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Premature Rupture of Membranes

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2541. Short-term outcomes in low birth weight infants following antenatal exposure to betamethasone versus dexamethasone. (Abstract)

(mothers and infants) were the same in both groups, with the exception of the number of steroid courses administered, the number of women with premature rupture of membranes (defined as > 24 hours), and the number of women who had received tocolysis. No significant difference was found between the 2 groups with respect to intraventricular hemorrhage and cystic PVL frequencies. No significant differences were found in the incidence of short-term outcomes examined, despite the fact that the dexamethasone (...) treatment. We compared brain ultrasound findings, such as intraventricular hemorrhage and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), as well as other clinical findings, including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, for all premature infants whose mothers received either dexamethasone (from January 1, 1999 to June 30, 2000, n = 263) or betamethasone (July 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001, n = 287).Patient characteristics

2004 Obstetrics and Gynecology

2542. Nulliparity and duration of pregnancy in multiple gestation. (Abstract)

preterm birth and/or midtrimester loss. There were no differences between groups in the likelihood of delivering before 20, 24, or 28 weeks. In linear regression analysis, ongoing fetal number (P <.001), premature rupture of membranes (PROM; P <.001), cerclage (P =.002), and death of 1 or more fetuses (P <.001) were associated with shorter gestation. Cesarean delivery was associated with longer gestation (P <.001). Nulliparous women were significantly more likely to have a pregnancy complicated

2004 Obstetrics and Gynecology

2543. Threatened abortion: A risk factor for poor pregnancy outcome, a population-based screening study. (Abstract)

). Heavy vaginal bleeding subjects were more likely to have intrauterine growth restriction (odds ratio, 2.6), preterm delivery (odds ratio, 3.0), preterm premature rupture of membranes (odds ratio, 3.2), and placental abruption (odds ratio, 3.6).First-trimester vaginal bleeding is an independent risk factor for adverse obstetric outcome that is directly proportional to the amount of bleeding. (...) patients: 14,160 patients without bleeding, 2094 patients with light bleeding, and 252 patients with heavy bleeding. Patients with vaginal bleeding, light or heavy, were more likely to experience a spontaneous loss before 24 weeks of gestation (odds ratio, 2.5 and 4.2, respectively) and cesarean delivery (odds ratio, 1.1 and 1.4, respectively). Light bleeding subjects were more likely to have preeclampsia (odds ratio, 1.5), preterm delivery (odds ratio, 1.3), and placental abruption (odds ratio, 1.6

2004 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

2544. Targeted prenatal herpes simplex virus testing: can we identify women at risk of transmission to the neonate? (Abstract)

rupture of membranes were also associated with neonatal disease; using all risk factors identifiable at delivery would require screening 60% of pregnancies and identifying 84% of cases.Targeted HSV testing would miss a substantial proportion of neonatal herpes. (...) matched to cases by year of birth.Ninety-one neonatal HSV cases were identified (8.4/100,000 live births). Risk factors for infection included maternal age younger than 25 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3) and paternal age younger than 20 years or unknown (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.7-3.7). Testing couples with either risk factor would require testing 36% of couples and could potentially prevent up to 60% of cases. Maternal history of genital herpes, fever during labor, and premature

2006 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

2545. Comparative study of perinatal outcome of dichorionic and trichorionic iatrogenic triplets. (Abstract)

between January 1986 and December 2000. Perinatal and neonatal data were evaluated in relation to chorionicity and intertriplet birth weight discordance.The dichorionic triamniotic triplets have an 8-fold higher risk of perinatal death than trichorionic triamniotic gestations (odds ratio, 7.9; 95% CI, 4.4-14.0; P < .001). This is attributed to a higher risk of very low birth weight (P < .01), delivery at < 30 weeks of gestation (P < .001), and premature rupture of membrane (P < .001) in dichorionic (...) triamniotic triplets compared with trichorionic triamniotic pregnancies. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (odds ratio, 11.5; 95% CI, 4.8-27.7; P < .001), delivery at < 30 weeks of gestation (odds ratio, 40.5; 95% CI, 16.9-97; P < .01), premature rupture of membrane (odds ratio, 6.7; 95% CI, 3.8-11.9; P < .01), and nulliparity (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6-6.1; P < .05) had independent effects on perinatal loss rate.The dichorionic triplets have an 8 times higher perinatal mortality rate than trichorionic

2006 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

2546. Differential expression of immune system-related components in midtrimester amniotic fluid from singleton and twin pregnancies. (Abstract)

heat shock protein, leukemia inhibitory factor, migration inhibitory factor-related protein 8, and migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14 were highest in amniotic fluid from singletons (P < .001).Elevated levels of immune activators may contribute to the increased rate of preterm premature rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm birth in twin populations.

2005 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

2547. Incidence and impact of perioperative complications in 175 fetoscopy-guided laser coagulations of chorionic plate anastomoses in fetofetal transfusion syndrome before 26 weeks of gestation. (Abstract)

procedures were performed percutaneously with the use of local anesthesia. Survival at 6 months of at least 1, 1, and 2 babies was 73%, 38%, and 35%, respectively. Placental abruption and miscarriage was diagnosed in 3 and 12 cases, respectively. Premature rupture of membranes occurred in 49 cases (28%) and including 12, 29, and 46 cases that occurred before 24, 28, and 34 weeks of gestation, respectively. The entry of the trocar was transplacental in 48 cases (27%), but it was not associated (...) with miscarriage (P = .26), premature rupture of membranes (P = .58), or placental abruption (P = .37).Fetoscopic laser treatment of fetofetal transfusion syndrome can be performed percutaneously with local anesthesia without significant maternal morbidity. Transplacental entry was not associated with premature rupture of membranes or miscarriage.

2005 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

2548. Obstetric outcomes after surgical abortion at > or = 20 weeks' gestation. (Abstract)

pregnancy outcomes were reviewed. Student t test, Fisher exact test, and Mann-Whitney U were used where appropriate.One hundred and twenty pregnancies in 89 women were identified. Thirteen (10.8%) ended with early miscarriage, and 5 were electively terminated. Of the remaining 102 pregnancies, 7 ended with spontaneous preterm birth. Those who experienced preterm birth were more likely to have undergone abortion due to cervical dilation and/or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) (27.3% vs 4.4 (...) Obstetric outcomes after surgical abortion at > or = 20 weeks' gestation. The purpose of this study was to describe obstetric outcomes after surgical abortion at > or = 20 weeks, and to identify risk factors for subsequent spontaneous preterm birth.Patients who had surgical abortion at > or = 20 weeks' gestation from 1996 to 2003 and received subsequent prenatal care at The New York Weill Cornell Medical Center were identified. Indication for abortion, operative technique, and subsequent

2005 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

2549. Periviable birth at 20 to 26 weeks of gestation: proximate causes, previous obstetric history and recurrence risk. (Abstract)

% of the women had previous term deliveries only. Causes of periviable birth were labor (36%), premature rupture of membranes (34%), bleeding (10%), and preeclampsia (4%). Four percent of the gestations were multiple gestations. Among 7970 pregnancies at >20 weeks of gestation, periviable birth in the first pregnancy was associated with preterm birth and periviable birth in the second pregnancy (35.6%, 6.9%; relative risk, 3.3 and 8.6; P < .0001). Periviable birth and preterm birth in the first pregnancy (...) Periviable birth at 20 to 26 weeks of gestation: proximate causes, previous obstetric history and recurrence risk. Early preterm birth at 20 to 26 weeks of gestation (periviable birth) carries extreme risks of infant death and morbidities. Prevention of periviable birth could improve infant outcomes significantly. We sought to characterize the causes of periviable birth and to determine whether periviable birth can be predicted by previous pregnancy outcome.We evaluated 104,921 pregnancies

2005 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

2550. Pre-emptive placement of a presealant for amniotic access. (Abstract)

Pre-emptive placement of a presealant for amniotic access. Amniotic access for fetal diagnosis and therapy can lead to membrane leaks, separation, and preterm premature rupture of membranes. Morbidity limits the beneficial effects of fetal intervention. We propose to examine a novel preventive "presealant" membrane puncture technique and evaluate it in vitro.Fetal membranes from normal term deliveries were fastened to a pressure controlled pump and punctured after presealant placement. Distinct (...) bioadhesives were then compared for sealing efficacy by the measurement of leak pressures. Membranes were also evaluated for changes in tensile rupture strength after treatment.Preemptive sealing by 2 of the presealants achieved significantly higher leak pressures compared with control membranes (85 and 78, respectively, vs 27 cm of water; P < .05). One of the presealants worked effectively in a membrane-sealant-membrane interface (62 vs 30 cm of water; P < .05). All treated membranes, however

2005 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

2551. Perinatal outcome of spontaneously conceived triplet pregnancies in relation to chorionicity. (Abstract)

triamniotic triplets have a higher risk of delivery at < 30 weeks of gestation (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.6-11.8; P < .05) and birth weight of < 1000 g (odds ratio, 53.6; 95% CI, 17.5-164; P < .05) than those of trichorionic triamniotic pregnancies. The neonatal morbidity in terms of respiratory distress syndrome (P < .001), anemia (P < .01), and intraventricular hemorrhage (P < .001) were higher in dichorionic triamniotic compared with trichorionic triamniotic triplets. The premature rupture of membrane (...) (odds ratio, 7.5; 95% CI, 3.5-15.7) and twin-twin transfusion syndrome (odds ratio, 14.9; 95% CI, 6.6-4) were independent risk factors for perinatal death.In spontaneously conceived triplets, the incidence of dichorionicity was 44%. The dichorionic triamniotic triplets have a 5.5-fold higher risk of adverse perinatal outcome predominantly because of twin-twin transfusion syndrome and premature rupture of membranes.

2005 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

2552. Risk factors for antepartum and intrapartum stillbirth: a population-based study. (Abstract)

, but not African Americans. BMI < or = 18.5 kg/m2 was associated with antepartum and intrapartum stillbirth among African Americans, but not whites. The presence of any congenital anomaly, abruption, and cord complications were associated with antepartum stillbirth in both races. Premature rupture of membranes was associated with intrapartum stillbirth among whites and African Americans, but intrapartum fever was associated with intrapartum stillbirth among African Americans. These risk factors were implicated (...) estimated to examine the impact of risk factors on stillbirth. Among African Americans, risks of antepartum and intrapartum stillbirth were 5.6 and 1.1 per 1,000 singleton births, respectively; risks among whites were 3.4 and 0.5 per 1,000 births, respectively. Maternal age > or = 35 years, lack of prenatal care, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m2, and prior preterm or small-for-gestational age birth were significantly associated with increased risk for antepartum stillbirth among whites

2007 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

2553. First-trimester bleeding and pregnancy outcome in singletons after assisted reproduction. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-trimester and third-trimester bleeding, preterm contraction rates, pregnancy duration, birthweight, Caesarean section rates, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (P-PROM), neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and perinatal mortality-were compared in the groups with and without first-trimester bleeding.Significantly more singleton pregnancies resulted from a vanishing twin in the group with first-trimester bleeding (8.7%) than in the controls (4.0 (...) %). A correlation was found between the incidence of first-trimester bleeding and the number of embryos transferred. First-trimester bleeding led to increased second-trimester [odds ratio (OR)=4.56; confidence interval (CI)=2.76-7.56] and third-trimester bleeding rates (OR=2.85; CI=1.42-5.73), P-PROM (OR=2.44; CI=1.38-4.31), preterm contractions (OR=2.27; CI=1.48-3.47) and NICU admissions (OR=1.75; CI=1.21-2.54). First-trimester bleeding increased the risk for preterm birth (OR=1.64; CI=1.05-2.55) and extreme

2006 Human Reproduction

2554. Genital herpes simplex virus infection and perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. (Abstract)

infant. In univariate analyses, HIV-infected pregnant women with clinical diagnosis of genital HSV infection during pregnancy had a significantly increased risk of perinatal HIV transmission (odds ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 1.3-9.3; P = .02). When other factors associated with perinatal HIV transmission were included in a logistic regression model (lack of zidovudine therapy during pregnancy or delivery, prolonged rupture of membranes, and preterm delivery), clinical diagnosis of genital HSV

2005 Obstetrics and Gynecology

2555. Early access to prenatal care: implications for racial disparity in perinatal mortality. (Abstract)

for this analysis. The timing of perinatal loss was assessed. The following intervals were evaluated: fetal demise at less than 24 weeks of gestation, fetal demise at 24 or more weeks of gestation, and neonatal demise. Perinatal mortality was defined as the sum of these three intervals.The study population was 5% black, 22% Hispanic, 68% white, and 5% other. All minority races experienced higher rates of intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, preterm premature rupture of membranes, gestational diabetes (...) , placenta previa, preterm birth, very-preterm birth, cesarean delivery, light vaginal bleeding, and heavy vaginal bleeding compared with the white population. Overall perinatal mortality was 13 per 1,000 (471/35,529). The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for perinatal mortality (utilizing the white population as the referent race) were: black 3.5 (2.5-4.9), Hispanic 1.5 (1.2-2.1), and other 1.9 (1.3-2.8).Racial disparities in perinatal mortality persist in contemporary obstetric practice

2006 Obstetrics and Gynecology

2556. Threatened miscarriage as a predictor of obstetric outcome. (Abstract)

confirmation of viability in the threatened miscarriage group, was 9.3%. Compared with controls, women presenting with threatened miscarriage were more likely to deliver prematurely, 5.6% compared with 11.9%, respectively, (relative risk 2.29, 95% confidence interval 1.4-4.6), and this was most likely to be between 34 and 37 weeks. They were also more likely to have preterm prelabor rupture of membranes, 1.9% compared with 7%, respectively, (relative risk 3.72, 95% confidence interval 1.2-11.2). Overall (...) , there was no difference in mean birth weight and in the incidence of other obstetric complications between the 2 groups; however, women in the threatened miscarriage group were more likely to deliver neonates between 1,501 g and 2,000 g (P = .04).Women with threatened miscarriage in the first trimester are at increased risk of premature delivery, and this risk factor should be taken into consideration when deciding upon antenatal surveillance and management of their pregnancies.II-0.

2006 Obstetrics and Gynecology

2557. Obstetric outcomes in women with sonographically identified uterine leiomyomata. (Abstract)

presentation (AOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.11-2.40), malposition (AOR 1.59, 95% CI 1.18-2.15), preterm delivery (AOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.08-1.96), placenta previa (AOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.02-3.39), and severe postpartum hemorrhage (AOR 2.57, 95% CI 1.54-4.27). Premature rupture of membranes, operative vaginal delivery, chorioamnionitis, and endomyometritis were not associated with leiomyomata. Median length of labor was not different between the 2 groups. When compared with leiomyomata less than 10 cm in size, leiomyomata 10 (...) cm or larger were associated with rates of cesarean delivery that were not statistically different (25% compared with 31%, P = .49).Pregnant women with leiomyomata are at increased risk for cesarean delivery, breech presentation, malposition, preterm delivery, placenta previa, and severe post partum hemorrhage. Women with leiomyomata 10 cm or larger achieve a vaginal delivery rate of nearly 70%. These results are useful for preconception and prenatal counseling of women with leiomyomata.II-2.

2006 Obstetrics and Gynecology

2558. Perinatal outcome associated with sonographically detected globular placenta. (Abstract)

of the placenta normalized spontaneously, and perinatal outcome was good. The other 7 experienced poor perinatal outcomes. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups. Among pregnancies in which the globular placental appearance persisted, 3 resulted in fetal demise; 3 women had severe intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios and underwent cesarean deliveries at 26, 27 and 31 weeks, respectively; and 1 patient had premature preterm rupture of membranes and underwent a cesarean

2006 Journal of Reproductive Medicine

2559. Pregnancy in a woman with a continent appendicovesicostomy: a case report. (Abstract)

and neurogenic bladder had a pregnancy complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor, breech presentation and cesarean delivery with the assistance of a urologist. The patient had a minimal decline in renal function, and she and the infant did well.Cesarean delivery should be reserved for obstetric indications. Surgical assistance by a urologist at the time of cesarean delivery may be helpful.

2006 Journal of Reproductive Medicine

2560. Selective feticide in complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies using ultrasound-guided bipolar cord coagulation. (Abstract)

(TTTS) after laser treatment or serial amniodrainage (n= 22). The procedure resulted in six intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD, 13%), with a rate of 41% and 3% when performed at 16-17 weeks or later, respectively (Fisher P= 0.002). Preterm rupture of the membranes (PROM) before 28 weeks and between 28 and 34 weeks occurred in 9% and 14% of the cases, respectively. All neonatal deaths (four) occurred in cases with PROM at 28 weeks or earlier. Paediatric follow up showed that all infants discharged alive (...) but one were neurologically normal at 3-42 months, which corresponds to 70% of the 46 cases.This technique is effective when the natural history is likely to severely affect the development of the normal co-twin. The overall intact survival rate was 70% and our results support justification of later surgery. Prematurity remains a significant complication of the procedure.

2005 BJOG

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