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Potassium Replacement

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81. Potassium Currents Activated by Depolarization in Odontoblasts Full Text available with Trip Pro

Potassium Currents Activated by Depolarization in Odontoblasts Increased intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations elicit plasma membrane depolarization, which leads to the activation of K+ currents. However, the precise properties of K+ currents activated by depolarization in odontoblasts remain to be elucidated. The present study identified biophysical and pharmacological characteristics of time-dependent and voltage-activated K+ currents in freshly dissociated rat odontoblasts using patch-clamp (...) recordings in a whole-cell configuration. Using a holding potential of -70 mV, outwardly rectifying time- and voltage-dependent currents were activated by depolarizing voltage. To record pure K+ conductance, we substituted Cl- in both the extracellular and intracellular solutions with gluconate-. Under these conditions, observation of K+ concentration changes in the extracellular solution showed that reversal potentials of tail currents shifted according to the K+ equilibrium potential. The activation

2017 Frontiers in physiology

82. Conserved functional consequences of disease-associated mutations in the slide helix of Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 subunits of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel Full Text available with Trip Pro

Conserved functional consequences of disease-associated mutations in the slide helix of Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 subunits of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel Cantu syndrome (CS) is a condition characterized by a range of anatomical defects, including cardiomegaly, hyperflexibility of the joints, hypertrichosis, and craniofacial dysmorphology. CS is associated with multiple missense mutations in the genes encoding the regulatory sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2) subunits of the ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP (...) ) channel as well as two mutations (V65M and C176S) in the Kir6.1 (KCNJ8) subunit. Previous analysis of leucine and alanine substitutions at the Val-65-equivalent site (Val-64) in Kir6.2 indicated no major effects on channel function. In this study, we characterized the effects of both valine-to-methionine and valine-to-leucine substitutions at this position in both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 using ion flux and patch clamp techniques. We report that methionine substitution, but not leucine substitution, results

2017 The Journal of biological chemistry

83. When CRRT on ECMO Is Not Enough for Potassium Clearance: A Case Report Full Text available with Trip Pro

When CRRT on ECMO Is Not Enough for Potassium Clearance: A Case Report Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an excellent method used to remove fluid and solutes. It may also reduce the systemic inflammatory response for patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. The objective of this report is to describe a case where CRRT in combination with ECMO was insufficient to control hyperkalemia.We report the case of an adolescent patient with refractory symptomatic (...) hyperkalemia due to substantial rhabdomyolysis in which CRRT insufficiently cleared the patient's excess potassium.Intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) was added and proved successful. The patient was weaned off ECMO, CRRT, and IHD, and his cardiac and renal function eventually normalized.Two important lessons can be learned from this case report: (1) If CRRT is insufficient in achieving a desirable potassium balance, additional IHD should be considered and (2) separate IHD access should be considered

2017 Canadian journal of kidney health and disease

84. Pore Polarity and Charge Determine Differential Block of Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 Potassium Channels by Small-Molecule Inhibitor VU590 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pore Polarity and Charge Determine Differential Block of Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 Potassium Channels by Small-Molecule Inhibitor VU590 VU590 was the first publicly disclosed, submicromolar-affinity (IC50 = 0.2 μM), small-molecule inhibitor of the inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channel and diuretic target, Kir1.1. VU590 also inhibits Kir7.1 (IC50 ∼ 8 μM), and has been used to reveal new roles for Kir7.1 in regulation of myometrial contractility and melanocortin signaling. Here, we employed molecular (...) modeling, mutagenesis, and patch clamp electrophysiology to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying VU590 inhibition of Kir1.1 and Kir7.1. Block of both channels is voltage- and K+-dependent, suggesting the VU590 binding site is located within the pore. Mutagenesis analysis in Kir1.1 revealed that asparagine 171 (N171) is the only pore-lining residue required for high-affinity block, and that substituting negatively charged residues (N171D, N171E) at this position dramatically weakens block

2017 Molecular pharmacology

85. Hypokalaemia: Addressing human factors and improving education around prescription and administration of Intravenous(IV) Potassium infusion in Trauma and Orthopaedics Full Text available with Trip Pro

availability of IV fluids with 40mmol potassium on the wards, confidence prescribing or administering IV fluids with 40mmol potassium, necessity for cardiac monitoring during slow IV potassium replacement and recognition of confusion and learning need in this area. Interventions made include awareness and education session, departmental guideline, improving stock of IV fluids and hypokalaemia management pathway for mild, moderate and severe hypokalaemia. Post-intervention results showed 70% from 33% who (...) Hypokalaemia: Addressing human factors and improving education around prescription and administration of Intravenous(IV) Potassium infusion in Trauma and Orthopaedics A high incidence of hypokalaemia was noted in Trauma and Orthopaedics of Ninewells Hospital. We sought to establish the reason behind this and implemented three PDSA cycles via questionnaires to 30 ward staff, both doctors and nurses over a 1 week period in December, February and July 2016. Key baseline measures include

2017 BMJ Quality Improvement Reports

86. The replacement of potassium by uranium in perfusion of the heart Full Text available with Trip Pro

The replacement of potassium by uranium in perfusion of the heart 16993497 2007 02 05 2008 11 20 0022-3751 55 1-2 1921 May 24 The Journal of physiology J. Physiol. (Lond.) The replacement of potassium by uranium in perfusion of the heart. 33-7 Zwaardemaker H H eng Journal Article England J Physiol 0266262 0022-3751 1921 5 24 0 0 1921 5 24 0 1 1921 5 24 0 0 ppublish 16993497 PMC1405362

1921 The Journal of physiology

87. Potassium replacement therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Potassium replacement therapy Potassium replacement is often an important therapeutic measure, and the advantages of effervescing potassium-containing granules are put forward in this article.

1961 Gut

88. THE ACCUMULATION OF ELECTROLYTES : IX. REPLACEMENT OF AMMONIA BY SODIUM AND POTASSIUM Full Text available with Trip Pro

THE ACCUMULATION OF ELECTROLYTES : IX. REPLACEMENT OF AMMONIA BY SODIUM AND POTASSIUM Experiments on Valonia were carried out as follows: Stage I.-Cells in dim light accumulated 0.08 M ammonia (NH(3) + NH(4)OH + NH(4) (+)) from sea water containing 0.0025 M ammonia (but the concentration of undissociated ammonia appeared to remain less inside than outside). Potassium came out. Stage II.-Cells in dim light in nearly ammonia-free normal sea water lost ammonia which was replaced by sodium entering (...) from the sea water. Potassium in the sap remained practically constant. Stage III.-The cells were placed in stronger light where the loss of ammonia continued and potassium entered. Sodium entered more rapidly than in Stage II. Stage IV.-Cells transferred to sea water containing 0.0025 M ammonia again accumulated ammonia up to 0.1345 M. The results in general harmonize with the view that the direction of movement of a base M through the protoplasm depends on the difference of the activity products

1938 The Journal of general physiology

89. Contracture Coupling of Slow Striated Muscle in Non-Ionic Solutions and Replacement of Calcium, Sodium, and Potassium Full Text available with Trip Pro

Contracture Coupling of Slow Striated Muscle in Non-Ionic Solutions and Replacement of Calcium, Sodium, and Potassium The development of contracture related to changes of ionic environment (ionic contracture coupling) has been studied in the slowly responding fibers of frog skeletal muscle. When deprived of external ions for 30 minutes by use of solutions of sucrose, mannitol, or glucose, the slow skeletal muscle fibers, but not the fast, develop pronounced and easily reversible contractures (...) . Partial replacement of the non-ionic substance with calcium or sodium reduces the development of the contractures but replacement by potassium does not. The concentration of calcium necessary to prevent contracture induced by a non-ionic solution is greater than that needed to maintain relaxation in ionic solutions. To suppress the non-ionic-induced contractures to the same extent as does calcium requires several fold higher concentrations of sodium. Two types of ionic contracture coupling occur

1964 The Journal of general physiology

90. The reversible replacement of internal potassium by caesium in isolated turtle heart. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The reversible replacement of internal potassium by caesium in isolated turtle heart. 1. By perfusing the isolated turtle heart with Cs solution, most of the intracellular K can be replaced by Cs. After 3--4 hr, Cs approaches a steady-state distribution with a concentration slightly below initial K concentration. 2. During the initial stages of perfusion, the heart accumulated Cs and lost K, the exchange ratio of K for Cs was estimated to be about 0.6. Subsequently perfusion yielded an equi (...) -ionic substitution of K by Cs. 3. In presence of DNP (2 x 10(-4) M), K efflux and Cs accumulation increased but the low initial K--Cs exchange was abolished. Then, the replacement of K by Cs took place at a ratio of K:Cs of about 0.8. Ouabain (10(-5) M) suppressed uptake of Cs whereas K loss was the same as with DNP. 4. These results confirm that permeability of the cardiac sarcolemma to Cs is low, and suggest that the movement of Cs must be mainly attributed to its active transport into cells

1979 The Journal of physiology

91. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome. (Abstract)

Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome. Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from (...) 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2015 American Journal of Cardiology

92. Glucose-Insulin-Potassium Reduces the Incidence of Low Cardiac Output Episodes After Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Stenosis in Patients With Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Results From the Hypertrophy, Insulin, Glucose, and Electrolytes (HINGE) Trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Glucose-Insulin-Potassium Reduces the Incidence of Low Cardiac Output Episodes After Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Stenosis in Patients With Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Results From the Hypertrophy, Insulin, Glucose, and Electrolytes (HINGE) Trial Patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for critical aortic stenosis often have significant left ventricular hypertrophy. Left ventricular hypertrophy has been identified as an independent predictor of poor outcome after aortic valve (...) replacement as a result of a combination of maladaptive myocardial changes and inadequate myocardial protection at the time of surgery. Glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) is a potentially useful adjunct to myocardial protection. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of GIK infusion in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement surgery.Patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis with evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy were randomly assigned to GIK or placebo. The trial

2011 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: predicted high

93. Impact of a Potassium-enriched, Chloride-depleted 5% Glucose Solution on Gastrointestinal Function after Major Abdominopelvic Surgery: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

different between groups (G5K group, 93 h [19 to 168 h] and control group, 120 h [43 to 241 h]); estimator of the group difference, -16 (95% CI, -38 to 6); P = 0.173. Return of normal GI function occurred faster in the G5K group than in the control group (median, 138 h [range, 54 to 262 h] vs. 169 h [108 to 318 h]); estimator of the group difference, -38 (95% CI, -74 to -12); P = 0.004. Potassium and magnesium were less frequently substituted in the G5K group (13.6 vs. 54.5% [P = 0.010] and 18.2 vs (...) . 77.3% [P < 0.001]), respectively. The incidence of renal dysfunction (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease stage "risk") at discharge was 9.1% in the G5K group and 4.5% in the control group; P = 1.000.Perioperative administration of a G5K did not enhance first defecation, but may accelerate recovery of normal GI function, and reduces potassium and magnesium substitution after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion.

2016 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: predicted high

94. Lipid Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residue as a Fertilizer Substitute for Zea mays L. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Lipid Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residue as a Fertilizer Substitute for Zea mays L. High volumes of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) are expected to be produced upon commencement of biodiesel production on a large scale, thus necessitating its value addition for sustainable development. LMBRs of Chlorella variabilis and Lyngbya majuscula were employed to substitute the nitrogen content of recommended rate of fertilizer (RRF) for Zea mays L. The pot experiment comprised (...) of 10 treatments, i.e., T1 (No fertilizer); T2 (RRF-120 N: 60 P2O5: 40 K2O kg ha(-1)); T3 to T6-100, 75, 50, and 25% N through LMBR of the Chlorella sp., respectively; T7 to T10-100, 75, 50, and 25% N through LMBR of Lyngbya sp., respectively. It was found that all LMBR substitution treatments were at par to RRF with respect to grain yield production. T10 gave the highest grain yield (65.16 g plant(-1)), which was closely followed by that (63.48 g plant(-1)) under T5. T10 also recorded the highest

2016 Frontiers in plant science

95. A Single Amino-Acid Substitution in the Sodium Transporter HKT1 Associated with Plant Salt Tolerance Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Single Amino-Acid Substitution in the Sodium Transporter HKT1 Associated with Plant Salt Tolerance A crucial prerequisite for plant growth and survival is the maintenance of potassium uptake, especially when high sodium surrounds the root zone. The Arabidopsis HIGH-AFFINITY K(+) TRANSPORTER1 (HKT1), and its homologs in other salt-sensitive dicots, contributes to salinity tolerance by removing Na(+) from the transpiration stream. However, TsHKT1;2, one of three HKT1 copies in Thellungiella (...) cells. Mutant hkt1-1 plants complemented with both AtHKT1(N) (-) (D) and TsHKT1;2 showed higher tolerance to salt stress than lines complemented by the wild-type AtHKT1 Electrophysiological analysis in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirmed the functional properties of these transporters and the differential selectivity for Na(+) and K(+) based on the n/d variance in the pore region. This change also dictated inward-rectification for Na(+) transport. Thus, the introduction of Asp, replacing Asn, in HKT1

2016 Plant physiology

96. Effect of Positional Isomerism and Vanadium Substitution on 51V Magic Angle Spinning NMR Spectra of Wells-Dawson Polyoxotungstates Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Positional Isomerism and Vanadium Substitution on 51V Magic Angle Spinning NMR Spectra of Wells-Dawson Polyoxotungstates We examined the positional isomerism and vanadium substitution on the 51V magic angle spinning NMR spectra of potassium salts of vanadium-substituted polyoxotungstates of the Wells-Dawson series. NMR parameters of this class of catalytically active polyoxotungstates effect of are reported. Multiple species, indicative of differences in the local environment (...) at the substitution sites, are observed in solid-state NMR spectra of the di- and tri- substituted complexes in contrast to solution NMR spectra, where single average chemical shift was observed. The quadrupolar and chemical shift anisotropy parameters depend strongly on the position and the degree of the vanadium substitution into the oxoanion core establishing 51V SATRAS NMR spectroscopy as a sensitive probe of the local electronic environment in these catalytically active solids.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

2016 Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

97. Dietary Potassium

Potassium , Foods with High Potassium Content , Potassium Content in Food II. Precautions Potassium Content in Food is not an exact replacement Renal disease patients or those with other risk factors should avoid high foods III. Background: Potassium Elemental (K+): 39 mg/meq Chloride (KCl): 75 mg/meq IV. Preparations: Salt Substitute contains extremely high Potassium Most salt substitutes (e.g. no-salt) are composed of chloride (75 mg/meq) Chloride Salt-Substitute Products Nu-Salt (mg): 530 mg per 1 g (...) tsp (as calculated above) Mrs. Dash only contains 0.4 meq per 1/4 tsp Highly concentrated, chloride salt substitute can easily be over-dosed ( caution) At 67 to 82 meq per teaspoon, NoSalt, Nu-Salt or Morton's Salt Substitute can easily exceed safe limits VI. Preparations: Potassium content (from USDA, with meq based on 39 mg/meq for elemental Potassium) Acorn Squash (cooked) : 448 mg or 11.5 meq per 1/2 cub acorn squash cubes Almonds 200 mg or 5 meq per 1 ounce of almonds cot (dried) : 41 mg

2018 FP Notebook

98. Preparation of resorbable carbonate-substituted hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres and their evaluation in osseous defects in vivo Full Text available with Trip Pro

substitution (0-12 wt.%) were created using a novel glass conversion route and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Hollow HA microspheres with ~12 wt.% of carbonate (designated CHA12) showed a higher surface area (236 m(2) g(-1)) than conventional hollow HA microspheres (179 m(2)g(-1)) and a faster degradation rate in a potassium acetate buffer solution. When implanted for 12 weeks in rat calvarial defects, the CHA12 and HA microspheres showed a limited capacity to regenerate bone but the CHA12 microspheres (...) Preparation of resorbable carbonate-substituted hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres and their evaluation in osseous defects in vivo Hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres, with a high-surface-area mesoporous shell, can provide a unique bioactive and osteoconductive carrier for proteins to stimulate bone regeneration. However, synthetic HA has a slow resorption rate and a limited ability to remodel into bone. In the present study, hollow HA microspheres with controllable amounts of carbonate

2015 Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications

99. Impact of Light Salt Substitution for Regular Salt on Blood Pressure of Hypertensive Patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of Light Salt Substitution for Regular Salt on Blood Pressure of Hypertensive Patients Studies have shown sodium restriction to have a beneficial effect on blood pressure (BP) of hypertensive patients.To evaluate the impact of light salt substitution for regular salt on BP of hypertensive patients.Uncontrolled hypertensive patients of both sexes, 20 to 65 years-old, on stable doses of antihypertensive drugs were randomized into Intervention Group (IG - receiving light salt) and Control (...) Group (CG - receiving regular salt). Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were analyzed by using casual BP measurements and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring (HBPM), and sodium and potassium excretion was assessed on 24-hour urine samples. The patients received 3 g of salt for daily consumption for 4 weeks.The study evaluated 35 patients (65.7% women), 19 allocated to the IG and 16 to the CG. The mean age was 55.5 ± 7.4 years. Most participants had completed the Brazilian middle school (up

2015 Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100. Validation of Diagnostic Usefulness of the Random Urine Na/K Ratio for Replacement of 24hr Urine Na Excretion in Cirrhotic Patients With Ascites

is important for ascites control in liver cirrhosis patients. Therefore, World Health Organization (WHO) recommends reduction of sodium (Na) to 2g/day for adults. The 24-hour urine Na excretion has been regarded as a standard method to estimate the amount of daily dietary sodium intake. However, it is too inconvenient to apply to patients or the general population in practice. For this reason, it has been suggested that a spot urine Na/potassium (K) ratio could be replaced with the 24-hour urine Na (...) Validation of Diagnostic Usefulness of the Random Urine Na/K Ratio for Replacement of 24hr Urine Na Excretion in Cirrhotic Patients With Ascites Validation of Diagnostic Usefulness of the Random Urine Na/K Ratio for Replacement of 24hr Urine Na Excretion in Cirrhotic Patients With Ascites - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save

2016 Clinical Trials

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