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Potassium Replacement

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4361. Effects of long-term oral magnesium chloride replacement in congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease. (Abstract)

Effects of long-term oral magnesium chloride replacement in congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease. Magnesium deficiency frequently develops in patients with congestive heart failure and may increase susceptibility to lethal arrhythmias and sudden death via multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms. The effects of peroral magnesium supplementation were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial involving 21 patients with stable congestive heart failure (...) secondary to coronary artery disease. All were receiving long-term loop diuretics, and had normal renal function, and low or normal serum magnesium concentrations. Subjects alternately received enteric-coated magnesium chloride (15.8 mmol magnesium per day) and placebo for 6 weeks. Magnesium therapy increased serum magnesium from 0.87 +/- 0.07 to 0.92 +/- 0.05 mmol/liter (p < 0.05), serum potassium from 4.0 +/- 0.3 to 4.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/liter (p < 0.01) and urinary magnesium excretion from 2.82 +/- 0.96

1993 The American journal of cardiology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

4362. Replacement treatment with biosynthetic human growth hormone in growth hormone-deficient hypopituitary adults. (Abstract)

daily dose was 0.04 (0.02-0.05) IU/kg s.c.Forty GH deficient hypopituitary patients (19 M, 21 F; aged 19-67 years) on conventional replacement therapy were studied.Serum insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I), skinfold thickness, total body potassium, total body water (TBW), exercise tolerance and muscle strength, and well-being.During the 6-month double blind phase, two GH treated patients withdrew because of adverse events. Lean body mass (LBM) increased and percentage body fat (%BF) decreased on GH (...) Replacement treatment with biosynthetic human growth hormone in growth hormone-deficient hypopituitary adults. The physiological role of growth hormone in adult life has recently attracted increased interest. We have studied the clinical effects and the effects on body composition of prolonged replacement with biosynthetic human GH in a large number of hypopituitary adults.A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial for 6 months followed by an open trial of GH treatment for 12 months. GH

1995 Clinical endocrinology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

4363. Fluid replacement in burned patients. (Abstract)

Fluid replacement in burned patients. Burn injury involves a large amount of water, electrolytes and proteins loss trough the burn wound. For this reason, to avoid shock, a wide infusion of fluid is necessary in the first hours after trauma. Many reanimation formulas were proposed in the past years, with different composition: saline, colloids, plasma. The authors have studied 40 burned patients admitted in Verona Burn Center within 4 hours after burn, with burns over 30% of the body surface (...) area. Twenty of them were treated with Baxter reanimation formula (ringer lactated saline, RLS) while the others with Monafo hypertonic lactated saline (HLS), modified by Milan Burn Center. The two randomized groups were assessed and compared. In RLS group total fluid volume infused was higher while sodium requirements was lower than in HLS patients, with statistically significative difference (p < 0.01). On the contrary, in HLS group, potassium administered was perhaps twice if compared

1996 Acta chirurgiae plasticae Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4364. Aortic valve replacement: better myocardial protection by cold or warm retrograde blood cardioplegia? (Abstract)

Aortic valve replacement: better myocardial protection by cold or warm retrograde blood cardioplegia? To determine whether warm blood cardioplegia (BCP) is superior to cold BCP in terms of myocardial protection, we compared warm (37 degrees C) and cold (4 degrees C) continuous retrograde administration of BCP in 40 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) in a prospective, randomized study.The main subjects of investigation were the myocardial oxygen consumption and the maintenance (...) of the ultrastructure of the tissue. In addition, we looked at intraoperative recordings of time, heart rhythm disturbances, CK/MB serum levels, and inotropic support.We found, that oxygen consumption is significantly higher during warm BCP (7.95-10.38 ml/min) than during cold BCP (2.11-3.47 ml/min). Mild, reversible myocardial damage occurs during cold and warm BCP. The intraoperative serum potassium level was significantly higher after warm (7.25 mmol/l) than after cold (6.55 mmol/l) BCP

1996 The Journal of heart valve disease Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4365. Treating tinea capitis: should ketoconazole replace griseofulvin? (Abstract)

Treating tinea capitis: should ketoconazole replace griseofulvin? We undertook a randomized double-blind comparison of griseofulvin and ketoconazole for the treatment of tinea capitis. The outcome was based on fungal culture results and changes in clinical signs and symptoms determined by an assessment system that yielded a severity score. Patients were evaluated at 4-week intervals for 12 weeks. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled; 46 received griseofulvin, and 33 received ketoconazole. Forty (...) -eight patients (26 griseofulvin, 22 ketoconazole) were considered evaluable. Pathogenic fungi were isolated from 78% of the enrolled and 87% of the evaluable patients. Trichophyton tonsurans was the predominant dermatophyte isolated. Potassium hydroxide preparation correlated poorly with culture results (sensitivity 59%). Of 22 evaluable ketoconazole patients, 16 (73%) were considered to have been treated successfully; 25 of 26 (96%) patients who received griseofulvin were successfully treated (chi

1988 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4366. Effects of replacing sodium intake in subjects on a low sodium diet: a crossover study. Australian National Health & Medical Research Council Dietary Salt Study Management Committee. (Abstract)

Effects of replacing sodium intake in subjects on a low sodium diet: a crossover study. Australian National Health & Medical Research Council Dietary Salt Study Management Committee. Eighty-eight untreated subjects (mean age 58.6 +/- 1.1 years; 73 males and 15 females) with diastolic blood pressure between 90 and 100 mmHg were recruited to the study. Subjects were seen fortnightly and after four pre-diet visits were randomised into a normal sodium intake group (44 subjects receiving less than (...) sodium phase was 67 +/- 4 mmol/day independent of the order in which the treatments were given; the corresponding difference in urine potassium excretion was 1.2 +/- 1.4 mmol/day and was not significant. The differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressures between the low sodium and normal sodium phases for all 88 subjects were 3.6 +/- 0.7 mmHg (95% confidence intervals 2.2-5.0) and 2.1 +/- 0.4 mmHg (95% confidence intervals 1.3-2.9) respectively, and were independent of the order in which

1989 Clinical and experimental hypertension. Part A, Theory and practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4367. Chemical mechanism of the Gram stain and synthesis of a new electron-opaque marker for electron microscopy which replaces the iodine mordant of the stain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

is replaced by the bulkier iodide, the complex formed becomes insoluble in water. It is this same precipitate which forms in the cellular substance of bacteria (both gram-positive and gram-negative types) and which initiates the Gram reaction. Potassium trichloro(eta 2-ethylene)-platinum(II), as an electronopaque marker for electron microscopy, was chemically synthesized, and it produced an anion in aqueous solution which was compatible with crystal violet for the Gram stain. It interacted with crystal (...) Chemical mechanism of the Gram stain and synthesis of a new electron-opaque marker for electron microscopy which replaces the iodine mordant of the stain. Crystal violet (hexamethyl-para-rosaniline chloride) interacts with aqueous KI-I2 during the Gram stain via a simple metathetical anion exchange to produce a chemical precipitate. There is an apparent 1:1 stoichiometry between anion (I-) and cation (hexamethyl-para-rosaniline+) during the reaction and, since the small chloride anion

1983 Journal of bacteriology

4368. A clinical evaluation of the hypothesis that rupture of the left ventricle following mitral valve replacement can be prevented by preservation of the chordae of the mural leaflet. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A clinical evaluation of the hypothesis that rupture of the left ventricle following mitral valve replacement can be prevented by preservation of the chordae of the mural leaflet. Experiences with 14 patients undergoing rupture of the left ventricle following mitral valve replacement over a period of 9 years have been described. Three different types have been recognized. Before 1978, most injuries occurred in the atrioventricular groove, apparently resulting from traction that insidiously (...) in small elderly women with mitral valve disease. If the friability of the left ventricle is transiently increased with potassium cardioplegia, such ventricles may spontaneously rupture following division of the chordae to the annulus of the mural leaflet. If this concept is correct, a rupture in some patients can best be prevented by preserving these chordae. It is well realized, of course, that a fortunate narrative experience of 3 1/2 years does not have any statistical value concerning

1985 Annals of Surgery

4369. The effects of substituting frusemide for a thiazide diuretic in the drug regimens of patients with essential hypertension. (Abstract)

The effects of substituting frusemide for a thiazide diuretic in the drug regimens of patients with essential hypertension. Eighteen patients with mild to moderate hypertension on a drug regimen which included a thiazide diuretic had the latter substituted by frusemide for twelve weeks after an initial two-week placebo wash-out period. Blood pressure and heart rate and a number of plasma and urinary biochemical indices were measured. Significant findings included a reduction in standing blood (...) pressure and an elevation of plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, osmolarity, creatinine and alkaline phosphatase levels at the end of the twelve week frusemide phase relative to the values on the thiazide. However the means for all the biochemical indices remained within the normal laboratory reference limits. In the 24-hour urinary studies, no significant findings emerged, apart from an elevated calcium. The foregoing suggest that frusemide is an effective component of an anti-hypertensive drug

1987 European journal of clinical pharmacology

4370. The influence of hydrocortisone substitution on the quality of life and parameters of bone metabolism in patients with secondary hypocortisolism. (Abstract)

The influence of hydrocortisone substitution on the quality of life and parameters of bone metabolism in patients with secondary hypocortisolism. Hydrocortisone replacement regimes remain rather empirical and produce serum cortisol profiles very different from normal physiology. We have analysed the effects of different dosages of hydrocortisone (HC) replacement therapy on the health perception and general well-being of patients with secondary hypocortisolism. We also evaluated the effects (...) not change during the study.Dosages of 15, 20 or 30 mg hydrocortisone/day have equivalent effects on quality of life in patients with secondary hypocortisolism. With 15 or 20 mg hydrocortisone/day the patients feel nearly as well and content as normal healthy individuals. Since long-term treatment with a high replacement dose of glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone 30 mg/day) induces bone loss, this risk can be avoided with a substitution dosage of 20 mg or even 15 mg hydrocortisone/day, without influencing

1999 Clinical endocrinology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4371. Magnesium substitution and postoperative arrhythmias in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. (Abstract)

Magnesium substitution and postoperative arrhythmias in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Sixty coronary artery bypass grafting patients were randomized to receive either magnesium sulphate or placebo for 4 days postoperatively. The magnesium substitution reduced the duration of atrial fibrillation or flutter (p < 0.05), but not the number of patients developing these arrhythmias. The number of ventricular ectopic beats was also reduced among patients receiving magnesium (...) sulphate compared to placebo (p < 0.05). To evaluate whether the anti-arrhythmic effect of magnesium sulphate was explained by a faster resumption of cellular potassium postoperatively, skeletal muscle electrolyte concentrations were measured pre-operatively and on the third day postoperatively. No significant difference was found in skeletal muscle potassium or magnesium contents on the third day postoperatively when comparing the two groups. The serum magnesium level declined postoperatively

1997 Scandinavian cardiovascular journal : SCJ Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4372. [Magnesium deficiency and magnesium substitution. Effect on ventricular cardiac arrhythmias of various etiology]. (Abstract)

[Magnesium deficiency and magnesium substitution. Effect on ventricular cardiac arrhythmias of various etiology]. During recent years there has been an increasing but still controversial discussion on the antiarrhythmic effects and overall benefit of magnesium when directed to patients with various types of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. While magnesium is considered to be a simple, safe and cost-effective approach and many casuistic and empiric reports have indicated antiarrhythmic properties (...) double-blind, randomized study documented an antiarrhythmic effect of a 3 week treatment with potassium and magnesium. For all other types of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, the therapeutic use of magnesium can be considered as not harmful, but also as not proven to be effective.

1997 Herz Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4373. [Modified substitution of intracellular cations]. (Abstract)

[Modified substitution of intracellular cations]. In order to ascertain the effect of modified supplementation of electrolytes and trace metals on intracellular uptake, 75 patients undergoing mitral valve replacement were randomly divided into three groups: group A (n = 25) received potassium and sodium chloride while group B (n = 25) was treated with potassium aspartate; in group C (n = 25), a balanced solution of electrolytes and trace metals (Inzolen) with aspartate as the anion was given (...) . The treatment in the three groups was administered on the basis of frequently measured plasma levels of potassium and sodium. Anesthesia was similar in all patients; cardiac arrest was performed by crossclamping of the aorta using "Bretschneider's cardioplegia" for sodium withdrawal. After removal of the mitral valve, a sample of papillary muscle was obtained and analyzed by atomic absorption for its content of sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, and copper (Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu). Sodium levels in papillary

1987 Der Anaesthesist Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4374. Effects of nystatin-mediated intracellular ion substitution on membrane currents in calf Purkinje fibres Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of nystatin-mediated intracellular ion substitution on membrane currents in calf Purkinje fibres 1. Calf cardiac Purkinje fibres were exposed briefly to the ionophore nystatin to promote exchange of caesium for intracellular potassium. The effects of Cs loading were stable for at least 30 min, but they could be reversed by nystatin-mediated K loading.2. After Cs loading, the resting potential shifted to about -20 mV and the current-voltage relationship showed a strong inhibition

1982 The Journal of physiology

4375. Structure of a serpin-enzyme complex probed by cysteine substitutions and fluorescence spectroscopy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Structure of a serpin-enzyme complex probed by cysteine substitutions and fluorescence spectroscopy. The x-ray crystal structure of the serpin-proteinase complex is yet to be determined. In this study we have investigated the conformational changes that take place within antitrypsin during complex formation with catalytically inactive (thrombin(S195A)) and active thrombin. Three variants of antitrypsin Pittsburgh (an effective thrombin inhibitor), each containing a unique cysteine residue (Cys (...) change upon forming a complex with either active or inactive proteinase. Steady-state fluorescence quenching measurements using potassium iodide were used to further probe the nature and extent of this conformational change. A pronounced conformational change is observed upon locking with an active proteinase; however, our data reveal that docking with the inactive proteinase thrombin(S195A) is also able to induce a conformational change in the serpin.

2001 Biophysical journal

4376. Assessing the Guidelines for Potassium Replacement in Pediatric Oncology Patients Receiving Amphotericin B Full Text available with Trip Pro

Assessing the Guidelines for Potassium Replacement in Pediatric Oncology Patients Receiving Amphotericin B To examine the practice of potassium chloride (KCl) replacement in pediatric oncology patients receiving amphotericin B (amp-B).A retrospective observational chart review was conducted of patients who received amp-B on the oncology unit between August 2000 and May 2001. A survey was distributed to pediatric oncology pharmacists at other pediatric institutions to assess KCl infusion (...) guidelines across North America.Twenty hypokalemic episodes were identified within 22 patient admissions. Fifty-five percent used KCl replacement (by all combined routes) at rates exceeding the institution's guidelines. Other pediatric institutions varied with respect to the maximum rates and concentration of KCl permitted on non-intensive care units.Based on the data from this review, the KCl administration guidelines for our hospital were changed. We now allow a maximum peripheral line concentration

2006 The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics : JPPT

4377. Replacing potassium with nicorandil in cold St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegia improves preservation of energetics and function in pig hearts. (Abstract)

Replacing potassium with nicorandil in cold St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegia improves preservation of energetics and function in pig hearts. To determine whether the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener nicorandil, instead of potassium in cold crystalloid cardioplegia, may enhance cardioprotection, crystalloid cardioplegia with nicorandil, magnesium, and procaine was compared with standard crystalloid cardioplegia in terms of left ventricular performance

2004 Annals of Thoracic Surgery

4378. The pitfalls of potassium replacement in thyrotoxic periodic paralysis: a case report and review of the literature. (Abstract)

The pitfalls of potassium replacement in thyrotoxic periodic paralysis: a case report and review of the literature. Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis is an uncommon disorder seen primarily in Asian males and caused by excessive thyroid hormones. This is an endocrine emergency that can lead to respiratory failure, dysrhythmia, and death. The mainstay of therapy has been potassium replacement, however, recent evidence suggests propranolol is a more effective therapy. We present a severe case of TPP

2004 Journal of Emergency Medicine

4379. Clinical, biochemical and histochemical assessment of pretreatment with glucose-insulin-potassium for patients undergoing mitral valve replacement in the third and fourth functional groups of the New York Heart Association. (Abstract)

Clinical, biochemical and histochemical assessment of pretreatment with glucose-insulin-potassium for patients undergoing mitral valve replacement in the third and fourth functional groups of the New York Heart Association. In this study, the potentially beneficial effects of preoperative treatment with glucose, insulin and potassium in a randomized series of 30 consecutive patients undergoing mitral valve replacement, who were in the third and fourth functional groups of the New York Heart (...) that glucose, insulin and potassium pretreatment may be beneficial in unfit patients undergoing mitral valve replacement.

1999 Cardiovascular surgery (London, England) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4380. Electrocardiographic changes induced by inhaled salbutamol after treatment with bendrofluazide: effects of replacement therapy with potassium, magnesium and triamterene. (Abstract)

Electrocardiographic changes induced by inhaled salbutamol after treatment with bendrofluazide: effects of replacement therapy with potassium, magnesium and triamterene. 1. Twelve normal subjects were given 5 days' treatment with (a) placebo; (b) 5 mg of bendrofluazide; (c) 5 mg of bendrofluazide plus 24 mmol of potassium; (d) 5 mg of bendrofluazide plus 24 mmol of magnesium; (e) 5 mg of bendrofluazide plus 24 mmol of potassium plus 24 mmol of magnesium; (f) 5 mg of bendrofluazide plus 50 mg (...) of triamterene. 2. After each treatment period, subjects were given two doses of inhaled salbutamol (each of 1 mg), and measurements were made 25 min after each dose. 3. Treatment with bendrofluazide plus salbutamol produced a lower absolute level of plasma potassium than salbutamol alone, although the addition of potassium, magnesium or triamterene did not attenuate this effect. Plasma magnesium was unchanged by salbutamol. 4. Salbutamol was associated with significant electrocardiographic effects

1990 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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