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Pre-Test Odds

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1. Pre-Test Odds

Pre-Test Odds Pre-Test Odds Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Pre-Test Odds Pre-Test Odds Aka: Pre-Test Odds , Post-Test (...) Odds , Pre-Test Probability , Post-Test Probability From Related Chapters II. Evaluation Calculation Odds = P (disease) / (1 - P(disease)) Pre-Test Odds = (Have condition) / (Do not have condition) Post-Test Odds = (Pre-Test Odds) x ( ) Example Positive Test Disease Y Present in 75 Disease Y NOT Present in 25 Negative Test Disease Y Present in 10 Disease Y NOT Present in 190 Odds Pre-Test Odds = (Have condition) / (Do not have condition) = (75 + 10)/(25+190) = 0.4 = P(positive test | disease) / P

2018 FP Notebook

2. Point of care tests to exclude pre-term labour: Quantitative Fetal Fibronectin (fFN) testing for predicting pre-term labour

and negative likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratio and the area under the curve (AUC) and Q statistic estimated from the SROC curves. The values reported for fFN, ph-IGFBP1- and TVCL were all fairly consistent and high in terms of the sensitivity and specificity of the tests, with the exception of fFN testing amongst women carrying twins to predict pre-term birth at 34 weeks gestation) or amongst women at high risk of preterm delivery. This issue was addressed in the applicant’s pre-ESC response. Table (...) Point of care tests to exclude pre-term labour: Quantitative Fetal Fibronectin (fFN) testing for predicting pre-term labour App Applic Date o Context at www 1. An appl (fFn) te the Dep fee that version A relate Factor B from Al and con 2. After co effectiv support clinical MSAC verifica but also 3. MSAC cervicov plication Quantita cant: of MSAC c t for decisio w.msac.gov. Purpose o lication req ests for exclu partment of t could be us of the fFN ed applicatio Binding Pro lere Pty Ltd nsidered

2014 Medical Services Advisory Committee

3. Comments on 'Likelihood ratio and score tests to test the non-inferiority (or equivalence) of the odds ratio in a crossover study with binary outcomes'. (PubMed)

Comments on 'Likelihood ratio and score tests to test the non-inferiority (or equivalence) of the odds ratio in a crossover study with binary outcomes'. 27917554 2018 05 17 2018 12 02 1097-0258 36 1 2017 01 15 Statistics in medicine Stat Med Comments on 'Likelihood ratio and score tests to test the non-inferiority (or equivalence) of the odds ratio in a crossover study with binary outcomes'. 197-198 10.1002/sim.7086 Lui Kung-Jong KJ Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State (...) University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA, 92182-7720, U.S.A. eng Letter Comment England Stat Med 8215016 0277-6715 IM Stat Med. 2016 Sep 10;35(20):3471-81 27095359 Cross-Over Studies Humans Odds Ratio Sample Size Therapeutic Equivalency 2016 06 28 2016 07 26 2016 08 03 2016 12 6 6 0 2016 12 6 6 0 2018 5 18 6 0 ppublish 27917554 10.1002/sim.7086

2018 Statistics in medicine

4. Comments on 'Test non-inferiority (and equivalence) based on the odds ratio under a simple crossover trial'. (PubMed)

Comments on 'Test non-inferiority (and equivalence) based on the odds ratio under a simple crossover trial'. 27264023 2018 04 23 2018 12 02 1097-0258 35 16 2016 07 20 Statistics in medicine Stat Med Comments on 'Test non-inferiority (and equivalence) based on the odds ratio under a simple crossover trial'. 2845-6 10.1002/sim.6855 Lui Kung-Jong KJ Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, 92182-7720, USA. eng Letter Comment England Stat Med 8215016 0277 (...) -6715 IM Stat Med. 2011 May 20;30(11):1230-42 21538451 Cross-Over Studies Humans Odds Ratio Sample Size Therapeutic Equivalency 2015 09 28 2015 12 01 2016 6 7 6 0 2016 6 7 6 0 2018 4 24 6 0 ppublish 27264023 10.1002/sim.6855

2018 Statistics in medicine

5. Placental growth factor testing to assess women with suspected pre-eclampsia: a multicentre, pragmatic, stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled trial. (Full text)

testing group (adjusted odds ratio 0·32, 95% CI 0·11-0·96; p=0·043), but there was no evidence of a difference in perinatal adverse outcomes (15% vs 14%, 1·45, 0·73-2·90) or gestation at delivery (36·6 weeks vs 36·8 weeks; mean difference -0·52, 95% CI -0·63 to 0·73).We found that the availability of PlGF test results substantially reduced the time to clinical confirmation of pre-eclampsia. Where PlGF was implemented, we found a lower incidence of maternal adverse outcomes, consistent with adoption (...) Placental growth factor testing to assess women with suspected pre-eclampsia: a multicentre, pragmatic, stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled trial. Previous prospective cohort studies have shown that angiogenic factors have a high diagnostic accuracy in women with suspected pre-eclampsia, but we remain uncertain of the effectiveness of these tests in a real-world setting. We therefore aimed to determine whether knowledge of the circulating concentration of placental growth factor (PlGF

2019 Lancet PubMed

6. Testing the specificity of executive functioning impairments in adolescents with ADHD, ODD/CD and ASD. (Full text)

Testing the specificity of executive functioning impairments in adolescents with ADHD, ODD/CD and ASD. Current diagnostic systems conceptualise attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as separate diagnoses. However, all three demonstrate executive functioning (EF) impairments. Whether these impairments are trans-diagnostic or disorder-specific remains relatively unexplored. Four groups of 10-16 year-olds (...) [typically developing (TD; N = 43), individuals clinically diagnosed with ADHD (N = 21), ODD/CD (N = 26) and ASD (N = 41)] completed Go/NoGo and Switch tasks. Group differences were tested using analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) including age, IQ, sex, conduct problems and ADHD symptoms as co-variates. Results indicated some disorder-specificity as only the ASD group demonstrated decreased probability of inhibition in the Go/NoGo task compared to all other groups. However, shared impairments were also

2017 European child & adolescent psychiatry PubMed

7. Adaptive testing for multiple traits in a proportional odds model with applications to detect SNP-brain network associations (Full text)

Adaptive testing for multiple traits in a proportional odds model with applications to detect SNP-brain network associations There has been increasing interest in developing more powerful and flexible statistical tests to detect genetic associations with multiple traits, as arising from neuroimaging genetic studies. Most of existing methods treat a single trait or multiple traits as response while treating an SNP as a predictor coded under an additive inheritance mode. In this paper, we follow (...) an earlier approach in treating an SNP as an ordinal response while treating traits as predictors in a proportional odds model (POM). In this way, it is not only easier to handle mixed types of traits, e.g., some quantitative and some binary, but it is also potentially more robust to the commonly adopted additive inheritance mode. More importantly, we develop an adaptive test in a POM so that it can maintain high power across many possible situations. Compared to the existing methods treating multiple

2017 Genetic epidemiology PubMed

8. Likelihood Ratio and Score Tests to Test the Non-inferiority (or Equivalence) of the Odds Ratio in a Crossover Study with Binary Outcomes (Full text)

Likelihood Ratio and Score Tests to Test the Non-inferiority (or Equivalence) of the Odds Ratio in a Crossover Study with Binary Outcomes We consider the non-inferiority (or equivalence) test of the odds ratio (OR) in a crossover study with binary outcomes to evaluate the treatment effects of two drugs. To solve this problem, Lui and Chang (2011) proposed both an asymptotic method and a conditional method based on a random effects logit model. Kenward and Jones (1987) proposed a likelihood (...) ratio test (LRTM ) based on a log linear model. These existing methods are all subject to model misspecification. In this paper, we propose a likelihood ratio test (LRT) and a score test that are independent of model specification. Monte Carlo simulation studies show that, in scenarios considered in this paper, both the LRT and the score test have higher power than the asymptotic and conditional methods for the non-inferiority test; the LRT, score, and asymptotic methods have similar power

2016 Statistics in medicine PubMed

9. Developing and Testing a Personalized, Evidence-Based, Shared Decision-Making Tool for Stent Selection in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Using a Pre-Post Study Design. (PubMed)

Developing and Testing a Personalized, Evidence-Based, Shared Decision-Making Tool for Stent Selection in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Using a Pre-Post Study Design. Background Drug-eluting stents reduce the risk of restenosis in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, but their use necessitates prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy, which increases costs and bleeding risk, and which may delay elective surgeries. While >80% of patients in the United States receive drug (...) preference. Between May 2014 and December 2016, 332 patients not receiving the SDM tool, 113 receiving the SDM tool with coaching, and 136 receiving the tool without coaching were interviewed. Patients receiving the SDM tool + coaching, as compared with usual care, demonstrated higher knowledge scores (mean difference +1.8; P<0.001), reported more frequent participation in SDM (odds ratio=2.96; P<0.001), and were more likely to state a stent preference (odds ratio=2.00; P<0.001). No significant

2019 Circulation. Cardiovascular quality and outcomes

10. The Relative Odds of Progressing by Structural and Functional Tests in Glaucoma. (Full text)

The Relative Odds of Progressing by Structural and Functional Tests in Glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of disease severity and number of tests acquired during follow-up on the relative odds of identifying progression by structural or functional tests in glaucoma.This was an observational cohort study involving 462 eyes of 305 patients with glaucoma and 62 eyes of 49 healthy subjects. Glaucoma patients and healthy subjects were followed for an average of 3.6 ± 0.9 (...) rates of change for each test were obtained from the healthy group. Progression by SD-OCT and/or SAP was determined if the slope of change was statistically significant and also lower (faster) than the fifth percentile cutoff calculated from the healthy group. A generalized estimating equation logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relative odds of progressing by OCT versus SAP in glaucoma eyes.Eyes with less severe disease at baseline had a higher chance of being detected as progressing

2016 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science PubMed

11. MiRNA-146a polymorphism increases the odds of malaria in pregnancy. (Full text)

MiRNA-146a polymorphism increases the odds of malaria in pregnancy. Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy is a major cause of poor maternal health, adverse foetal outcome and infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic disposition is involved in susceptibility to malaria in pregnancy and its manifestation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) influence gene regulation including that of innate immune responses. A miRNA-146a rs2910164 G > C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been associated (...) with increased risks of several diseases, but no data as to malaria are available.The association between miRNA-146a rs2910164 and P. falciparum infection among 509 Ghanaian women attending antenatal care (ANC) and 296 delivering Ghanaian primiparae was investigated. Malaria parasites were diagnosed by microscopy and PCR. Leukocyte-associated hemozoin in placental samples was recorded as well. Proportions were compared between groups by Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression models were used to adjust

2019 Malaria journal PubMed

12. Unhealthy blood fat profile linked to greater odds of having only one or no kids

Unhealthy blood fat profile linked to greater odds of having only one or no kids Unhealthy blood fat profile linked to greater odds of having only one or no kids | BMJ Open by Findings might explain previously observed link between lower fertility and heart disease, say researchers published in the online journal . The findings might explain the previously observed association between lower fertility and heart disease, suggest the Norwegian researchers. Several studies have found higher rates (...) and the number of subsequent births. Women with an ‘unhealthy’ blood fat profile of high LDL (‘bad’) cholesterol, triglycerides, and a high triglyceride to HDL (‘good’) ratio, as well as low levels of HDL cholesterol, measured years before they conceived, were 20 to 100 percent more likely to be pregnant only once. High levels of LDL and total cholesterol were also associated with greater odds of having no children, as were overweight and obesity. But compared with women who had had two or more pregnancies

2018 BMJ Open Blog

13. Association Between Helicobacter pylori Exposure and Decreased Odds of Eosinophilic Esophagitis-a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (PubMed)

searched 4 large databases to identify comparative clinical studies that included sufficient detail to determine the odds or risk of EoE (primary outcome) or esophageal eosinophilia (secondary outcome) among individuals exposed to H pylori (exposed) vs individuals who were tested and found to be unexposed. Estimates were pooled using a random-effects model. Meta-regression and sensitivity analyses were planned a priori. Studies were evaluated for quality, risk of bias, publication bias (...) Association Between Helicobacter pylori Exposure and Decreased Odds of Eosinophilic Esophagitis-a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Previous or current infection with Helicobacter pylori (exposure) has been reported to protect against eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), perhaps due to H pylori-induced immunomodulation. However, findings vary. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies to more clearly define the association between H pylori exposure and EoE.We

2019 Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

14. Reduced Incidence of Hepatic Encephalopathy and Higher Odds of Resolution Associated With Eradication of HCV Infection. (PubMed)

Reduced Incidence of Hepatic Encephalopathy and Higher Odds of Resolution Associated With Eradication of HCV Infection. It is unclear whether a sustained virologic response (SVR) to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy reduces the risk of incident hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or whether it leads to resolution of pre-existent HE.We identified 71,457 patients who initiated antiviral treatments in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System from (...) January 1, 1999 through December 31, 2015; 35,871 patients (58%) received only interferon, 4535 patients (7.2%) received DAAs plus interferon, and 21,948 patients received (35%) DAA-only regimens. We collected data from patients through October 31, 2018, for an average of 6.6 years. We evaluated the association between SVR and the development of incident HE or the resolution of pre-existent HE (defined by cessation of pharmacotherapy) as well as the risk of hospitalization with HE for each, after

2019 Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

15. Guidelines on Diabetes, Pre-Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD (Full text)

-centred care 46 12.1 General aspects 46 13 ‘What to do’ and ‘what not to do’ messages from the Guidelines 48 14 Appendix 51 15 References 52 Recommendations Recommendations for the diagnosis of disorders of glucose metabolism 12 Recommendations for the use of laboratory, electrocardiogram, and imaging testing for cardiovascular risk assessment in asymptomatic patients with diabetes 16 Recommendations for lifestyle modifications for patients with diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes 18 Recommendations (...) of Cardiology; GLP1-RA = glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist; HF = heart failure; PAD = peripheral arterial disease; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; RCT = randomized controlled trial. 4 Diagnosis of diabetes and pre-diabetes Key messages DM should be investigated using fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is necessary to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Individuals with established CVD should be screened using HbA1c

2019 European Society of Cardiology PubMed

16. Genetic Variants in pre-miR-146a, pre-miR-499, pre-miR-125a, pre-miR-605, and pri-miR-182 Are Associated with Breast Cancer Susceptibility in a South American Population (Full text)

genotyped in 440 Chilean BRCA1/2-negative BC cases and 1048 controls. Our data do not support an association between rs2910164:G>C or rs3746444:A>G and BC risk. The rs12975333:G>T is monomorphic in the Chilean population. The pre-miR-605 rs2043556-C allele was associated with a decreased risk of BC, both in patients with a strong family history of BC and in early-onset non-familial BC (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4⁻0.9] p = 0.006 and OR = 0.6 [95% CI 0.5⁻0.9] p = 0.02 (...) Genetic Variants in pre-miR-146a, pre-miR-499, pre-miR-125a, pre-miR-605, and pri-miR-182 Are Associated with Breast Cancer Susceptibility in a South American Population Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most frequent tumors affecting women worldwide. microRNAs (miRNAs) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) likely contribute to BC susceptibility. We evaluated the association of five SNPs with BC risk in non-carriers of the BRCA1/2-mutation from a South American population. The SNPs were

2018 Genes PubMed

17. Cohort study: Prenatal and postnatal exposure to parental smoking increases odds of allergic diseases during childhood and adolescence

Text Aetiology/Harm Cohort study Prenatal and postnatal exposure to parental smoking increases odds of allergic diseases during childhood and adolescence Laura von Kobyletzki 1 , Åke Svensson 2 Statistics from Altmetric.com Commentary on : Thacher JD , Gruzieva O , Pershagen G , et al . Pre- and postnatal exposure to parental smoking and allergic disease through adolescence . . Context Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure has been proposed to be a risk factor for allergic diseases. Some studies (...) Cohort study: Prenatal and postnatal exposure to parental smoking increases odds of allergic diseases during childhood and adolescence Prenatal and postnatal exposure to parental smoking increases odds of allergic diseases during childhood and adolescence | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our

2015 Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)

18. Celiac Disease in Brazilian First-Degree Relatives: The Odds are Five Times Greater for HLA DQ2 Homozygous. (PubMed)

Celiac Disease in Brazilian First-Degree Relatives: The Odds are Five Times Greater for HLA DQ2 Homozygous. First degree relatives (FDR) of 47 outpatients with celiac disease (CD) answered a questionnaire about symptoms related to CD and were investigated for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2, DQB1*02 homozygosis and DQ8 alleles. Genetically susceptible individuals were tested for anti-transglutaminase antibody IgA. Seropositives FDR underwent small bowel biopsies.From 114 FDR, 74.5% (n = 85 (...) ) were positive for DQ2, DQ8, or both haplotypes. Homozygosity of DQB1*02 was found in 11.4% (n = 13) individuals. Three FDR were previously diagnosed with CD. Among the genetically susceptible individuals, 67.1% had at least one symptom related to CD. Seropositivity was 8/82 (9.8%), and 4/8 biopsies were compatible with CD. Therefore, the total number of FDR with CD was 6,1% (7/114), 95% CI (1.71, 10.49). Three out of seven FDR with CD were HLA DQB1*02 homozygous. The odds of being CD is five times

2018 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

19. A Mental Odd-Even Continuum Account: Some Numbers May Be “More Odd” Than Others and Some Numbers May Be “More Even” Than Others (Full text)

. In this manuscript, we wish to test the alternative account that cognitively, parity is represented in a more gradual manner such that some numbers are represented as "more odd" or "more even" than other odd or even numbers, respectively. Specifically, parity processing might be influenced by more specific properties such as whether a number is a prime, a square number, a power of 2, part of a multiplication table, divisible by 4 or by 5, and many others. We suggest that these properties can influence (...) the psychologically represented parity of a number, making it more or less prototypical for odd- or evenness. In the present study, we tested the influence of these numerical properties in a bimanual parity judgment task with auditorily presented two-digit numbers. Additionally, we further investigated the interaction of these numerical properties with linguistic factors in three language groups (English, German, and Polish). Results show significant effects on reaction times of the congruity of parity status

2018 Frontiers in psychology PubMed

20. Differences in rates and odds for emergency caesarean section in six Palestinian hospitals: a population-based birth cohort study. (Full text)

in sociodemographic and antenatal obstetric characteristics by hospital, χ2 test, analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied. Logistic regression was used to estimate differences in odds for emergency caesarean section, and ORs with 95% CIs were assessed.The primary outcome was the adjusted ORs of emergency caesarean section among singleton pregnancies for five Palestinian hospitals as compared with the reference (Hospital 1).The prevalence of emergency caesarean section varied across hospitals (...) Differences in rates and odds for emergency caesarean section in six Palestinian hospitals: a population-based birth cohort study. To assess the differences in rates and odds for emergency caesarean section among singleton pregnancies in six governmental Palestinian hospitals.A prospective population-based birth cohort study.Obstetric departments in six governmental Palestinian hospitals.32 321 women scheduled to deliver vaginally from 1 March 2015 until 29 February 2016.To assess differences

2018 BMJ open PubMed

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