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Pre-Test Odds

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1. Pre-Test Odds

Pre-Test Odds Pre-Test Odds Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Pre-Test Odds Pre-Test Odds Aka: Pre-Test Odds , Post-Test (...) Odds , Pre-Test Probability , Post-Test Probability From Related Chapters II. Evaluation Calculation Odds = P (disease) / (1 - P(disease)) Pre-Test Odds = (Have condition) / (Do not have condition) Post-Test Odds = (Pre-Test Odds) x ( ) Example Positive Test Disease Y Present in 75 Disease Y NOT Present in 25 Negative Test Disease Y Present in 10 Disease Y NOT Present in 190 Odds Pre-Test Odds = (Have condition) / (Do not have condition) = (75 + 10)/(25+190) = 0.4 = P(positive test | disease) / P

2018 FP Notebook

2. Maternal group B Streptococcus recto vaginal colonization increases the odds of stillbirth: evidence from Eastern Ethiopia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in Eastern Ethiopia.A health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 1688 pregnant women who came for delivery service in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia between June to October in 2016. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and checklist (which utilize clinical record). Group B streptococcus positivity of the pregnant women was confirmed by culture of recto vaginal swab using selective media. The association between GBS colonization and stillbirth was examined (...) Maternal group B Streptococcus recto vaginal colonization increases the odds of stillbirth: evidence from Eastern Ethiopia. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes a significant number of stillbirths. Despite this, there is little documented information on the association between stillbirth and pregnant women's GBS recto vaginal colonization in Sub Saharan Africa. As such, this study was aimed at identifying the association between stillbirth and pregnant women's GBS recto vaginal colonization

2018 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

3. Pre-Test Odds

Pre-Test Odds Pre-Test Odds Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Pre-Test Odds Pre-Test Odds Aka: Pre-Test Odds , Post-Test (...) Odds , Pre-Test Probability , Post-Test Probability From Related Chapters II. Evaluation Calculation Odds = P (disease) / (1 - P(disease)) Pre-Test Odds = (Have condition) / (Do not have condition) Post-Test Odds = (Pre-Test Odds) x ( ) Example Positive Test Disease Y Present in 75 Disease Y NOT Present in 25 Negative Test Disease Y Present in 10 Disease Y NOT Present in 190 Odds Pre-Test Odds = (Have condition) / (Do not have condition) = (75 + 10)/(25+190) = 0.4 = P(positive test | disease) / P

2015 FP Notebook

6. Effectiveness of interventions to manage acute malnutrition in children under five years of age in low- and middle-income countries Full Text available with Trip Pro

regarding eligibility for studies where eligibility was unclear. 4.3.2 Data extraction and management Two review authors independently extracted data on a predefined and pretested data extraction sheet. We extracted the following information, where available, from relevant studies and any discrepancies were resolved by group discussion. Study method: Study dates Location (country, urban/rural) Study design Method of recruitment Study context and settings Participants: Sample size Age Gender

2020 Campbell Collaboration

7. Evidence from Primary Studies and Systematic Reviews and Recommendations from Clinical Practice Guidelines July to December 2018

. Combination of positron emission tomography/computed tomography and chest thin-layer high-resolution computed tomography for evaluation of pulmonary nodules: Correlation with imaging features, maximum standardized uptake value, and pathology. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Aug;97(31):e11640. 56. Evangelista L, Cuocolo A, Pace L, Mansi L, Del Vecchio S, Miletto P, et al. Performance of FDG-PET/CT in solitary pulmonary nodule based on pre-test likelihood of malignancy: results from the ITALIAN retrospective

2019 Cancer Care Ontario

8. Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism Full Text available with Trip Pro

of clinical (pre-test) probability 12 4.3 Avoiding overuse of diagnostic tests for pulmonary embolism 13 4.4 D-dimer testing 13 4.4.1 Age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs 13 4.4.2 D-dimer cut-offs adapted to clinical probability 13 4.4.3 Point-of-care D-dimer assays 13 4.5 Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography 13 4.6 Lung scintigraphy 14 4.7 Pulmonary angiography 15 4.8 Magnetic resonance angiography 15 4.9 Echocardiography 15 4.10 Compression ultrasonography 16 4.12 Computed tomography venography 18 5 (...) normalized ratio IU International units i.v Intravenous IVC Inferior vena cava LA Left atrium LMWH Low-molecular weight heparin(s) LV Left ventricle/ventricular MRA Magnetic resonance angiography NCT National clinical trial NOAC(s) Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant(s) NT-proBNP N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide NYHA New York Heart Association OBRI Outpatient Bleeding Risk Index o.d Omni die (once a day) OR Odds ratio PAH Pulmonary arterial hypertension PAP Pulmonary artery pressure PE

2019 European Society of Cardiology

9. Evidence for smoking quitlines

37 NHMRC level IV: Case series with post-test or pre-test/post-test outcomes 41 6 Quality assessment of evidence 48 Review Question 1 – key components 48 Evidence Base [A rating] 48 Consistency [B rating] 48 Clinical impact [C rating] 48 Generalisability [B rating] 49 Applicability [B rating] 49 Review question 2 – barriers and facilitators 50 Evidence Base [B rating] 50 Consistency [C rating] 50 Clinical impact [C rating] 50 Generalisability [B rating] 50 Applicability [B rating] 50 7 Analysis (...) be classified according to the NHMRC level of evidence, including: systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials, pseudo-randomised controlled trials, comparative studies with concurrent controls, comparative studies without concurrent controls, case series with either post-test or pre-test/post-test outcomes. Participants and interventions: Studies were included if they were conducted with any participants recruited from within a quitline service, used data from quitline

2019 Sax Institute Evidence Check

11. Pregnancy and Renal Disease

. If they have abnormal renal function, the pre-test counselling for combined screening using blood markers should include discussion of a potentially increased false positive rate as the multiple of the median may be increased for beta human chorionic gonadotrophin, though not for pregnancy associated plasma protein-A. (6) Other screening options such as the non-invasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA, either as a first line or subsequent to combined screening, currently depend upon local (...) (see sections 4.4.5 and 4.4.6), and in conditions where an increase in proteinuria may represent disease flare or progression. Proteinuria in early pregnancy also predicts adverse fetal and maternal outcomes in women with CKD. The Torino-Cagliari Observational Study compared obstetric and renal outcomes in 504 women with CKD with 836 women without CKD. Proteinuria (>1g/24h) was an independent risk factor for preterm birth before 37 weeks’ gestation (odds Ratio (OR) 3.65; 95% confidence interval (CI

2019 Renal Association

13. The impact of location on implementation of HIV/STI prevention interventions among LGBTQ communities

with population HIV prevention needs and the implementing agency; 3) Preparation, which includes building agency capacity and pre-testing the adapted intervention with the target population; 4) Piloting, which includes developing an implementation plan; and finally 5) Implementation (4, 27). As part of this process, researchers conducted 112 interviews with local HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men, as well as their friends, partners, relatives, and providers. Data from field observations (...) , researchers have begun to explore barriers and facilitators that LGBTQ individuals encounter when accessing HIV services (8). Some research has found that the distance to transit, care providers, and pharmacies may act as a barrier to engagement and retention in HIV care, as well as adherence to HIV treatment (9, 10). A cross-sectional survey of 1,170 gay and bisexual men who have sex with men also found that participants living in rural areas had increased odds of never testing for HIV compared to those

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

16. Do evidence summaries increase health policy?makers' use of evidence from systematic reviews? A systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

and grey literature searching were screened independently, in duplicate by two members of the research team using Covidence software. Data extraction and management The data extraction form was pretested, and included factors related to the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes. Data extraction was completed by two authors independently using a structured Excel sheet. Disagreements were resolved by discussion and with a third member of the research team when necessary. Data were extracted (...) , tables Email Summary of Findings table Graded entry format included a summary and interpretation of main findings and conclusions, a contextually framed narrative report, and Summary of Findings table No differences between groups in the odds of correct responses to key clinical questions. Both packs B and C improved understanding. Pack C compared to pack A was associated with a significantly higher mean ‘value and accessibility’ score. Pack C compared to pack A, was associated with a 1.5 higher odds

2018 Campbell Collaboration

17. Police?initiated diversion for youth to prevent future delinquent behavior: a systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

for this review was the odds ratio. Odds ratios were computed from any available information such as proportions, percentages, raw frequencies, chi‐square and marginal distributions, etc. In the case of quasi‐experimental designs with statistical adjustments for baseline differences, the regression coefficient from a logistic regression model was coded as the logged odds ratio along with the reported standard error. Effect sizes based on scaled measures of delinquency were computed as d ‐type effect sizes (...) and then converted to odds ratios using the logit transformation method (Lipsey and Wilson, 2001). All effect size computations used established equations as implemented in the online effect size calculator available on the Campbell website. Assessment of heterogeneity In place of the traditional ‐statistic, heterogeneity was assessed using τ 2 , which is the random effects variance component used in random effects models. We did not report Q because we used the robust standard errors method of analysis

2018 Campbell Collaboration

18. School?based interventions for reducing disciplinary school exclusion: a systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

quasi‐experimental studies (defined as studies using a comparison group, pre‐post testing and a statistical matching approach). To be eligible for inclusion, we stated that manuscripts must clearly report the method used to ensure equivalence between treatment and control groups, taking into account major risk factors (e.g. behavioural measures) and demographic characteristics. 4 Studies reporting a large difference between the treatment and control group at pretest were said to be excluded (...) as they would not help in distinguishing intervention effects from other effects. The protocol also stated that quasi‐experimental studies based on one group pretest and post‐test designs or one group post‐test‐only designs should be excluded from the review. In this review, we only present results from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). There were three reasons for our decision: 1. First, even though a number of quasi‐experimental studies initially fulfilling our inclusion criteria were found by our

2018 Campbell Collaboration

19. Guidance on the clinical management of anxiety disorders, specifically focusing on diagnosis and treatment strategies

: Historical control study Two or more single-arm studies Interrupted time series without a parallel control group IV Case series with either post-test or pre-test/post-test outcomes Source: National Health and Medical Research Council (2009). First published in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2018, Vol. 52(12) 1109-1172.Andrews et al. 1115 Working group members also identified relevant repli- cated RCTs (level II evidence) that were not included in systematic reviews. Data analysis

2018 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists

20. Service models for children under 10 with problematic sexual behaviours

control study; two or more single-arm studies; interrupted time series without a parallel control group) • Level IV: Case series with either post-test only, or pre-test/post-test outcomes. To facilitate the NHMRC evidence grading, and to provide additional commentary on the methodological quality of the evidence base, the reviewers incorporated quality assessment items into the data extraction templates used for eligible studies. Included studies Eight articles met criteria for inclusion (...) waiting for treatment to commence was used as a comparison Included (also cited in meta-analysis by St Amand, Bard and Silovsky [2008], see below) Level III-3 Predictors of group treatment outcomes for child sexual abuse: An investigation of the role of demographic and abuse characteristics Hiller, Springer, Misurell, Kranzler and Rizvi 35 2016 Pre-test, post-test. No follow-up. No comparison group Included Level IV The sexualised behaviour (under tens) program evaluation report Cleland 37 2013

2018 Sax Institute Evidence Check

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