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Potassium Replacement

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161. Inhibition of A-Type Potassium Current by the Peptide Toxin SNX-482 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inhibition of A-Type Potassium Current by the Peptide Toxin SNX-482 SNX-482, a peptide toxin isolated from tarantula venom, has become widely used as an inhibitor of Cav2.3 voltage-gated calcium channels. Unexpectedly, we found that SNX-482 dramatically reduced the A-type potassium current in acutely dissociated dopamine neurons from mouse substantia nigra pars compacta. The inhibition persisted when calcium was replaced by cobalt, showing that it was not secondary to a reduction of calcium

2014 The Journal of Neuroscience

162. Using 15N-Ammonium to Characterise and Map Potassium Binding Sites in Proteins by NMR Spectroscopy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Using 15N-Ammonium to Characterise and Map Potassium Binding Sites in Proteins by NMR Spectroscopy A variety of enzymes are activated by the binding of potassium ions. The potassium binding sites of these enzymes are very specific, but ammonium ions can often replace potassium ions in vitro because of their similar ionic radii. In these cases, ammonium can be used as a proxy for potassium to characterise potassium binding sites in enzymes: the (1) H,(15) N spin-pair of enzyme-bound (15) NH4 (...) (+) can be probed by (15) N-edited heteronuclear NMR experiments. Here, we demonstrate the use of NMR spectroscopy to characterise binding of ammonium ions to two different enzymes: human histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8), which is activated allosterically by potassium, and the bacterial Hsp70 homologue DnaK, for which potassium is an integral part of the active site. Ammonium activates both enzymes in a similar way to potassium, thus supporting this non-invasive approach. Furthermore, we present

2014 Chembiochem

163. Comparison of Enteral versus Intravenous Potassium Supplementation in hypokalaemia in postcardiac surgery paediatric cardiac intensive care patients: prospective open label randomised control trial (EIPS). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of Enteral versus Intravenous Potassium Supplementation in hypokalaemia in postcardiac surgery paediatric cardiac intensive care patients: prospective open label randomised control trial (EIPS). Hypokalaemia is frequently encountered in the daily clinical practices of a paediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU). It is a strong independent predictor of mortality in patients with heart failure. Thus, prompt potassium replacement therapy holds pivotal importance in therapy (...) for hypokalaemia. Although intravenous potassium replacement (IVPR) in hypokalaemia is the preferred route in most intensive care settings, it is associated with known safety risks and can lead to arrhythmias, cardiac arrest and death if inappropriately administered. Enteral potassium replacement (EPR), with its superior safety profile, may be a better alternative to IVPR.Primary outcome To compare the efficacy EPR and IVPR for treatment of hypokalaemia. Secondary outcome measures include a comparison

2014 BMJ open Controlled trial quality: uncertain

164. Role for Germline Mutations and a Rare Coding Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Within the KCNJ5 Potassium Channel in a Large Cohort of Sporadic Cases of Primary Aldosteronism. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Role for Germline Mutations and a Rare Coding Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Within the KCNJ5 Potassium Channel in a Large Cohort of Sporadic Cases of Primary Aldosteronism. Primary aldosteronism (autonomous aldosterone production with suppressed renin) plays an important pathophysiological role in what has been previously labeled as essential hypertension. Besides the recently described germline mutations in the KCNJ5 potassium channel associated with familial primary aldosteronism, somatic (...) nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs7102584 causing E282Q substitution of KCNJ5. By expressing the channels in Xenopus oocytes and human adrenal H295R cells, we have shown that the R52H, E246K, and E282Q substitutions are functional, but the G247R mutation is indistinguishable from wild type. Although the functional substitutions are remote from the selectivity filter, they affect the inward-rectification, the ability of the KCNJ5 channels to conduct Na(+) currents and ATII-induced aldosterone

2014 Hypertension

165. Replacement of the axoplasm of giant nerve fibres with artificial solutions Full Text available with Trip Pro

Replacement of the axoplasm of giant nerve fibres with artificial solutions 13969166 1998 11 01 2018 12 01 0022-3751 164 1962 Nov The Journal of physiology J. Physiol. (Lond.) Replacement of the axoplasm of giant nerve fibres with artificial solutions. 330-54 BAKER P F PF HODGKIN A L AL SHAW T I TI eng Journal Article England J Physiol 0266262 0022-3751 0 Isotonic Solutions RWP5GA015D Potassium OM Axons Cytoplasm Isotonic Solutions Nerve Fibers Potassium AXONS ISOTONIC SOLUTIONS POTASSIUM

1962 The Journal of physiology

166. Effects of Replacement of External Sodium Chloride with Sucrose on Membrane Currents of the Squid Giant Axon Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Replacement of External Sodium Chloride with Sucrose on Membrane Currents of the Squid Giant Axon It was observed that a reduction of the sodium chloride concentration in the external solution bathing a squid giant axon by replacement with sucrose resulted in marked decreases in the peak inward and steady-state outward currents through the axon membrane following a step decrease in membrane potential. These effects are quantitatively acounted for by the increase in series resistance (...) resulting from the decreased conductivity of the sea water and the assumption that the sodium current obeys a relation of the form I = k(1)C(1) - k(2)C(2) where C(1), C(2) are internal and external ion activities and k(1), k(2) are independent of concentration. It is concluded that the potassium ion current is independent of the sodium concentration. That the inward current is carried by sodium ions has been confirmed. The electrical potential (or barrier height) profile in the membrane which drives

1964 Biophysical journal

167. Limits of non-colloid solution replacement in experimental hemorrhagic shock. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Limits of non-colloid solution replacement in experimental hemorrhagic shock. 6026316 1967 08 03 2018 11 13 0003-4932 165 6 1967 Jun Annals of surgery Ann. Surg. Limits of non-colloid solution replacement in experimental hemorrhagic shock. 977-84 Rush B B Eiseman B B eng Journal Article United States Ann Surg 0372354 0003-4932 0 Blood Proteins 0 Chlorides 0 Isotonic Solutions 142M471B3J Carbon Dioxide 9NEZ333N27 Sodium RWP5GA015D Potassium AIM IM Animals Blood Proteins analysis Blood Volume (...) Determination Carbon Dioxide blood Chlorides blood Dogs Hematocrit Isotonic Solutions therapeutic use Potassium blood Shock, Hemorrhagic drug therapy Sodium blood Splenectomy 1967 6 1 1967 6 1 0 1 1967 6 1 0 0 ppublish 6026316 PMC1617543 Arch Surg. 1964 Apr;88:688-93 14107023 Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1962 Mar;114:276-92 14475645 JAMA. 1966 Feb 14;195(7):545-8 5951852 Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1966 May;122(5):967-78 5933394 Arch Surg. 1966 May;92(5):743-8 5934219 Ann Surg. 1966 Apr;163(4):485-504 5934628 Arch Surg

1967 Annals of Surgery

168. The effect of the replacement of calcium by strontium on excitation-contraction coupling in frog skeletal muscle Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effect of the replacement of calcium by strontium on excitation-contraction coupling in frog skeletal muscle 1. In frog skeletal muscle strontium can replace calcium in potassium contractures for 5 hr, though it is less effective than Ca. Sr can restore the responsiveness to K after it had been lost in the presence of Mn.2. Muscles refractory to caffeine following repeated exposure to it in the absence of Ca, recover in part following addition of Sr.3. The uptake of (85)Sr was increased

1966 The Journal of physiology

169. CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTOPERATIVE ELECTROLYTE AND FLUID REPLACEMENT Full Text available with Trip Pro

CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTOPERATIVE ELECTROLYTE AND FLUID REPLACEMENT The most important postoperative fluid considerations are maintenance of adequate urinary output, of blood volume, and of extracellular and interstitial cell water and electrolytes. Normal urinary output is between 1,000 and 1,500 cc. daily. A fluid intake of 2,000 cc. of 5 per cent dextrose in distilled water, plus 500 cc. of normal saline solution, will insure this amount of urinary output. The use of 5 per cent dextrose (...) solutions in distilled water provides fluid, retards the protein catabolism of the body, and spares electrolytes. Irradiated plasma is the only intravenous solution which will adequately supply protein in amounts to maintain nitrogen equilibrium. Protein hydrolysates in the absence of adequate caloric intake do not provide enough protein for nitrogen balance. The role of the potassium ion is ordinarily not a consideration in postoperative fluid management. It becomes a consideration in the presence

1950 California Medicine

170. Use of isoprenaline as an antiarrhythmic agent after valve replacement surgery. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Use of isoprenaline as an antiarrhythmic agent after valve replacement surgery. 5774039 1969 05 01 2018 11 13 0007-0769 31 1 1969 Jan British heart journal Br Heart J Use of isoprenaline as an antiarrhythmic agent after valve replacement surgery. 83-6 Gunning J F JF Shanahan M X MX Windsor H M HM eng Journal Article England Br Heart J 0370634 0007-0769 0 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents L628TT009W Isoproterenol RWP5GA015D Potassium U42B7VYA4P Chlorpromazine AIM IM Anti-Arrhythmia Agents therapeutic use (...) Chlorpromazine therapeutic use Delirium complications drug therapy Female Heart Valve Diseases surgery Heart Valve Prosthesis Humans Isoproterenol administration & dosage therapeutic use Male Middle Aged Postoperative Complications drug therapy Potassium blood Tachycardia drug therapy Ventricular Fibrillation drug therapy 1969 1 1 1969 1 1 0 1 1969 1 1 0 0 ppublish 5774039 PMC487449 Am Heart J. 1967 Jun;73(6):794-7 6026042 Am J Cardiol. 1959 Mar;3(3):307-13 13626865 Circulation. 1966 Mar;33(3):484-91 5904421

1969 British Heart Journal

171. Gastrointestinal Replacement Solution Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gastrointestinal Replacement Solution The mean sodium concentration of 61 gastrointestinal aspirations in peritonitis was 103 mEq/l. (S.D. 16.66), of 16 aspirations in vagotomy 88 mEq/l. (S.D. 19.49), of 12 aspirations in perforated duodenal ulcer 81 mEq/l. (S.D. 19.49), and of 15 aspirations in intestinal obstruction 89 mEq/l. (S.D. 19.49). The mean potassium concentrations were 9, 9.9, 13, and 8.8 mEq/l. respectively, and the mean chloride concentrations 122, 131, 125, and 112 mEq/l (...) . respectively. It is suggested that a gastrointestinal replacement solution should contain 100 mEq of sodium, 12 mEq of potassium, and 122 mEq of chloride per litre; 50 g. of dextrose or 100 g. of fructose may be added to provide energy.

1970 British medical journal

172. Effects of replacing medium sodium by choline, caesium, or rubidium, on water and ion contents of renal cortical slices Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of replacing medium sodium by choline, caesium, or rubidium, on water and ion contents of renal cortical slices 1. Renal cortical slices from rat, rabbit, and guinea-pig were incubated in media in which choline, caesium or rubidium replaced sodium.2. Slices of rabbit and guinea-pig renal cortex incubated in oxygenated choline Ringer decreased in volume initially and did not swell over 3 hr at 25 degrees C. There was a steady loss of potassium. Inhibition of metabolism (N(2) + 1 mM (...) iodoacetamide) caused some swelling. Ouabain, 10 mM, in choline Ringer affected neither loss of potassium nor tissue water content.3. Slices of rat renal cortex similarly incubated in choline Ringer swelled over 3 hr at 25 degrees C whether or not metabolism was inhibited; ouabain (15 mM) affected neither tissue potassium loss nor tissue water content.4. Incubation in choline Ringer containing either 0.2 mMp-chloromercuribenzoic acid, or 1 mM ethacrynic acid increased the tissue water content of guinea-pig

1977 The Journal of physiology

173. Treatment of Palpitations Due To Benign PVCs: Potassium, Magnesium and Lifestyle Adjustment

as time permits. Another way to supplement potassium is with “salt substitutes” like Nu-salt or Morton’s salt substitute. A brief look into this , however, tells me that it is a very complicated field. The best way to raise potassium levels is by eating foods with good potassium levels which I believe I listed in the post. Pingback: I have no idea if I am having PVCs or not. I’m currently out of the country traveling and these just started 2 week ago. I am a non-smoker, moderate drinker, walk 1 hour (...) Treatment of Palpitations Due To Benign PVCs: Potassium, Magnesium and Lifestyle Adjustment Treatment of Palpitations Due To Benign PVCs: Potassium, Magnesium and Lifestyle Adjustment | The Skeptical Cardiologist Primary Menu Search for: , , Treatment of Palpitations Due To Benign PVCs: Potassium, Magnesium and Lifestyle Adjustment In a , the skeptical cardiologist pontificated on the causes and evaluation of the most common cause of palpitations: premature ventricular contractions or PVCs

2017 The Skeptical Cardiologist

174. Comparison of Enteral Versus Intravenous Potassium Supplementation

levels in milliequivalent/L after potassium replacement) Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Acute Hypokalemia Drug: Intravenous potassium chloride Drug: Oral potassium chloride Phase 4 Detailed Description: Hypokalemia is frequently encountered in daily clinical practices of cardiac intensive care unit (CICU). The development of ventricular arrhythmias related to hypokalemia can lead to sudden cardiac death. Thus, potassium replacement therapy is the cornerstone therapy (...) for hypokalemia.Though intravenous potassium replacement (IVPR) in hypokalemia is the preferred route in most intensive care settings, it is associated with known safety risks. Inappropriately administered, IVPR can lead to arrhythmias, cardiac arrest and death 1, 7, 8. Given these risks, IVPR is considered a "high-alert medication" by Institute of Safe Medication practice. Enteral potassium replacement (EPR), with its superior safety profile may be a better alternative to IVPR. A retrospective review showed

2013 Clinical Trials

175. Adenosine instead of supranormal potassium in cardioplegia: It is safe, efficient, and reduces the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. A randomized clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(hyperkalemic group) or normokalemic cardioplegia in which supranormal potassium was replaced with 1.2 mmol/L adenosine (adenosine group). End points were postoperative release of troponin T and creatine kinase MB, hemodynamics measured by PiCCO arterial thermodilution catheters, perioperative release of markers of endothelial activation and injury, and clinical course.The adenosine group had a significantly shorter time to arrest than did the hyperkalemic group (mean ± standard deviation, 11 ± 5 vs 44 ± 18 (...) Adenosine instead of supranormal potassium in cardioplegia: It is safe, efficient, and reduces the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. A randomized clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a cold crystalloid cardioplegic solution with adenosine (1.2 mmol/L) instead of supranormal potassium.Sixty low-risk patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were randomized to receive standard cold crystalloid hyperkalemic cardioplegia

2013 The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

176. Calcium and potassium systems of a giant barnacle muscle fibre under membrane potential control Full Text available with Trip Pro

Calcium and potassium systems of a giant barnacle muscle fibre under membrane potential control 1. Single barnacle muscle fibres from Megabalanus psittacus (Darwin) were internally perfused and the effects of various internal and external solutions on voltage clamp currents were examined.2. The usual internal solution was 180 mM-K(+) aspartate (osmotic pressure adjusted to 1000 m-osmole by adding sucrose). Fibres perfused with this solution gave an average resting potential of -55 +/- 5 mV (all (...) the temperature from 20 to 10 degrees C, by eliminating the inward currents with external Ca-free saline or by reducing the outward currents with internal tetraethylammonium (TEA) or replacement of internal K by Cs.5. With a Na- and Ca-free, 60 mM-MgCl(2) solution outside depolarizing voltage clamp pulses produced only outward currents. On repolarization the current tail reversed direction at about -70 mV for pulses of less than 50 msec duration. For longer pulses this reversal potential was less negative

1973 The Journal of physiology

177. Potassium accumulation in smooth muscle and associated ultrastructural changes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Potassium accumulation in smooth muscle and associated ultrastructural changes 1. The water content, extracellular ((60)CoEDTA) space, ionic composition and ultrastructure of several mammalian smooth muscles were studied after incubation in solutions of varying ionic compositions and osmolarities.2. Substitution of KCl for NaCl resulted in an increase in cell water, K and Cl, accompanied by little change in total wet weight. This was due to a reduction in the extracellular space.3. Changes

1973 The Journal of physiology

178. An Analysis of the Leakages of Sodium Ions into and Potassium Ions out of Striated Muscle Cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

for total potassium loss to K-free Ringer solution was independent of [Na](i) but dependent on [Na](o). Replacing external NaCl with MgCl(2) brought about reductions in net potassium efflux. Ouabain was without effect on net potassium efflux in K-free Ringer solution with [Na](o) = 120 mM, but increased potassium efflux in a medium with NaCl replaced by MgCl(2). When muscles were enriched with sodium ions, potassium efflux into K-free, Mg(++)-substituted Ringer solution fell to around 0.1 pmol/cm(2).s (...) An Analysis of the Leakages of Sodium Ions into and Potassium Ions out of Striated Muscle Cells Net sodium influx under K-free conditions was independent of the intracellular sodium ion concentration, [Na](i), and was increased by ouabain. Unidirectional sodium influx was the sum of a component independent of [Na](i) and a component that increased linearly with increasing [Na](i). Net influx of sodium ions in K-free solutions varied with the external sodium ion concentration, [Na](o

1973 The Journal of general physiology

179. Relationship between tubular net sodium reabsorption and peritubular potassium uptake in the perfused Necturus kidney Full Text available with Trip Pro

Relationship between tubular net sodium reabsorption and peritubular potassium uptake in the perfused Necturus kidney 1. K influx from peritubular space into renal tubular cells, varphi(i) (K), was measured in doubly perfused Necturus kidneys by studying tissue uptake of (42)K added exclusively to the portal circulation. Concomitantly, net tubular Na reabsorption, varphi(n) (Na), was measured by clearance techniques. varphi(n) (Na) and varphi(i) (K) were varied widely by replacing solutions

1973 The Journal of physiology

180. The interaction of lithium ions with the sodium-potassium pump in frog skeletal muscle. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The interaction of lithium ions with the sodium-potassium pump in frog skeletal muscle. 1. The effects of external Li on Na and K efflux as well as those on K influx were studied in high Na muscles from Rana pipiens. 2. In the absence of external Ba, substitution of K-free Li for K-free Mg resulted in an increase of both Na and K efflux. The additional of ouabain produced an inhibition of Na efflux and at the same time a marked increase in the efflux of K. 3. K permeability was greatly reduced (...) . When internal K was reduced to values around 1-2 mumole/g (using Li as a replacement), thus minimizing the possibility of K leaking out of the cells, both Ko and Lio were able to promote a ouabain-sensitive extra efflux of Na. 7. The residual Na efflux in (K+Na)-free solutions was not affected by the removal of Ca from the media in either Mg or Li solutions, both in the absence and the presence of Ba. On the other hand, the values for the residual efflux were higher in Mg (0-00228 min-1) than in Li

1975 The Journal of physiology

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