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Potassium Replacement

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141. When salt substitutes are required in low-sodium diets. Full Text available with Trip Pro

When salt substitutes are required in low-sodium diets. 359821 1978 12 20 2018 11 13 0027-9684 70 4 1978 Apr Journal of the National Medical Association J Natl Med Assoc When salt substitutes are required in low-sodium diets. 255-8 Lakhanpal R K RK eng Historical Article Journal Article United States J Natl Med Assoc 7503090 0027-9684 0 Food Additives 451W47IQ8X Sodium Chloride 660YQ98I10 Potassium Chloride IM Q Diet, Sodium-Restricted adverse effects history Food Additives History, 19th (...) Century History, 20th Century History, Ancient Humans Hypertension diet therapy Potassium Chloride administration & dosage Sodium Chloride adverse effects 1978 4 1 1978 4 1 0 1 1978 4 1 0 0 ppublish 359821 PMC2609635 J Am Diet Assoc. 1954 Nov;30(11):1146-8 13211181 AMA Arch Intern Med. 1954 Oct;94(4):525-31 13196737 Pediatrics. 1953 May;11(5):554-67 13055370 Am J Cardiol. 1961 Nov;8:737-40 13894852 Am J Cardiol. 1976 Nov 23;38(6):768-85 793367 N Engl J Med. 1975 Feb 6;292(6):320 1110717 J Am Diet

1978 Journal of the National Medical Association

142. Substitution of Redox Chemicals for Radiation in Phytochrome-Mediated Photomorphogenesis1 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Substitution of Redox Chemicals for Radiation in Phytochrome-Mediated Photomorphogenesis1 The reducing agents, potassium ferrocyanide, beta-mercaptoethylamine, cysteine, reduced DPN, ferrous sulfate, methyl viologen and ascorbic acid caused the expansion in darkness of disks of primary leaf tissue cut from dark-grown bean plants. The reducing agents interacted synergistically with low irradiances of red radiation and additively with high irradiance of red light. Exposure of disks treated (...) with reducing agents to far red light repressed disk expansion and the decay in sensitivity to far red radiation showed the same time relations as sequential exposure to red and far red radiation.The oxidizing agents, 1,4-naphthoquinone, ferric sulfate, hydrogen peroxide, t-butyl hydroperoxide, cystine, and potassium ferricyanide repressed the expansion of leaf disks initiated by exposure to red radiation. The oxidizing agents interacted synergistically with low irradiances of far red light and additively

1966 Plant physiology

143. Ionic Conductance Changes in Lobster Axon Membrane When Lanthanum Is Substituted for Calcium Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ionic Conductance Changes in Lobster Axon Membrane When Lanthanum Is Substituted for Calcium The trivalent rare earth lanthanum was substituted for calcium in the sea water bathing the exterior of an "artificial node" of a lobster axon in a sucrose gap. It caused a progressive rise in threshold, and a decrease in the height of the action potential as well as in its rates of rise and fall. Prolonged application produced an excitation block. Voltage-clamp studies of the ionic currents showed (...) that the time courses of the ionic conductance changes for both sodium and potassium were increased. Concurrently, the potentials at which the conductance increases occurred were shifted to more positive inside values for the La+++ sea water. These effects resemble changes resulting from a high external calcium concentration. Over and above this, La+++ also causes a marked reduction in the maximum amount of conductance increase following a depolarizing potential step. Membrane action potentials similar

1966 The Journal of general physiology

144. Inhibition of A-Type Potassium Current by the Peptide Toxin SNX-482 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inhibition of A-Type Potassium Current by the Peptide Toxin SNX-482 SNX-482, a peptide toxin isolated from tarantula venom, has become widely used as an inhibitor of Cav2.3 voltage-gated calcium channels. Unexpectedly, we found that SNX-482 dramatically reduced the A-type potassium current in acutely dissociated dopamine neurons from mouse substantia nigra pars compacta. The inhibition persisted when calcium was replaced by cobalt, showing that it was not secondary to a reduction of calcium

2014 The Journal of Neuroscience

145. Using 15N-Ammonium to Characterise and Map Potassium Binding Sites in Proteins by NMR Spectroscopy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Using 15N-Ammonium to Characterise and Map Potassium Binding Sites in Proteins by NMR Spectroscopy A variety of enzymes are activated by the binding of potassium ions. The potassium binding sites of these enzymes are very specific, but ammonium ions can often replace potassium ions in vitro because of their similar ionic radii. In these cases, ammonium can be used as a proxy for potassium to characterise potassium binding sites in enzymes: the (1) H,(15) N spin-pair of enzyme-bound (15) NH4 (...) (+) can be probed by (15) N-edited heteronuclear NMR experiments. Here, we demonstrate the use of NMR spectroscopy to characterise binding of ammonium ions to two different enzymes: human histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8), which is activated allosterically by potassium, and the bacterial Hsp70 homologue DnaK, for which potassium is an integral part of the active site. Ammonium activates both enzymes in a similar way to potassium, thus supporting this non-invasive approach. Furthermore, we present

2014 Chembiochem

146. Comparison of Enteral versus Intravenous Potassium Supplementation in hypokalaemia in postcardiac surgery paediatric cardiac intensive care patients: prospective open label randomised control trial (EIPS). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of Enteral versus Intravenous Potassium Supplementation in hypokalaemia in postcardiac surgery paediatric cardiac intensive care patients: prospective open label randomised control trial (EIPS). Hypokalaemia is frequently encountered in the daily clinical practices of a paediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU). It is a strong independent predictor of mortality in patients with heart failure. Thus, prompt potassium replacement therapy holds pivotal importance in therapy (...) for hypokalaemia. Although intravenous potassium replacement (IVPR) in hypokalaemia is the preferred route in most intensive care settings, it is associated with known safety risks and can lead to arrhythmias, cardiac arrest and death if inappropriately administered. Enteral potassium replacement (EPR), with its superior safety profile, may be a better alternative to IVPR.Primary outcome To compare the efficacy EPR and IVPR for treatment of hypokalaemia. Secondary outcome measures include a comparison

2014 BMJ open Controlled trial quality: uncertain

147. Role for Germline Mutations and a Rare Coding Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Within the KCNJ5 Potassium Channel in a Large Cohort of Sporadic Cases of Primary Aldosteronism. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Role for Germline Mutations and a Rare Coding Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Within the KCNJ5 Potassium Channel in a Large Cohort of Sporadic Cases of Primary Aldosteronism. Primary aldosteronism (autonomous aldosterone production with suppressed renin) plays an important pathophysiological role in what has been previously labeled as essential hypertension. Besides the recently described germline mutations in the KCNJ5 potassium channel associated with familial primary aldosteronism, somatic (...) nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs7102584 causing E282Q substitution of KCNJ5. By expressing the channels in Xenopus oocytes and human adrenal H295R cells, we have shown that the R52H, E246K, and E282Q substitutions are functional, but the G247R mutation is indistinguishable from wild type. Although the functional substitutions are remote from the selectivity filter, they affect the inward-rectification, the ability of the KCNJ5 channels to conduct Na(+) currents and ATII-induced aldosterone

2014 Hypertension

148. A Novel Regulatory Locus of Phosphorylation in the C Terminus of the Potassium Chloride Cotransporter KCC2 That Interferes with N-Ethylmaleimide or Staurosporine-mediated Activation Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Novel Regulatory Locus of Phosphorylation in the C Terminus of the Potassium Chloride Cotransporter KCC2 That Interferes with N-Ethylmaleimide or Staurosporine-mediated Activation The neuron-specific cation chloride cotransporter KCC2 plays a crucial role in hyperpolarizing synaptic inhibition. Transporter dysfunction is associated with various neurological disorders, raising interest in regulatory mechanisms. Phosphorylation has been identified as a key regulatory process. Here, we retrieved (...) experimentally observed phosphorylation sites of KCC2 from public databases and report on the systematic analysis of six phosphorylated serines, Ser(25), Ser(26), Ser(937), Ser(1022), Ser(1025), and Ser(1026). Alanine or aspartate substitutions of these residues were analyzed in HEK-293 cells. All mutants were expressed in a pattern similar to wild-type KCC2 (KCC2(WT)). Tl(+) flux measurements demonstrated unchanged transport activity for Ser(25), Ser(26), Ser(1022), Ser(1025), and Ser(1026) mutants

2014 The Journal of biological chemistry

149. Inspired Helium for Ischemic Protection During Knee Replacement Surgery

Inspired Helium for Ischemic Protection During Knee Replacement Surgery Inspired Helium for Ischemic Protection During Knee Replacement Surgery - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Inspired (...) Helium for Ischemic Protection During Knee Replacement Surgery The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02012361 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : December 16, 2013 Last Update Posted : August 29, 2016 Sponsor: University of Florida Information provided by (Responsible Party

2013 Clinical Trials

150. Standard versus accelerated initiation of renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury (STARRT-AKI): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of fulfilling eligibility. In the standard initiation arm, participants will be monitored over 7 days to identify indications for renal replacement therapy. For participants in the standard arm with persistent acute kidney injury, defined as a serum creatinine not declining >50% from the value at the time of eligibility, the initiation of RRT will be discouraged unless one or more of the following criteria are fulfilled: serum potassium ≥6.0 mmol/L; serum bicarbonate ≤10 mmol/L; severe respiratory failure (...) Standard versus accelerated initiation of renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury (STARRT-AKI): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Acute kidney injury is a common and devastating complication of critical illness, for which renal replacement therapy is frequently needed to manage severe cases. While a recent systematic review suggested that "earlier" initiation of renal replacement therapy improves survival, completed trials are limited due to small size, single-centre

2013 Trials Controlled trial quality: predicted high

151. Characterization of Khorasan wheat (Kamut) and impact of a replacement diet on cardiovascular risk factors: cross-over dietary intervention study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

potassium and magnesium. Circulating levels of key pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α and vascular endothelial growth factor) were significantly reduced after the consumption of Kamut products.The present results suggest that a replacement diet with Kamut products could be effective in reducing metabolic risk factors, markers of both oxidative stress and inflammatory status. (...) Characterization of Khorasan wheat (Kamut) and impact of a replacement diet on cardiovascular risk factors: cross-over dietary intervention study. Khorasan wheat (Kamut) is an ancient grain with widely acclaimed beneficial effects on human health. The objective was to characterise Kamut and to examine the effect of a replacement diet with their products on cardiovascular risk parameters.We conducted a randomized, single-blinded cross-over trial with two intervention phases on 22 healthy

2013 European journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

152. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in the Setting of Orthotopic Liver Transplant

: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: Yes Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Age 18 or older and able to sign consent (or surrogate) Receiving liver or combined liver-kidney transplant eGFR < or equal to 40 ml/min immediately prior to transplant or currently on any form of renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury or end-stage renal disease Pre-operative potassium of < or equal to 5.5 mEq/L Exclusion Criteria: Pre-operative hemoglobin < or equal to 7 g/dL Pre-operative weight > or equal to 125 kig (...) Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in the Setting of Orthotopic Liver Transplant Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in the Setting of Orthotopic Liver Transplant - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before

2012 Clinical Trials

153. A case report: Giant cystic parathyroid adenoma presenting with parathyroid crisis after Vitamin D replacement. Full Text available with Trip Pro

adenoma was surgically excised. Her serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, creatinine and potassium levels normalized after surgery.This case of parathyroid crisis, with very high serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels, is a rare presentation of parathyroid adenoma with cystic degeneration. This case also highlights that Vitamin D replacement may unmask subclinical hyperparathyroidism. Consistent hypokalemia until surgery merits research into its association with hypercalcemia. (...) A case report: Giant cystic parathyroid adenoma presenting with parathyroid crisis after Vitamin D replacement. Parathyroid adenoma with cystic degeneration is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. The clinical and biochemical presentation may mimic parathyroid carcinoma.We report the case of a 55 year old lady, who had longstanding history of depression and acid peptic disease. Serum calcium eight months prior to presentation was slightly high, but she was never worked up. She was found

2012 BMC Endocrine Disorders

154. Timing the initiation of renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury in Canadian intensive care units: a multicentre observational study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Timing the initiation of renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury in Canadian intensive care units: a multicentre observational study. The optimal timing for starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. Defining current practice is necessary to design interventional trials. We describe the current Canadian practice regarding the timing of RRT initiation for AKI.An observational study of patients undergoing RRT for AKI was undertaken (...) (SOFA) score 13.4 (4.1), pH 7.25 (0.15), potassium 4.6 (1.0) mmol·L(-1). Also, 64% fulfilled the serum creatinine-based criterion for Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) stage 3. Severity of illness, measured using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) and SOFA scores, did not correlate with AKI severity as defined by the serum creatinine-based AKIN criteria. Median (IQR) time from hospital and ICU admission to the start of RRT was 2.0 (1.0-7.0) days and 1.0 (0-2.0) day

2012 Canadian Journal Of Anaesthesia

155. Efficacy and hemodynamic outcome of prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) in critically ill patients: a preliminary report. (Abstract)

Efficacy and hemodynamic outcome of prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) in critically ill patients: a preliminary report. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently part of a multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome presenting in critically ill patients. Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) provides the advantages of both continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in term of hemodynamic stability and the cost-effectiveness of intermittent hemodialysis (IHD (...) randomly assigned to undergo PIRRT 33 patients received SLEDD and 27 patients received SLEDD-f. Our results demonstrate significant decrease in BUN, creatinine, serum potassium and phosphate in both PIRRT techniques. Moreover with the use of similar filters and blood flow rates, SLEDD-f was comparable with SLEDD in terms of small solute clearance and detoxification. For hemodynamic outcomes, the authors found that MAP increased after completion of the first session of PIRRT and along the three

2012 Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

156. Impact of restrictive intravenous fluid replacement and combined epidural analgesia on perioperative volume balance and renal function within a Fast Track program. (Abstract)

Impact of restrictive intravenous fluid replacement and combined epidural analgesia on perioperative volume balance and renal function within a Fast Track program. Key factors of Fast Track (FT) programs are fluid restriction and epidural analgesia (EDA). We aimed to challenge the preconception that the combination of fluid restriction and EDA might induce hypotension and renal dysfunction.A recent randomized trial (NCT00556790) showed reduced complications after colectomy in FT patients (...) ). Intraoperatively, 30 FT compared with 19 SC patients needed colloids or vasopressors, but this was statistically not significant (P = 0.066). Postoperative requirements were low in both groups (3 versus 5 patients; P = 0.487). Pre- and postoperative values for creatinine, hematocrit, sodium, and potassium were similar, and no patient developed renal dysfunction in either group. Only one of 82 patients having an EDA without a bladder catheter had urinary retention. Overall, FT patients had fewer postoperative

2012 The Journal of surgical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

157. Adenosine instead of supranormal potassium in cardioplegia: It is safe, efficient, and reduces the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. A randomized clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(hyperkalemic group) or normokalemic cardioplegia in which supranormal potassium was replaced with 1.2 mmol/L adenosine (adenosine group). End points were postoperative release of troponin T and creatine kinase MB, hemodynamics measured by PiCCO arterial thermodilution catheters, perioperative release of markers of endothelial activation and injury, and clinical course.The adenosine group had a significantly shorter time to arrest than did the hyperkalemic group (mean ± standard deviation, 11 ± 5 vs 44 ± 18 (...) Adenosine instead of supranormal potassium in cardioplegia: It is safe, efficient, and reduces the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. A randomized clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a cold crystalloid cardioplegic solution with adenosine (1.2 mmol/L) instead of supranormal potassium.Sixty low-risk patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were randomized to receive standard cold crystalloid hyperkalemic cardioplegia

2013 The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

158. Comparison of Enteral Versus Intravenous Potassium Supplementation

levels in milliequivalent/L after potassium replacement) Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Acute Hypokalemia Drug: Intravenous potassium chloride Drug: Oral potassium chloride Phase 4 Detailed Description: Hypokalemia is frequently encountered in daily clinical practices of cardiac intensive care unit (CICU). The development of ventricular arrhythmias related to hypokalemia can lead to sudden cardiac death. Thus, potassium replacement therapy is the cornerstone therapy (...) for hypokalemia.Though intravenous potassium replacement (IVPR) in hypokalemia is the preferred route in most intensive care settings, it is associated with known safety risks. Inappropriately administered, IVPR can lead to arrhythmias, cardiac arrest and death 1, 7, 8. Given these risks, IVPR is considered a "high-alert medication" by Institute of Safe Medication practice. Enteral potassium replacement (EPR), with its superior safety profile may be a better alternative to IVPR. A retrospective review showed

2013 Clinical Trials

159. Feasibility and antihypertensive effect of replacing regular salt with mineral salt -rich in magnesium and potassium- in subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Feasibility and antihypertensive effect of replacing regular salt with mineral salt -rich in magnesium and potassium- in subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure. High salt intake is linked to hypertension whereas a restriction of dietary salt lowers blood pressure (BP). Substituting potassium and/or magnesium salts for sodium chloride (NaCl) may enhance the feasibility of salt restriction and lower blood pressure beyond the sodium reduction alone. The aim of this study was to determine (...) the feasibility and effect on blood pressure of replacing NaCl (Regular salt) with a novel mineral salt [50% sodium chloride and rich in potassium chloride (25%), magnesium ammonium potassium chloride, hydrate (25%)] (Smart Salt).A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with an intervention period of 8-weeks in subjects (n = 45) with systolic (S)BP 130-159 mmHg and/or diastolic (D)BP 85-99 mmHg. During the intervention period, subjects consumed processed foods salted with either NaCl

2011 Nutrition journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

160. CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTOPERATIVE ELECTROLYTE AND FLUID REPLACEMENT Full Text available with Trip Pro

CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTOPERATIVE ELECTROLYTE AND FLUID REPLACEMENT The most important postoperative fluid considerations are maintenance of adequate urinary output, of blood volume, and of extracellular and interstitial cell water and electrolytes. Normal urinary output is between 1,000 and 1,500 cc. daily. A fluid intake of 2,000 cc. of 5 per cent dextrose in distilled water, plus 500 cc. of normal saline solution, will insure this amount of urinary output. The use of 5 per cent dextrose (...) solutions in distilled water provides fluid, retards the protein catabolism of the body, and spares electrolytes. Irradiated plasma is the only intravenous solution which will adequately supply protein in amounts to maintain nitrogen equilibrium. Protein hydrolysates in the absence of adequate caloric intake do not provide enough protein for nitrogen balance. The role of the potassium ion is ordinarily not a consideration in postoperative fluid management. It becomes a consideration in the presence

1950 California Medicine

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