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Potassium Replacement

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61. Rhythmic potassium transport regulates the circadian clock in human red blood cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rhythmic potassium transport regulates the circadian clock in human red blood cells Circadian rhythms organize many aspects of cell biology and physiology to a daily temporal program that depends on clock gene expression cycles in most mammalian cell types. However, circadian rhythms are also observed in isolated mammalian red blood cells (RBCs), which lack nuclei, suggesting the existence of post-translational cellular clock mechanisms in these cells. Here we show using electrophysiological (...) and pharmacological approaches that human RBCs display circadian regulation of membrane conductance and cytoplasmic conductivity that depends on the cycling of cytoplasmic K+ levels. Using pharmacological intervention and ion replacement, we show that inhibition of K+ transport abolishes RBC electrophysiological rhythms. Our results suggest that in the absence of conventional transcription cycles, RBCs maintain a circadian rhythm in membrane electrophysiology through dynamic regulation of K+ transport.

2017 Nature communications

62. Potassium Currents Activated by Depolarization in Odontoblasts Full Text available with Trip Pro

Potassium Currents Activated by Depolarization in Odontoblasts Increased intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations elicit plasma membrane depolarization, which leads to the activation of K+ currents. However, the precise properties of K+ currents activated by depolarization in odontoblasts remain to be elucidated. The present study identified biophysical and pharmacological characteristics of time-dependent and voltage-activated K+ currents in freshly dissociated rat odontoblasts using patch-clamp (...) recordings in a whole-cell configuration. Using a holding potential of -70 mV, outwardly rectifying time- and voltage-dependent currents were activated by depolarizing voltage. To record pure K+ conductance, we substituted Cl- in both the extracellular and intracellular solutions with gluconate-. Under these conditions, observation of K+ concentration changes in the extracellular solution showed that reversal potentials of tail currents shifted according to the K+ equilibrium potential. The activation

2017 Frontiers in physiology

63. Comparison of enteral versus intravenous potassium supplementation in hypokalaemia in paediatric patients in intensive care post cardiac surgery: open-label randomised equivalence trial (EIPS). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of enteral versus intravenous potassium supplementation in hypokalaemia in paediatric patients in intensive care post cardiac surgery: open-label randomised equivalence trial (EIPS). The primary objective was to compare the efficacy of enteral potassium replacement (EPR) and intravenous potassium replacement (IVPR) as first-line therapy. Secondary objectives included comparison of adverse effects and number of doses required to resolve the episode of hypokalaemia.The EIPS trial (...) is designed as a randomised, equivalence trial between two treatment arms.The study was conducted at the paediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi.41 patients (aged 1 month to 15 years) who were admitted to PCICU post cardiac surgery were recruited (23 IVPR arm and 18 EPR arm).Intervention arms were block randomised on alternate weeks for IVPR and EPR.Change in serum potassium levels in (mmol/L) and percentage change after each event of potassium replacement

2017 BMJ open

64. TbIRK is a signature sequence free potassium channel from Trypanosoma brucei locating to acidocalcisomes Full Text available with Trip Pro

channel named TbIRK. The protein is localized to acidocalcisomes in procyclic and in bloodstream form parasites. Functional properties of this channel were established after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Currents recorded in potassium medium show inward rectification and little time dependence. Surprisingly, this channel retains selectivity for potassium ions over sodium ions >7, in spite of the lack of the classical selectivity filter. The sequence GGYVG was predicted in silico to replace (...) TbIRK is a signature sequence free potassium channel from Trypanosoma brucei locating to acidocalcisomes Potassium channels from prokaryotes and eukaryotes are usually recognized by a typical amino acid sequence TXTGY(F)G representing the ionic selectivity filter. Using a screening approach with ion channel family profiles but without the above motif, we identified a gene in Trypanosoma brucei that exhibits homology to inward rectifying potassium channels. We report here cloning of this ion

2017 Scientific reports

65. Hypokalaemia: Addressing human factors and improving education around prescription and administration of Intravenous(IV) Potassium infusion in Trauma and Orthopaedics Full Text available with Trip Pro

availability of IV fluids with 40mmol potassium on the wards, confidence prescribing or administering IV fluids with 40mmol potassium, necessity for cardiac monitoring during slow IV potassium replacement and recognition of confusion and learning need in this area. Interventions made include awareness and education session, departmental guideline, improving stock of IV fluids and hypokalaemia management pathway for mild, moderate and severe hypokalaemia. Post-intervention results showed 70% from 33% who (...) Hypokalaemia: Addressing human factors and improving education around prescription and administration of Intravenous(IV) Potassium infusion in Trauma and Orthopaedics A high incidence of hypokalaemia was noted in Trauma and Orthopaedics of Ninewells Hospital. We sought to establish the reason behind this and implemented three PDSA cycles via questionnaires to 30 ward staff, both doctors and nurses over a 1 week period in December, February and July 2016. Key baseline measures include

2017 BMJ Quality Improvement Reports

66. Consequences of Different Corticosteroids on Serum Potassium and Prostate-Specific Antigen in Patients Receiving Abiraterone for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Retrospective Observational Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Consequences of Different Corticosteroids on Serum Potassium and Prostate-Specific Antigen in Patients Receiving Abiraterone for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Retrospective Observational Study Abiraterone acetate is an androgen synthesis inhibitor approved for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although co-administration of either prednisone or prednisolone at 10 mg/d has been recommended to reduce the risk of abiraterone-induced hyperaldosteronism (notably (...) hypokalemia) and to give adjunctive pain relief effects, whether these glucocorticoids can be substituted by dexamethasone remains unknown.We performed a retrospective review of medical records of patients who were given abiraterone for the treatment of CRPC with either prednisolone (ABI/PSL) 10 mg/d or dexamethasone (ABI/DEX) 0.5 or 1 mg/d between 2014 and 2017 in Juntendo University Nerima Hospital. Demographic and biochemical data including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level were retrieved from

2017 Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology

67. Dynamic role of the tether helix in PIP2-dependent gating of a G protein–gated potassium channel Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dynamic role of the tether helix in PIP2-dependent gating of a G protein–gated potassium channel G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels control neuronal excitability in the brain and are implicated in several different neurological diseases. The anionic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) is an essential cofactor for GIRK channel gating, but the precise mechanism by which PIP2 opens GIRK channels remains poorly understood. Previous structural (...) and dynamic interaction with PIP2 When Lys200 is mutated to an uncharged amino acid, it activates the channel by enhancing the interaction with PIP2 Atomistic molecular dynamic simulations of neuronal GIRK2 with the same 6' substitution reveal an open GIRK2 channel with PIP2 molecules adopting novel positions. This dynamic interaction with PIP2 may explain the intrinsic low open probability of GIRK channels and the mechanism underlying activation by G protein Gβγ subunits and ethanol.© 2017 Lacin et al.

2017 The Journal of general physiology

68. When CRRT on ECMO Is Not Enough for Potassium Clearance: A Case Report Full Text available with Trip Pro

When CRRT on ECMO Is Not Enough for Potassium Clearance: A Case Report Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an excellent method used to remove fluid and solutes. It may also reduce the systemic inflammatory response for patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. The objective of this report is to describe a case where CRRT in combination with ECMO was insufficient to control hyperkalemia.We report the case of an adolescent patient with refractory symptomatic (...) hyperkalemia due to substantial rhabdomyolysis in which CRRT insufficiently cleared the patient's excess potassium.Intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) was added and proved successful. The patient was weaned off ECMO, CRRT, and IHD, and his cardiac and renal function eventually normalized.Two important lessons can be learned from this case report: (1) If CRRT is insufficient in achieving a desirable potassium balance, additional IHD should be considered and (2) separate IHD access should be considered

2017 Canadian journal of kidney health and disease

69. Conserved functional consequences of disease-associated mutations in the slide helix of Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 subunits of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel Full Text available with Trip Pro

Conserved functional consequences of disease-associated mutations in the slide helix of Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 subunits of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel Cantu syndrome (CS) is a condition characterized by a range of anatomical defects, including cardiomegaly, hyperflexibility of the joints, hypertrichosis, and craniofacial dysmorphology. CS is associated with multiple missense mutations in the genes encoding the regulatory sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2) subunits of the ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP (...) ) channel as well as two mutations (V65M and C176S) in the Kir6.1 (KCNJ8) subunit. Previous analysis of leucine and alanine substitutions at the Val-65-equivalent site (Val-64) in Kir6.2 indicated no major effects on channel function. In this study, we characterized the effects of both valine-to-methionine and valine-to-leucine substitutions at this position in both Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 using ion flux and patch clamp techniques. We report that methionine substitution, but not leucine substitution, results

2017 The Journal of biological chemistry

70. Pore Polarity and Charge Determine Differential Block of Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 Potassium Channels by Small-Molecule Inhibitor VU590 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pore Polarity and Charge Determine Differential Block of Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 Potassium Channels by Small-Molecule Inhibitor VU590 VU590 was the first publicly disclosed, submicromolar-affinity (IC50 = 0.2 μM), small-molecule inhibitor of the inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channel and diuretic target, Kir1.1. VU590 also inhibits Kir7.1 (IC50 ∼ 8 μM), and has been used to reveal new roles for Kir7.1 in regulation of myometrial contractility and melanocortin signaling. Here, we employed molecular (...) modeling, mutagenesis, and patch clamp electrophysiology to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying VU590 inhibition of Kir1.1 and Kir7.1. Block of both channels is voltage- and K+-dependent, suggesting the VU590 binding site is located within the pore. Mutagenesis analysis in Kir1.1 revealed that asparagine 171 (N171) is the only pore-lining residue required for high-affinity block, and that substituting negatively charged residues (N171D, N171E) at this position dramatically weakens block

2017 Molecular pharmacology

71. Adaptation of Bacillus subtilis to Life at Extreme Potassium Limitation Full Text available with Trip Pro

were strongly increased, suggesting that these amino acids can partially substitute for potassium. This was confirmed by the observation that the supplementation with positively charged amino acids allows growth of B. subtilis even at the extreme potassium limitation that the bacteria experience if no potassium is added to the medium. In addition, a second class of suppressor mutations allowed growth at extreme potassium limitation. These mutations result in increased expression of KtrAB (...) Adaptation of Bacillus subtilis to Life at Extreme Potassium Limitation Potassium is the most abundant metal ion in every living cell. This ion is essential due to its requirement for the activity of the ribosome and many enzymes but also because of its role in buffering the negative charge of nucleic acids. As the external concentrations of potassium are usually low, efficient uptake and intracellular enrichment of the ion is necessary. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis possesses

2017 mBio

72. Liver injury after aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid treatment of hemorrhoids Full Text available with Trip Pro

Liver injury after aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid treatment of hemorrhoids We are reporting a rare case of acute liver injury that developed after an internal hemorrhoid treatment with the aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) regimen. A 41-year-old man developed a fever and liver injury after undergoing internal hemorrhoid treatment with a submucosal injection of ALTA with lidocaine. The acute liver injury was classified clinically as hepatocellular and pathologically (...) as cholestastic. We could not classify the mechanism of injury. High eosinophil and immunoglobulin E levels characterized the injury, and a drug lymphocyte stimulation test was negative on postoperative day 25. Fluid replacement for two weeks after hospitalization improved the liver injury. ALTA therapy involves injecting chemicals into the submucosa, from the rectum to the anus, and this is the first description of a case that developed a severe liver disorder after this treatment; hence, an analysis

2017 World Journal of Gastroenterology

73. An Open-Label Trial of Losartan Potassium in Participants With Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)

hydrochlorothiazide, digoxin, warfarin, cimetidine, phenobarbital, rifampin, or fluconazole. taking or planning to take potassium supplements or salt substitutes containing potassium. A female participant who is pregnant or nursing or, if of childbearing potential, is not using a medically accepted, effective method of birth control (e.g., condom, oral/injectable/subcutaneous contraceptive, intrauterine device, or sexual abstinence). Participated/participating in any investigative drug or device study within 30 (...) An Open-Label Trial of Losartan Potassium in Participants With Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) An Open-Label Trial of Losartan Potassium in Participants With Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one

2017 Clinical Trials

74. Potassium Supplementation in CKD

Criteria: Hyperkalemia (serum potassium > 5.5 mmol/l) at study visit V0 Medical reasons to continue dual RAAS-blockade, mineralocorticoid receptor blockers, potassium-sparing diuretics, or oral potassium binders. Patients with previous history of ventricular cardiac arrhythmia Patients with a life expectancy < 6 months Expected initiation of renal replacement therapy < 2 years Incapacitated subjects Women who are pregnant, breastfeeding or consider pregnancy in the coming 2 years. Contacts (...) Potassium Supplementation in CKD Potassium Supplementation in CKD - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Potassium Supplementation in CKD (K+ in CKD) The safety and scientific validity

2017 Clinical Trials

75. The mechano-sensitivity of cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels is mediated by intrinsic MgATPase activity. (Abstract)

The mechano-sensitivity of cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels is mediated by intrinsic MgATPase activity. Cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel activity plays an important cardio-protective role in regulating excitability in response to metabolic stress. Evidence suggests that these channels are also mechano-sensitive and therefore may couple KATP channel activity to increased cardiac workloads. However, the molecular mechanism that couples membrane stretch to channel activity (...) ATP analog AMP-PNP or the ATPase inhibitor BeFx significantly reduced the stimulatory effect of stretch. We employed a point mutagenic approach to determine that a single residue (K1337) in the hairpin loop proximal to the major MgATPase catalytic site in the SUR2A subunit is responsible for the difference in mechano-sensitivity between SUR2A and SUR1 containing KATP channels. Moreover, using a double cysteine mutant substitution in the hairpin loop region revealed the importance of a key residue

2017 Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology

76. The replacement of potassium by uranium in perfusion of the heart Full Text available with Trip Pro

The replacement of potassium by uranium in perfusion of the heart 16993497 2007 02 05 2008 11 20 0022-3751 55 1-2 1921 May 24 The Journal of physiology J. Physiol. (Lond.) The replacement of potassium by uranium in perfusion of the heart. 33-7 Zwaardemaker H H eng Journal Article England J Physiol 0266262 0022-3751 1921 5 24 0 0 1921 5 24 0 1 1921 5 24 0 0 ppublish 16993497 PMC1405362

1921 The Journal of physiology

77. THE ACCUMULATION OF ELECTROLYTES : IX. REPLACEMENT OF AMMONIA BY SODIUM AND POTASSIUM Full Text available with Trip Pro

THE ACCUMULATION OF ELECTROLYTES : IX. REPLACEMENT OF AMMONIA BY SODIUM AND POTASSIUM Experiments on Valonia were carried out as follows: Stage I.-Cells in dim light accumulated 0.08 M ammonia (NH(3) + NH(4)OH + NH(4) (+)) from sea water containing 0.0025 M ammonia (but the concentration of undissociated ammonia appeared to remain less inside than outside). Potassium came out. Stage II.-Cells in dim light in nearly ammonia-free normal sea water lost ammonia which was replaced by sodium entering (...) from the sea water. Potassium in the sap remained practically constant. Stage III.-The cells were placed in stronger light where the loss of ammonia continued and potassium entered. Sodium entered more rapidly than in Stage II. Stage IV.-Cells transferred to sea water containing 0.0025 M ammonia again accumulated ammonia up to 0.1345 M. The results in general harmonize with the view that the direction of movement of a base M through the protoplasm depends on the difference of the activity products

1938 The Journal of general physiology

78. The reversible replacement of internal potassium by caesium in isolated turtle heart. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The reversible replacement of internal potassium by caesium in isolated turtle heart. 1. By perfusing the isolated turtle heart with Cs solution, most of the intracellular K can be replaced by Cs. After 3--4 hr, Cs approaches a steady-state distribution with a concentration slightly below initial K concentration. 2. During the initial stages of perfusion, the heart accumulated Cs and lost K, the exchange ratio of K for Cs was estimated to be about 0.6. Subsequently perfusion yielded an equi (...) -ionic substitution of K by Cs. 3. In presence of DNP (2 x 10(-4) M), K efflux and Cs accumulation increased but the low initial K--Cs exchange was abolished. Then, the replacement of K by Cs took place at a ratio of K:Cs of about 0.8. Ouabain (10(-5) M) suppressed uptake of Cs whereas K loss was the same as with DNP. 4. These results confirm that permeability of the cardiac sarcolemma to Cs is low, and suggest that the movement of Cs must be mainly attributed to its active transport into cells

1979 The Journal of physiology

79. Contracture Coupling of Slow Striated Muscle in Non-Ionic Solutions and Replacement of Calcium, Sodium, and Potassium Full Text available with Trip Pro

Contracture Coupling of Slow Striated Muscle in Non-Ionic Solutions and Replacement of Calcium, Sodium, and Potassium The development of contracture related to changes of ionic environment (ionic contracture coupling) has been studied in the slowly responding fibers of frog skeletal muscle. When deprived of external ions for 30 minutes by use of solutions of sucrose, mannitol, or glucose, the slow skeletal muscle fibers, but not the fast, develop pronounced and easily reversible contractures (...) . Partial replacement of the non-ionic substance with calcium or sodium reduces the development of the contractures but replacement by potassium does not. The concentration of calcium necessary to prevent contracture induced by a non-ionic solution is greater than that needed to maintain relaxation in ionic solutions. To suppress the non-ionic-induced contractures to the same extent as does calcium requires several fold higher concentrations of sodium. Two types of ionic contracture coupling occur

1964 The Journal of general physiology

80. Potassium replacement therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Potassium replacement therapy Potassium replacement is often an important therapeutic measure, and the advantages of effervescing potassium-containing granules are put forward in this article.

1961 Gut

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