received seven types of advice or counseling (nutrition; vitamin use; smoking, alcohol, and drug use cessation; breastfeeding; and maternal weight gain) any time during their pregnancy. Only 56

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1994 Public Health Reports

1183. Differences in preconceptional and prenatal behaviors in women with intended and unintended pregnancies. (PubMed)

Differences in preconceptional and prenatal behaviors in women with intended and unintended pregnancies. This study examined whether pregnancy intention was associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, use of vitamins, and consumption of caffeinated drinks prior to pregnancy and in early pregnancy.Data from a telephone survey of 7174 pregnant women were analyzed.In comparison with women whose pregnancies were intended, women with unintended pregnancies were more likely to report (...) cigarette smoking and less likely to report daily vitamin use. Women with unintended pregnancies were also less likely to decrease consumption of caffeinated beverages or increase daily vitamin use.Pregnancy intention was associated with health behaviors, prior to pregnancy and in early pregnancy, that may influence pregnancy course and birth outcomes.

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1998 American Journal of Public Health

1184. Iron in prenatal multivitamin/multimineral supplements. Bioavailability. (PubMed)

of iron absorption (in both the fasting and postprandial phases) from three of the four formulations (Stuartnatal Plus, Prenatal 1/1 and Prenate 90) provided the minimal 3.0 mg of supplemental iron per day recommended by the National Academy of Science.The observed differences in iron absorption between prenatal supplements apparently reflect the effects of the various combinations of vitamins, essential minerals and additives. The absolute amount of elemental iron contained in a prenatal multivitamin (...) Iron in prenatal multivitamin/multimineral supplements. Bioavailability. To determine the effect of the differences in the content of essential and nonessential ingredients and of a standardized meal on iron bioavailability from four popular prenatal multivitamin/multimineral supplements.Iron absorption during an eight-hour period following ingestion of a multivitamin/multimineral formulation, both fasting and postprandial, after a standardized meal, was measured in five groups of 20 pregnant

1998 Journal of Reproductive Medicine

1185. Prenatal administration of vitamin A alters pulmonary and plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in the developing mouse (PubMed)

Prenatal administration of vitamin A alters pulmonary and plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in the developing mouse Vitamin A and the retinoids play a unique role in mammalian embryonic and foetal development and are essential for both cellular differentiation and the establishment of normal morphogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a known potent mitogenic factor that plays a key role in lung development and function maintenance. In order to contribute (...) to a better knowledge of the modulating effects of vitamin A in lung development, we investigated the effects of the antenatal administration of vitamin A on VEGF expression in lungs and plasma from foetuses and neonates. Pregnant mice were subjected to subcutaneous administration of vitamin A on the 12th gestational day. The lungs and plasma from foetuses and neonates were collected daily from the 15th gestational day till the day of birth. Our results show that vitamin A modulates VEGF concentrations

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2007 International journal of experimental pathology

1186. Compliance with prenatal vitamins: Patients with morning sickness sometimes find it difficult (PubMed)

Compliance with prenatal vitamins: Patients with morning sickness sometimes find it difficult Many pregnant patients cannot tolerate multivitamins because of morning sickness. Is it the tablet size or the iron content that causes the problems, and what can be done?Recent Motherisk studies have shown both tablet size and high iron content to be associated with lower compliance among women with morning sickness. It does appear that tablet size is more likely to affect compliance. Some new

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2006 Canadian Family Physician

1187. Impact of Prenatal Vitamin/Mineral Supplements on Perinatal Mortality

Impact of Prenatal Vitamin/Mineral Supplements on Perinatal Mortality Impact of Prenatal Vitamin/Mineral Supplements on Perinatal Mortality - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Impact of Prenatal (...) Control and Prevention Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to determine whether a daily prenatal supplement of iron plus folic acid or a daily prenatal supplement with multiple vitamins and minerals given to women from their first prenatal visit through delivery reduces perinatal mortality compared with a daily prenatal supplement of folic acid alone. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Perinatal Mortality Stillbirth Neonatal Mortality

2005 Clinical Trials

1188. Effect of prenatal vitamin supplementation on lower-genital levels of HIV type 1 and interleukin type 1 beta at 36 weeks of gestation. (PubMed)

Effect of prenatal vitamin supplementation on lower-genital levels of HIV type 1 and interleukin type 1 beta at 36 weeks of gestation. Micronutrient status has been associated with shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the lower-genital tract in observational studies. We examined the effect of vitamin supplements on genital HIV-1 shedding and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta ), a cytokine marker of vaginal inflammation and promotion of HIV-1 infection. Consenting HIV-1 (...) results raise concern about the use of vitamin A supplements by HIV-1-infected women. Use of prenatal multivitamin supplements (including vitamins B-complex, C, and E) should be continued despite the lack of effect on HIV-1 transmission because of previously reported positive effects on maternal health and pregnancy outcomes.

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2004 Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

1189. Effects of prenatal vitamins A, E, and C on the hypoplastic hearts of fetal rats with diaphragmatic hernia. (PubMed)

Effects of prenatal vitamins A, E, and C on the hypoplastic hearts of fetal rats with diaphragmatic hernia. Nitrofen induces heart hypoplasia together with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in rats. Intracellular oxidative stress might be one of the mechanisms of action of the teratogen, and vitamin A has been shown to reverse in part these effects when administered simultaneously or shortly after it. This study aims at testing the hypothesis that vitamin A and other antioxidant vitamins (...) , such as E and C, could improve myocardial development even when administered late in gestation, a likely useful period for prenatal medication.Time-mated Sprague-Dawley female rats were exposed to either vehicle (control) or 100 mg of nitrofen (experimental) on day 9.5 of gestation. In 3 additional groups, the animals were exposed to vitamin A (total 15000 IU), vitamin E (total 150 IU), or vitamin C (total 150 IU) on days 16, 17, and 18. The fetuses were recovered on day 21, and randomly selected hearts

2005 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

1190. Vitamin C prevents the effects of prenatal nicotine on pulmonary function in newborn monkeys. (PubMed)

Vitamin C prevents the effects of prenatal nicotine on pulmonary function in newborn monkeys. Smoking during pregnancy leads to decreased pulmonary function and increased respiratory illness in offspring. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that many effects of smoking during pregnancy are mediated by nicotine. We now report that vitamin C supplementation can prevent some of the effects of maternal nicotine exposure on pulmonary function of offspring. Timed-pregnant rhesus monkeys were (...) . Neither nicotine nor nicotine plus vitamin C significantly affected levels of cortisol or cytokines, which have been shown to affect lung development and surfactant expression. Prenatal nicotine exposure significantly decreased levels of elastin content in the lungs of offspring, and these effects were slightly attenuated by vitamin C. These findings suggest that vitamin C supplementation may potentially be clinically useful to limit the deleterious effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy

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2005 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

1191. Prenatal vitamin K1 administration in epileptic women to prevent neonatal hemorrhage: is it effective? (PubMed)

Prenatal vitamin K1 administration in epileptic women to prevent neonatal hemorrhage: is it effective? To summarize current knowledge on whether prenatal prophylactic vitamin K1 administration to epileptic women receiving enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to prevent neonatal hemorrhage is effective.A computerized MEDLINE search was conducted using the terms antiepileptic drug, hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, pregnancy and vitamin K since 1966 to July 2004, limited only to human (...) studies. English-language publications were selected based on their relevance to the clinical effectiveness of administration of oral vitamin K to epileptic women exposed to enzyme-inducing AEDs for prevention of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN).No randomized, controlled trial testing prenatal vitamin K1 administration for reducing the incidence or severity of neonatal hemorrhage was identified. This review summarizes the data from published observational studies.There is inadequate evidence

2006 Journal of Reproductive Medicine

1192. Prenatal vitamin C status is associated with placental apoptosis in normal-term human pregnancies. (PubMed)

Prenatal vitamin C status is associated with placental apoptosis in normal-term human pregnancies. Pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. Deficiencies in antioxidants during pregnancy and placental oxidant-antioxidant imbalance may impair the development of the fetoplacental unit or the eventual offspring. In order to elucidate the association of prenatal status of vitamin C with the oxidative stress and apoptotic activity in normal full-term placentas, we (...) evaluated the content of placental lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and the trophoblast apoptotic index in normal-term human pregnancies. Tissue samples of placentas obtained from 80 normal-term pregnancies were categorized into 40 cases with a lower level of prenatal vitamin C (< 8.997 microg/ml) and 40 cases with a higher level of prenatal vitamin C (> or =11.734 microg/ml). We evaluated the placental LOX-1 content and the trophoblast apoptotic index with Western blot

2007 Placenta

1193. Effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on primate brain development and attempted amelioration with supplemental choline or vitamin C: neurotransmitter receptors, cell signaling and cell development biomarkers in fetal brain regions of rhesus monkeys. (PubMed)

Effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on primate brain development and attempted amelioration with supplemental choline or vitamin C: neurotransmitter receptors, cell signaling and cell development biomarkers in fetal brain regions of rhesus monkeys. Studies in developing rodents indicate that nicotine is a neuroteratogen that disrupts brain development by stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that control neural cell replication and differentiation. We administered nicotine (...) in combination with nicotine, choline protected some regions from damage but worsened nicotine's effects in other regions. Similarly, Vitamin C supplementation had mixed effects, increasing nAChR responses while providing protection from cell damage in the caudate, the brain region most susceptible to oxidative stress. Our results indicate that nicotine elicits neurodevelopmental damage that is highly selective for different brain regions, and that dietary supplements ordinarily thought to be neuroprotectant

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2005 Neuropsychopharmacology

1194. Prenatal vitamin A deficiency causes laryngeal malformation in rats. (PubMed)

Prenatal vitamin A deficiency causes laryngeal malformation in rats. Our previous research demonstrated that vitamin A might be related to vocal fold development. The purpose of this study was to determine whether vitamin A deficiency affects prenatal laryngeal development in rats.Two considerations were necessary in designing a study using a rat model: for embryonic survival, vitamin A is necessary through day 10 of gestation, and laryngeal formation occurs primarily after day 11. Thus, we (...) created a rat model that developed vitamin A deficiency after embryonic day 11. Ten pregnant rats (5 vitamin A-deficient rats and 5 control rats) were studied. Embryos were collected at embryonic day 18.5 and analyzed histologically.Eighteen percent of the vitamin A-deficient embryos were alive and demonstrated laryngotracheal cartilage malformation, incomplete separation of the glottis, and/or laryngoesophageal clefts.These results document the important role played by vitamin A in laryngeal

2007 Rhinology and Laryngology

1195. Controlled Trial of Prenatal Vitamin D3 Supplementation to Prevent Vitamin D Deficiency in Mothers and Their Infants

Controlled Trial of Prenatal Vitamin D3 Supplementation to Prevent Vitamin D Deficiency in Mothers and Their Infants Controlled Trial of Prenatal Vitamin D3 Supplementation to Prevent Vitamin D Deficiency in Mothers and Their Infants - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number (...) of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Controlled Trial of Prenatal Vitamin D3 Supplementation to Prevent Vitamin D Deficiency in Mothers and Their Infants The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00610688 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted

2007 Clinical Trials

1196. Folate and vitamin B12 status of women in Newfoundland at their first prenatal visit (PubMed)

Folate and vitamin B12 status of women in Newfoundland at their first prenatal visit Newfoundland has one of the highest rates of neural tube defects in North America. Given the association between low maternal folic acid levels and neural tube defects, a cross-sectional study was conducted to obtain base-line data on the folate and vitamin B12 status of a sample of women in Newfoundland who were pregnant.Blood samples were collected between August 1996 and July 1997 from 1424 pregnant women (...) in Newfoundland during the first prenatal visit (at approximately 16 weeks' gestation); this represented approximately 25% of the women in Newfoundland who were pregnant during this period. The samples were analysed for serum folate, vitamin B12, red blood cell folate and homocysteine.Median values for serum folate, red blood cell folate and serum vitamin B12 were 25 nmol/L, 650 nmol/L and 180 pmol/L, respectively. On the basis of the interpretive criteria used for red blood cell folate status, 157 (11.0

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2000 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

1197. Blood glucose rise following prenatal vitamins in gestational diabetes. (PubMed)

Blood glucose rise following prenatal vitamins in gestational diabetes. Optimal outcome of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is directly related to glucose control of the mother. If prenatal vitamins cause a large glycemic excursion, then the best prenatal vitamin would be one that produces the lowest blood glucose. Nine GDM women participated in two, 8-day test periods. Each subject ingested one of six prenatal vitamin-mineral preparations, a placebo, or a sucrose capsule, in random order (...) . Blood glucose was determined by the One Touch System at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. The sucrose capsule contained 1 g sucrose (equivalent to highest glucose/carbohydrate content of any prenatal vitamin). The placebo contained 1 g table salt in the same color capsule. Relative glycemic index (RGI, defined as the area under glucose curve for the test substance divided by the area under glucose curve for 1 g sucrose) and maximum rise of blood glucose above time 0 were calculated for each preparation. RGI

1993 Journal of the American College of Nutrition

1198. A placebo-controlled comparative trial of various prenatal vitamin formulations in pregnant women. (PubMed)

A placebo-controlled comparative trial of various prenatal vitamin formulations in pregnant women. The iron-delivery characteristics of three commercially available prenatal vitamin-mineral supplements were studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over comparison in 40 low-risk women during their second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Each formulation was ingested immediately after a standardized meal. The serum iron concentration was measured at one, three, and six hours after (...) administration. With two of the supplements (Stuart-natal 1 + 1 and Stuart Prenatal tablets), the mean serum iron level at six hours was significantly higher than the mean level at three hours. In contrast, Materna gave the same mean serum level at three hours and at six hours. Calculations of the mean total number of milligrams of iron absorbed after a single dose were 5.7 for Stuart Prenatal, 5.2 for Stuartnatal 1 + 1, and 4.4 for Materna. The results from this study indicate that Stuartnatal 1 + 1, when

1984 Clinical therapeutics

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