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Prenatal Vitamin

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101. Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency

women who take a prenatal vitamin and a calcium supplement with vitamin D remain at high risk for vitamin D deficiency ( – ). Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency The major source of vitamin D for children and adults is exposure to natural sunlight ( , , – ). Very few foods naturally contain or are fortified with vitamin D. Thus, the major cause of vitamin D deficiency is inadequate exposure to sunlight ( – , ). Wearing a sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 30 reduces vitamin D synthesis in the skin (...) at the time of birth, despite the fact that during pregnancy, the mothers ingested about 600 IU/d of vitamin D from a prenatal supplement and consumption of two glasses of milk. Infants depend on either sunlight exposure or dietary vitamin D to meet their requirement from birth. Human breast milk and unfortified cow's milk have very little vitamin D ( ). Thus, infants who are fed only human breast milk are prone to developing vitamin D deficiency, especially during the winter when neither they nor

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2011 The Endocrine Society

102. Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy for reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV

transmission of HIV. 1.Vitamin A – administration and dosage. 2.Vitamin A deficiency – complications. 3.Pregnancy. 4.Disease transmission, Vertical – prevention and control. 5.HIV infections – prevention and control. 6.Prenatal nutrition. 7.Guidelines. I.World Health Organization. ISBN 978 92 4 150180 4 (NLM classification: WD 110) © World Health Organization 2011 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization are available on the WHO web site (www.who.int) or can be purchased from WHO (...) Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy for reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV Guideline: Vitamin A supplementation in pregnancy for reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV ii Vitamin A supplementation in pregnancy for reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV WHO | Guideline Suggested citation WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Guideline: vitamin A supplementation in pregnancy for reducing the risk of mother-to-child

2011 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

103. Vitamin K in Prenatal Prevention and Postnatal Treatment of Haemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn (PubMed)

Vitamin K in Prenatal Prevention and Postnatal Treatment of Haemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn 21032171 2011 03 30 2018 11 13 0003-9888 15 82 1940 Archives of disease in childhood Arch. Dis. Child. Vitamin K in Prenatal Prevention and Postnatal Treatment of Haemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn. 97-102 Kugelmass I N IN eng Journal Article England Arch Dis Child 0372434 0003-9888 2010 10 30 6 0 1940 1 1 0 0 1940 1 1 0 1 ppublish 21032171 PMC1987724 Biochem J. 1936 Jun;30(6):1075-9 16746121

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1940 Archives of Disease in Childhood

104. Racial disparities in cord blood vitamin D levels and its association with small-for-gestational-age infants (PubMed)

race, Medicaid status, mean body mass index at delivery and lack of prenatal vitamin use were associated with vitamin D deficiency. Black infants had 3.6 greater adjusted odds (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.4, 5.6) of vitamin D deficiency when compared with white infants. Black infants with vitamin D deficiency had 2.4 greater adjusted odds (95% CI: 1.0, 5.8) of SGA. Vitamin D deficiency was not significantly associated with SGA in white infants.Identification of risk factors (black race (...) , Medicaid status, obesity and lack of prenatal vitamin use) can lead to opportunities for targeted prenatal vitamin supplementation to reduce the risk of neonatal vitamin D deficiency and SGA status.

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2016 Journal of Perinatology

105. Maternal Vitamin D Level Is Associated with Viral Toll-Like Receptor Triggered IL-10 Response but Not the Risk of Infectious Diseases in Infancy (PubMed)

Maternal Vitamin D Level Is Associated with Viral Toll-Like Receptor Triggered IL-10 Response but Not the Risk of Infectious Diseases in Infancy Reports on the effect of prenatal vitamin D status on fetal immune development and infectious diseases in childhood are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of maternal and cord blood vitamin D level in TLR-related innate immunity and its effect on infectious outcome. Maternal and cord blood 25 (OH)D level were examined from 372 (...) maternal-neonatal pairs and their correlation with TLR-triggered TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 response at birth was assessed. Clinical outcomes related to infection at 12 months of age were also evaluated. The result showed that 75% of the pregnant mothers and 75.8% of the neonates were vitamin deficient. There was a high correlation between maternal and cord 25(OH)D levels (r = 0.67, p < 0.001). Maternal vitamin D level was inversely correlated with IL-10 response to TLR3 (p = 0.004) and TLR7-8 stimulation

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2016 Mediators of inflammation

106. A Randomized Control Trial of Vitamin D Prophylaxis in the Prevention of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

to their patients. As such, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has called for high quality studies to address whether the use of Vitamin D supplementation beyond that found in prenatal vitamins is beneficial. In an effort to elucidate the potential benefit of Vitamin D supplementation in an unscreened population, the investigators propose conducting a randomized control trial in which Vitamin D prophylaxis is provided to a cohort of pregnant women regardless of their Vitamin D (...) links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: related topics: available for: resources: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: Vitamin D Prophylaxis Participants will be provided Vitamin D 3000 IU daily or Vitamin D 4000 IU daily with and without concurrent use of prenatal vitamins, respectively. Drug: Vitamin D3 Vitamin D prophylaxis Other Name: Vitamin D No Intervention: No Vitamin D Prophylaxis Participants will not receive additional Vitamin D

2016 Clinical Trials

107. Prevalence and Consequences of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women in Switzerland

Inselspital, Berne Collaborator: Significantis GmbH Information provided by (Responsible Party): University Hospital Inselspital, Berne Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the population of pregnant women receiving prenatal care and giving birth at the investigators' clinic. The further purposes are to identify the population at risk for vitamin D deficiency and to analyse whether vitamin D deficiency (...) provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: available for: Groups and Cohorts Go to Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [ Time Frame: Between the 1th and the 36th week of pregnancy ] Number of patients with vitamin D deficiency after testing of vitamin D blood level at admission for prenatal care in our clinic Secondary Outcome Measures : BMI as a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency [ Time Frame: Between the 1th and the 36th week

2016 Clinical Trials

108. BMI-based Vitamins in Obese Pregnant Women

Medical Center Information provided by (Responsible Party): Sarbattama Sen, Brigham and Women's Hospital Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to devise and pilot a BMI-based prenatal vitamin for obese pregnant women. Currently, all pregnant women, regardless of body mass index, take the same prenatal vitamin. The investigators have found that obese pregnant women have higher levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, and a concomitant depletion (...) of specific antioxidant micronutrients. The investigators have also found, in an animal model, that decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress during obese pregnancy was associated with improved offspring outcomes. Here the investigators aim to understand whether a BMI-based prenatal vitamin is effective in decreasing markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in pregnancies complicated by obesity. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Obesity Dietary Supplement: BMI-based prenatal vitamin

2016 Clinical Trials

109. The Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Post-Partum Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Resistance in Gestational Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (PubMed)

The Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Post-Partum Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Resistance in Gestational Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in many observational studies.We report the first study of the impact of prenatal vitamin D supplementation on postpartum dysglycemia in GDM patients in a randomized clinical trial.Women with GDM at 12 - 32 weeks of gestation were assigned randomly (...) to either the intervention group (in which serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25OHD] levels were measured immediately, n = 48) or the control group (in which the serum was stored and assayed at 6 - 12 weeks post-partum, n = 48). Participants with initial serum 25OHD < 30 ng/mL in the intervention group were instructed to take a total of 700,000 IU vitamin D3 during pregnancy. The primary outcomes were fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, 2-h post 75 g glucose load plasma glucose (2-hPLG), homeostasis model

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2016 International journal of endocrinology and metabolism

110. Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation to prevent acute respiratory infections in infancy in Dhaka, Bangladesh (MDARI trial): protocol for a prospective cohort study nested within a randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

 IU/week from 2nd trimester to delivery plus placebo from 0-6 months postpartum; or, 28,000 IU/week prenatal and until 6-months postpartum. In the Maternal Vitamin D for ARI in Infancy (MDARI) sub-study nested within the MDIG trial, trained personnel conduct weekly postnatal home visits to inquire about ARI symptoms and conduct a standardized clinical assessment. Supplementary home visits between surveillance visits are conducted when caregivers make phone notifications of new infant symptoms. Mid (...) of age, the incidence of microbiologically-confirmed viral ARI will be significantly lower in infants whose mothers received high-dose prenatal/postpartum vitamin D supplements versus placebo. Secondary outcomes include incidence of ARI associated with specific pathogens (influenza A or B, RSV), clinical ARI, and density of pneumococcal carriage.If shown to reduce the risk of viral ARI in infancy, integration of maternal prenatal/postpartum vitamin D supplementation into antenatal care programs

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2016 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

111. Factors Influencing the Infant Gut Microbiome at Age 3-6 months: Findings from the ethnically diverse Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART). (PubMed)

Factors Influencing the Infant Gut Microbiome at Age 3-6 months: Findings from the ethnically diverse Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART). The gut microbiome in infancy influences immune system maturation, and may have an important impact on allergic disease risk.We sought to determine how prenatal and early life factors impact the gut microbiome in a relatively large, ethnically diverse study population of infants at age 3 to 6 months, who were enrolled in Vitamin D Antenatal (...) Asthma Reduction Trial, a clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy to prevent asthma and allergies in offspring.We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on 333 infants' stool samples. Microbial diversity was computed using the Shannon index. Factor analysis applied to the top 25 most abundant taxa revealed 4 underlying bacterial coabundance groups; the first dominated by Firmicutes (Lachnospiraceae/Clostridiales), the second by Proteobacteria (Klebsiella/Enterobacter), the third

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2016 Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

112. Vitamin D, pre-eclampsia, and preterm birth among pregnancies at high risk for pre-eclampsia: an analysis of data from a low-dose aspirin trial. (PubMed)

Vitamin D, pre-eclampsia, and preterm birth among pregnancies at high risk for pre-eclampsia: an analysis of data from a low-dose aspirin trial. To examine the relation between maternal vitamin D status and risk of pre-eclampsia and preterm birth in women at high risk for pre-eclampsia.Analysis of prospectively collected data and blood samples from a trial of prenatal low-dose aspirin.Thirteen sites across the USA.Women at high risk for pre-eclampsia.We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D (...) ] concentrations in stored maternal serum samples drawn at 12-26 weeks' gestation (n = 822). We used mixed effects models to examine the association between 25(OH)D and risk of pre-eclampsia and preterm birth, controlling for confounders including prepregnancy BMI and race.Pre-eclampsia and preterm birth.Twelve percent of women were vitamin D deficient [25(OH)D <30 nmol/l]. Women with 25(OH)D <30 versus ≥75 nmol/l had a 2.4-fold (95% CI 1.0-5.6) higher risk of early-onset pre-eclampsia (<35 weeks' gestation

2016 BJOG

113. Effect of vitamin D replacement on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a randomised controlled trial in pregnant women with hypovitaminosis D. A protocol. (PubMed)

Effect of vitamin D replacement on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a randomised controlled trial in pregnant women with hypovitaminosis D. A protocol. The vitamin D recommended doses during pregnancy differ between societies. The WHO guidelines do not recommend routine prenatal supplementation, but they underscore the fact that women with the lowest levels may benefit most. The effects of routine supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal clinical outcomes have not been (...) investigated in the Middle East, where hypovitaminosis D is prevalent. Our hypothesis is that in Middle Eastern pregnant women, a vitamin D dose of 3000 IU/day is required to reach a desirable maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level, and to positively impact infant bone mineral content (BMC).This is a multicentre blinded randomised controlled trial. Pregnant women presenting to the Obstetrics and Gynaecology clinics will be approached. Eligible women will be randomised to daily equivalent doses

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2016 BMJ open

114. Effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on serum cholecalciferol concentrations in pregnant women. (PubMed)

-study of a completed randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 (35,000 IU/week) supplementation in late pregnancy (AViDD trial) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study included pregnant women enrolled at 26-29 weeks gestation who fully adhered to the prenatal supplement intervention for ≥8 consecutive weeks and for whom serum samples were available for D3 analysis (n=65). Serum D3 was uniformly low at enrolment. Mean D3 increased and was maximal at 1 day after vitamin D dose (...) Effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on serum cholecalciferol concentrations in pregnant women. Vitamin D status is conventionally defined by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, it has been proposed that the serum cholecalciferol concentration (D3) also determines functional vitamin D sufficiency. The objective of this study was to describe the effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on inter-dose serum D3 in pregnant women. We conducted a sub

2016 The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology

115. Prevalence and influence factors of vitamin A deficiency of Chinese pregnant women (PubMed)

Prevalence and influence factors of vitamin A deficiency of Chinese pregnant women Vitamin A plays an important role in the periods of rapid cellular growth and differentiation, especially during pregnancy, which is supplied by the mother to the fetus. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and potential influence factors of prenatal VAD of Chinese pregnant women.China National Nutrition and Health Survey 2010-2013(CHNNS2010-2013) is a nationally representative cross-sectional study

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2016 Nutrition journal

116. Maternal-Cord Blood Vitamin D Correlations Vary by Maternal Levels (PubMed)

Maternal-Cord Blood Vitamin D Correlations Vary by Maternal Levels Vitamin D levels of pregnant women and their neonates tend to be related; however, it is unknown whether there are any subgroups in which they are not related. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured in prenatal maternal and child cord blood samples of participants (n = 241 pairs) in a birth cohort. Spearman correlations were examined within subgroups defined by prenatal and delivery factors. Cord blood as a percentage (...) of prenatal 25(OH)D level was calculated and characteristics compared between those who did and did not have ≥25% and ≥50% of the maternal level and those who did and did not have a detectable 25(OH)D level. The correlation among Black children was lower than in White children. When the maternal 25(OH)D level was <15 ng/mL, the overall correlation was r = 0.16. Most children had a 25(OH)D cord blood level less than half of their mother's; 15.4% had a level that was <25% of their mother's. Winter birth

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2016 Journal of pregnancy

117. Calcium-vitamin D & Periodontal Therapy for Improving Metabolic and Inflammatory Profile Among Pregnant Women

, as necessary throughout pregnancy, up to delivery Other Name: Early non-surgical periodontal therapy Dietary Supplement: Fortified Milk participants will be advised to take two servings of a powdered milk-based drink enriched with calcium and vitamin D daily during breakfast and afternoon snack or supper to avoid concomitant intake of the prenatal iron supplements routinely prescribed for consumption with hot main meals (e.g. lunch or dinner). Women will be advised to consume 20 g of commercially available (...) until after delivery. Other Name: Delayed non-surgical periodontal therapy Dietary Supplement: Fortified Milk participants will be advised to take two servings of a powdered milk-based drink enriched with calcium and vitamin D daily during breakfast and afternoon snack or supper to avoid concomitant intake of the prenatal iron supplements routinely prescribed for consumption with hot main meals (e.g. lunch or dinner). Women will be advised to consume 20 g of commercially available semi-skimmed milk

2016 Clinical Trials

118. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on perinatal depression: in Iranian pregnant mothers. (PubMed)

A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on perinatal depression: in Iranian pregnant mothers. Mood disorders in pregnancy and post-partum period are common and considered as a public health issue. Researchers have studied the relationship between low serum vitamin D concentration and perinatal depression, although no clinical trial has been conducted on vitamin D's effects on depression related to childbirth. This study evaluated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation (...) on perinatal depression scores.This randomized clinical trial was done in pregnant women who were under prenatal care in a teaching hospital in Shiraz, Iran. The inclusion criteria were: being 18 years or older, no history of mental illness and internal diseases, a singleton live fetus, without any pregnancy complications, gestational age of 26-28 weeks upon enrollment, and depression score of 0 to 13. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale was used to evaluate depression scores. A total of 169

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2016 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

119. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review. (PubMed)

The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review. Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May (...) 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers

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2016 Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)

120. Mineral- and vitamin-enhanced micronutrient powder reduces stunting in full-term low-birth-weight infants receiving nutrition, health, and hygiene education: a 2 × 2 factorial, cluster-randomized trial in Bangladesh. (PubMed)

Mineral- and vitamin-enhanced micronutrient powder reduces stunting in full-term low-birth-weight infants receiving nutrition, health, and hygiene education: a 2 × 2 factorial, cluster-randomized trial in Bangladesh. The causes of stunting are complex but likely include prenatal effects, inadequate postnatal nutrient intake, and recurrent infections. Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants are at high risk of stunting. More than 25% of live births in low- and middle-income countries are at full term (...) with low birth weight (FT-LBW). Evidence on the efficacy of specific interventions to enhance growth in this vulnerable group remains scant.We investigated the independent and combined effects of a directed use of a water-based hand sanitizer (HS) and a mineral- and vitamin-enhanced micronutrient powder (MNP) (22 minerals and vitamins) to prevent infections and improve nutrient intake to reduce stunting in FT-LBW infants.The study was a prospective 2 × 2 factorial, cluster-randomized trial in 467 FT

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2016 The American journal of clinical nutrition

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