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Potassium Replacement

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4361. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in aging humans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in aging humans. Because so much medical and media attention has been drawn to the alleged benefits of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester (DHEAS), it is important to evaluate the effects of replacement therapy objectively using double blind, cross-over, randomized research methodology. In this 9-month study, healthy older men (n = 39) received replacement dose DHEA. Lean body mass, blood hematology, chemistry and endocrine values, as well (...) , and potassium) were found. After cessation of DHEA and placebo, followed by 3 months of no treatment, all values previously found to be altered returned to entry baseline. Well publicized effects of the drug reported by others, such as a sense of well-being or improved sexual function, were not found in this study.

1999 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4362. Effects of nystatin-mediated intracellular ion substitution on membrane currents in calf Purkinje fibres Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of nystatin-mediated intracellular ion substitution on membrane currents in calf Purkinje fibres 1. Calf cardiac Purkinje fibres were exposed briefly to the ionophore nystatin to promote exchange of caesium for intracellular potassium. The effects of Cs loading were stable for at least 30 min, but they could be reversed by nystatin-mediated K loading.2. After Cs loading, the resting potential shifted to about -20 mV and the current-voltage relationship showed a strong inhibition

1982 The Journal of physiology

4363. Structure of a serpin-enzyme complex probed by cysteine substitutions and fluorescence spectroscopy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Structure of a serpin-enzyme complex probed by cysteine substitutions and fluorescence spectroscopy. The x-ray crystal structure of the serpin-proteinase complex is yet to be determined. In this study we have investigated the conformational changes that take place within antitrypsin during complex formation with catalytically inactive (thrombin(S195A)) and active thrombin. Three variants of antitrypsin Pittsburgh (an effective thrombin inhibitor), each containing a unique cysteine residue (Cys (...) change upon forming a complex with either active or inactive proteinase. Steady-state fluorescence quenching measurements using potassium iodide were used to further probe the nature and extent of this conformational change. A pronounced conformational change is observed upon locking with an active proteinase; however, our data reveal that docking with the inactive proteinase thrombin(S195A) is also able to induce a conformational change in the serpin.

2001 Biophysical journal

4364. The effects of substituting frusemide for a thiazide diuretic in the drug regimens of patients with essential hypertension. (Abstract)

The effects of substituting frusemide for a thiazide diuretic in the drug regimens of patients with essential hypertension. Eighteen patients with mild to moderate hypertension on a drug regimen which included a thiazide diuretic had the latter substituted by frusemide for twelve weeks after an initial two-week placebo wash-out period. Blood pressure and heart rate and a number of plasma and urinary biochemical indices were measured. Significant findings included a reduction in standing blood (...) pressure and an elevation of plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, osmolarity, creatinine and alkaline phosphatase levels at the end of the twelve week frusemide phase relative to the values on the thiazide. However the means for all the biochemical indices remained within the normal laboratory reference limits. In the 24-hour urinary studies, no significant findings emerged, apart from an elevated calcium. The foregoing suggest that frusemide is an effective component of an anti-hypertensive drug

1987 European journal of clinical pharmacology

4365. [Modified substitution of intracellular cations]. (Abstract)

[Modified substitution of intracellular cations]. In order to ascertain the effect of modified supplementation of electrolytes and trace metals on intracellular uptake, 75 patients undergoing mitral valve replacement were randomly divided into three groups: group A (n = 25) received potassium and sodium chloride while group B (n = 25) was treated with potassium aspartate; in group C (n = 25), a balanced solution of electrolytes and trace metals (Inzolen) with aspartate as the anion was given (...) . The treatment in the three groups was administered on the basis of frequently measured plasma levels of potassium and sodium. Anesthesia was similar in all patients; cardiac arrest was performed by crossclamping of the aorta using "Bretschneider's cardioplegia" for sodium withdrawal. After removal of the mitral valve, a sample of papillary muscle was obtained and analyzed by atomic absorption for its content of sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, and copper (Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu). Sodium levels in papillary

1987 Der Anaesthesist Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4366. Magnesium substitution and postoperative arrhythmias in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. (Abstract)

Magnesium substitution and postoperative arrhythmias in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Sixty coronary artery bypass grafting patients were randomized to receive either magnesium sulphate or placebo for 4 days postoperatively. The magnesium substitution reduced the duration of atrial fibrillation or flutter (p < 0.05), but not the number of patients developing these arrhythmias. The number of ventricular ectopic beats was also reduced among patients receiving magnesium (...) sulphate compared to placebo (p < 0.05). To evaluate whether the anti-arrhythmic effect of magnesium sulphate was explained by a faster resumption of cellular potassium postoperatively, skeletal muscle electrolyte concentrations were measured pre-operatively and on the third day postoperatively. No significant difference was found in skeletal muscle potassium or magnesium contents on the third day postoperatively when comparing the two groups. The serum magnesium level declined postoperatively

1997 Scandinavian cardiovascular journal : SCJ Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4367. [Magnesium deficiency and magnesium substitution. Effect on ventricular cardiac arrhythmias of various etiology]. (Abstract)

[Magnesium deficiency and magnesium substitution. Effect on ventricular cardiac arrhythmias of various etiology]. During recent years there has been an increasing but still controversial discussion on the antiarrhythmic effects and overall benefit of magnesium when directed to patients with various types of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. While magnesium is considered to be a simple, safe and cost-effective approach and many casuistic and empiric reports have indicated antiarrhythmic properties (...) double-blind, randomized study documented an antiarrhythmic effect of a 3 week treatment with potassium and magnesium. For all other types of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, the therapeutic use of magnesium can be considered as not harmful, but also as not proven to be effective.

1997 Herz Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4368. The influence of hydrocortisone substitution on the quality of life and parameters of bone metabolism in patients with secondary hypocortisolism. (Abstract)

The influence of hydrocortisone substitution on the quality of life and parameters of bone metabolism in patients with secondary hypocortisolism. Hydrocortisone replacement regimes remain rather empirical and produce serum cortisol profiles very different from normal physiology. We have analysed the effects of different dosages of hydrocortisone (HC) replacement therapy on the health perception and general well-being of patients with secondary hypocortisolism. We also evaluated the effects (...) not change during the study.Dosages of 15, 20 or 30 mg hydrocortisone/day have equivalent effects on quality of life in patients with secondary hypocortisolism. With 15 or 20 mg hydrocortisone/day the patients feel nearly as well and content as normal healthy individuals. Since long-term treatment with a high replacement dose of glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone 30 mg/day) induces bone loss, this risk can be avoided with a substitution dosage of 20 mg or even 15 mg hydrocortisone/day, without influencing

1999 Clinical endocrinology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4369. Assessing the Guidelines for Potassium Replacement in Pediatric Oncology Patients Receiving Amphotericin B Full Text available with Trip Pro

Assessing the Guidelines for Potassium Replacement in Pediatric Oncology Patients Receiving Amphotericin B To examine the practice of potassium chloride (KCl) replacement in pediatric oncology patients receiving amphotericin B (amp-B).A retrospective observational chart review was conducted of patients who received amp-B on the oncology unit between August 2000 and May 2001. A survey was distributed to pediatric oncology pharmacists at other pediatric institutions to assess KCl infusion (...) guidelines across North America.Twenty hypokalemic episodes were identified within 22 patient admissions. Fifty-five percent used KCl replacement (by all combined routes) at rates exceeding the institution's guidelines. Other pediatric institutions varied with respect to the maximum rates and concentration of KCl permitted on non-intensive care units.Based on the data from this review, the KCl administration guidelines for our hospital were changed. We now allow a maximum peripheral line concentration

2006 The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics : JPPT

4370. Replacing potassium with nicorandil in cold St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegia improves preservation of energetics and function in pig hearts. (Abstract)

Replacing potassium with nicorandil in cold St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegia improves preservation of energetics and function in pig hearts. To determine whether the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener nicorandil, instead of potassium in cold crystalloid cardioplegia, may enhance cardioprotection, crystalloid cardioplegia with nicorandil, magnesium, and procaine was compared with standard crystalloid cardioplegia in terms of left ventricular performance

2004 Annals of Thoracic Surgery

4371. The pitfalls of potassium replacement in thyrotoxic periodic paralysis: a case report and review of the literature. (Abstract)

The pitfalls of potassium replacement in thyrotoxic periodic paralysis: a case report and review of the literature. Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis is an uncommon disorder seen primarily in Asian males and caused by excessive thyroid hormones. This is an endocrine emergency that can lead to respiratory failure, dysrhythmia, and death. The mainstay of therapy has been potassium replacement, however, recent evidence suggests propranolol is a more effective therapy. We present a severe case of TPP

2004 Journal of Emergency Medicine

4372. Effects of preoperative glucose-insulin-potassium on myocardial glycogen levels and on complications of mitral valve replacement. (Abstract)

Effects of preoperative glucose-insulin-potassium on myocardial glycogen levels and on complications of mitral valve replacement. Myocardial glycogen content was increased from a mean of 25.8 +/- 3.7 to 40.3 +/- 4.2 mumol/gm (p less than 0.0001) by an infusion of glucose, insulin, and potassium before mitral valve replacement. Patients who had received such an infusion and who had a higher myocardial glycogen content had a lower incidence of postoperative hypotension, less serious postoperative (...) arrhythmias, and fewer serious complications after elective mitral valve replacement.

1986 The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4373. Electrocardiographic changes induced by inhaled salbutamol after treatment with bendrofluazide: effects of replacement therapy with potassium, magnesium and triamterene. (Abstract)

Electrocardiographic changes induced by inhaled salbutamol after treatment with bendrofluazide: effects of replacement therapy with potassium, magnesium and triamterene. 1. Twelve normal subjects were given 5 days' treatment with (a) placebo; (b) 5 mg of bendrofluazide; (c) 5 mg of bendrofluazide plus 24 mmol of potassium; (d) 5 mg of bendrofluazide plus 24 mmol of magnesium; (e) 5 mg of bendrofluazide plus 24 mmol of potassium plus 24 mmol of magnesium; (f) 5 mg of bendrofluazide plus 50 mg (...) of triamterene. 2. After each treatment period, subjects were given two doses of inhaled salbutamol (each of 1 mg), and measurements were made 25 min after each dose. 3. Treatment with bendrofluazide plus salbutamol produced a lower absolute level of plasma potassium than salbutamol alone, although the addition of potassium, magnesium or triamterene did not attenuate this effect. Plasma magnesium was unchanged by salbutamol. 4. Salbutamol was associated with significant electrocardiographic effects

1990 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4374. Effects of adrenalectomy and chronic adrenal corticosteroid replacement on potassium transport in rat kidney. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of adrenalectomy and chronic adrenal corticosteroid replacement on potassium transport in rat kidney. Clearance experiments were carried out in pair-fed rats to examine the long-term effects of adrenalectomy and selective adrenal corticosteroid replacement in physiological amounts on renal potassium transport. To this end, clearance studies were conducted in rats that were sham operated, or adrenalectomized (ADX). ADX animals were given either vehicle, aldosterone (0.5 microgram/100 g (...) body wt per day), dexamethasone (1.2 micrograms/100 g body wt per day), or aldosterone and dexamethasone, by osmotic minipump for 7-9 d whereupon clearance experiments were conducted. After chronic hormone treatment, during basal conditions when only Ringers solution was infused, all groups excreted similar amounts of potassium. However, in all ADX animals without mineralocorticoid replacement, the maintenance of urinary potassium excretion at control levels was associated with hyperkalemia

1985 Journal of Clinical Investigation

4375. Clinical, biochemical and histochemical assessment of pretreatment with glucose-insulin-potassium for patients undergoing mitral valve replacement in the third and fourth functional groups of the New York Heart Association. (Abstract)

Clinical, biochemical and histochemical assessment of pretreatment with glucose-insulin-potassium for patients undergoing mitral valve replacement in the third and fourth functional groups of the New York Heart Association. In this study, the potentially beneficial effects of preoperative treatment with glucose, insulin and potassium in a randomized series of 30 consecutive patients undergoing mitral valve replacement, who were in the third and fourth functional groups of the New York Heart (...) that glucose, insulin and potassium pretreatment may be beneficial in unfit patients undergoing mitral valve replacement.

1999 Cardiovascular surgery (London, England) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4376. [Treatment of cardiac failure with diuretics. A double-blind study comparing a fixed combination of hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride and furosemide plus potassium substitution]. (Abstract)

[Treatment of cardiac failure with diuretics. A double-blind study comparing a fixed combination of hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride and furosemide plus potassium substitution]. 6349006 1983 09 20 2013 11 21 0029-2001 103 14 1983 May 20 Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny raekke Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen. [Treatment of cardiac failure with diuretics. A double-blind study comparing a fixed combination of hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride and furosemide plus (...) potassium substitution]. 1165-8 Kremer D D nor Clinical Trial Comparative Study English Abstract Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial Behandling av hjertesvikt med diuretika. En dobbelblind undersøkelse som sammenligner en fast kombinasjon av hydroklortiazid/amilorid og furosemid pluss kaliumsubstitusjon. Norway Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 0413423 0029-2001 0 Pyrazines 0J48LPH2TH Hydrochlorothiazide 7DZO8EB0Z3 Amiloride 7LXU5N7ZO5 Furosemide RWP5GA015D Potassium IM Adult Aged Amiloride therapeutic use

1983 Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny raekke Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4377. Effects of dietary sodium substitution with potassium and magnesium in hypertensive type II diabetics: a randomised blind controlled parallel study. (Abstract)

Effects of dietary sodium substitution with potassium and magnesium in hypertensive type II diabetics: a randomised blind controlled parallel study. We have previously demonstrated that modest sodium restriction has a hypotensive effect in hypertensive diabetic subjects. A randomised blind controlled study has therefore been performed to study the effect of replacement of added salt intake using a salt substitute (50% NaCl, 40% KCL, 10% Mg2+, supplied by Cederroth, Sweden), compared to added (...) or insulin levels or diabetic control (measured by glycosylated haemoglobin). A greater number of patients were withdrawn during the study period owing to consistent BP > 160/95 in the whole salt group (n = 10) compared to salt substitute (n = 4). No significant changes were observed in diastolic pressure, 24-h urine sodium or magnesium excretion, but urine potassium was significantly increased in the salt substitute group (58.8 to 77.3: P < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that substitution

1996 Journal of human hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4378. Salt substitutes and potassium intake. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Salt substitutes and potassium intake. 1747573 1992 01 21 2018 11 13 0959-8138 303 6810 1991 Nov 02 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Salt substitutes and potassium intake. 1084-5 Swales J D JD eng Editorial England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 RWP5GA015D Potassium AIM IM Blood Pressure drug effects Diet Humans Hyperkalemia chemically induced Hypertension physiopathology Hypokalemia prevention & control Potassium administration & dosage adverse effects Risk Factors 1991 11 2 1991 11 2 0 1 1991 11 2 0 0

1991 BMJ : British Medical Journal

4379. Danger of salt substitutes that contain potassium in patients with renal failure Full Text available with Trip Pro

Danger of salt substitutes that contain potassium in patients with renal failure 12511461 2003 01 23 2018 11 13 1756-1833 326 7379 2003 Jan 04 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Danger of salt substitutes that contain potassium in patients with renal failure. 35-6 Doorenbos C J CJ Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Deventer Hospital, PO Box 5001, 7400 GC Deventer, Netherlands. doorenbc@dz.nl Vermeij C G CG eng Case Reports Journal Article Comment England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 0 Sodium (...) Chloride, Dietary RWP5GA015D Potassium AIM IM BMJ. 2001 Sep 1;323(7311):497-501 11532846 Aged Contraindications Female Humans Hyperkalemia chemically induced Kidney Failure, Chronic complications Potassium Renal Dialysis methods Risk Factors Sodium Chloride, Dietary 2003 1 4 4 0 2003 1 24 4 0 2003 1 4 4 0 ppublish 12511461 PMC1124926 Am J Med. 2000 Sep;109(4):307-14 10996582 BMJ. 1995 Dec 2;311(7018):1486-7 8520342 BMJ. 2001 Sep 1;323(7311):497-501 11532846

2003 BMJ : British Medical Journal

4380. Can potassium citrate replace sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride of oral rehydration solution? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Can potassium citrate replace sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride of oral rehydration solution? Ninety four children aged less than 5 years with diarrhoeal dehydration and acidosis were treated randomly with either World Health Organisation (WHO) oral rehydration solution containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and glucose or an oral solution with tripotassium citrate monohydrate replacing the sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride in the WHO solution. Fifty (...) compared with children receiving WHO solution after 24 and 48 hours' treatment. None developed hyperkalaemia. Although children receiving potassium citrate solution corrected their acidosis at a slower rate than the WHO solution group during the first 24 hours, by 48 hours satisfactory correction was observed in all. Tripotassium citrate can safely replace sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride and may be the most useful and beneficial treatment for diarrhoea and associated hypokalaemia.

1985 Archives of disease in childhood Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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