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Potassium Replacement

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4341. Differential tetraethylammonium sensitivity of KCNQ1–4 potassium channels (Full text)

Differential tetraethylammonium sensitivity of KCNQ1–4 potassium channels In Shaker-group potassium channels the presence of a tyrosine residue, just downstream of the pore signature sequence GYG, determines sensitivity to tetraethylammonium (TEA). The KCNQ family of channels has a variety of amino acid residues in the equivalent position. We studied the effect of TEA on currents generated by KCNQ homomers and heteromers expressed in CHO cells. We used wild-type KCNQ1-4 channels (...) and heteromeric KCNQ2/3 channels incorporating either wild-type KCNQ3 subunits or a mutated KCNQ3 in which tyrosine replaced threonine at position 323 (mutant T323Y). IC50 values were (mM): KCNQ1, 5.0; KCNQ2, 0.3; KCNQ3, > 30; KCNQ4, 3.0; KCNQ2 + KCNQ3, 3.8; and KCNQ2 + KCNQ3(T323Y), 0.5. While the high TEA sensitivity of KCNQ2 may be conferred by a tyrosine residue lacking in the other channels, the intermediate TEA sensitivity of KCNQ1 and KCNQ4 implies that other residues are also important in determining

2000 British journal of pharmacology PubMed abstract

4342. Ion–Ion Interactions at the Selectivity Filter: Evidence from K+-Dependent Modulation of Tetraethylammonium Efficacy in Kv2.1 Potassium Channels (Full text)

Ion–Ion Interactions at the Selectivity Filter: Evidence from K+-Dependent Modulation of Tetraethylammonium Efficacy in Kv2.1 Potassium Channels In the Kv2.1 potassium channel, binding of K(+) to a high-affinity site associated with the selectivity filter modulates channel sensitivity to external TEA. In channels carrying Na(+) current, K(+) interacts with the TEA modulation site at concentrations substitute permeating ion, such as Na(+), reducing access of K(+) to the pore resulted in a reduction of TEA efficacy, but produced little or no change in TEA potency (under conditions in which maximal block by TEA was just 32%, the IC(50) for block was 2.0 +/- 0.6 mM). The all

2000 The Journal of general physiology PubMed abstract

4343. Heteromerization of Kir2.x potassium channels contributes to the phenotype of Andersen's syndrome (Full text)

Heteromerization of Kir2.x potassium channels contributes to the phenotype of Andersen's syndrome Andersen's syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder related to mutations of the potassium channel Kir2.1, is characterized by cardiac arrhythmias, periodic paralysis, and dysmorphic bone structure. The aim of our study was to find out whether heteromerization of Kir2.1 channels with wild-type Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 channels contributes to the phenotype of Andersen's syndrome. The following results show (...) expression of homomeric channels. (iv) Coexpression of nonfunctional Kir2.x constructs, in which the GYG region of the pore region was replaced by AAA, with wild-type Kir2.x channels produced both homomeric and heteromeric dominant-negative effects. (v) Kir2.1 and Kir2.3 channels could be coimmunoprecipitated in membrane extracts from isolated guinea pig cardiomyocytes. (vi) Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed interaction between the N- and C-terminal intracellular domains of different Kir2.x subunits

2002 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PubMed abstract

4344. Gating and flickery block differentially affected by rubidium in homomeric KCNQ1 and heteromeric KCNQ1/KCNE1 potassium channels. (Full text)

gating and conductance of these channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp and the patch-clamp technique and high extracellular potassium (K) and rubidium (Rb) solutions. Inward tail currents of homomeric KCNQ1 channels are increased about threefold upon substitution of 100 mM potassium with 100 mM rubidium despite a smaller rubidium permeability, suggesting an effect of rubidium on gating. However, the kinetics of tail currents and the steady-state activation curve (...) Gating and flickery block differentially affected by rubidium in homomeric KCNQ1 and heteromeric KCNQ1/KCNE1 potassium channels. The voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1 associates with the small KCNE1 subunit to form the cardiac IKs delayed rectifier potassium current and mutations in both genes can lead to the long QT syndrome. KCNQ1 can form functional homotetrameric channels, however with drastically different biophysical properties compared to heteromeric KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels. We analyzed

2000 Biophysical journal PubMed abstract

4345. Treatment of amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism with potassium perchlorate and methimazole during amiodarone treatment. (Full text)

Treatment of amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism with potassium perchlorate and methimazole during amiodarone treatment. To exploit the antiarrhythmic effect of amiodarone when patients develop the side effect of thyrotoxicosis three patients with hyperthyroidism induced by amiodarone were given simultaneously 1 g potassium perchlorate a day for 40 days and a starting dose of 40 mg methimazole a day while they continued to take amiodarone. As hyperthyroidism might have recurred after potassium (...) perchlorate treatment was stopped the dose of methimazole was not reduced until biochemical hypothyroidism (raised thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations) was achieved. The patients became euthyroid (free triiodothyronine concentration returned to normal values) in two to five weeks and hypothyroid in 10 to 14 weeks. One patient became euthyroid while taking 5 mg methimazole a day and 600 mg amiodarone weekly; the two others required substitution treatment with thyroxine sodium while taking 5 mg

1989 BMJ : British Medical Journal PubMed abstract

4346. Fluctuations of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and chlorine in single alpha and beta cells during glucose perifusion of rat islets. (Full text)

Fluctuations of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and chlorine in single alpha and beta cells during glucose perifusion of rat islets. To study the relationship between islet hormonal secretion and intracellular content of five elements, a rat islet perifusion technique was used in 24 paired experiments. Control and experimental chambers each containing 100 islets, received 2.8 and 16.7 mM D-glucose, respectively. Effluent was collected frequently for hormone measurements. At eight (...) different time intervals form 0--30 min islets were fixed and prepared for scanning electron microscopy. Over 900 unobscured alpha and beta cells were selected by size and shape criteria. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis was applied to each single cell to determine relative content of calcium (Ca), potassium (K), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), and phosphorus (P). Experimental chambers exhibited typical acute (0--9 min) and second phase (10--30 min) insulin secretion in association with suppression

1981 Journal of Clinical Investigation PubMed abstract

4347. Regulation of collecting tubule adenosine triphosphatases by aldosterone and potassium. (Full text)

Regulation of collecting tubule adenosine triphosphatases by aldosterone and potassium. To examine the precise role of potassium and aldosterone on acid-base composition and on collecting tubule ATPases, glucocorticoid-replete adrenalectomized rats were replaced with zero, physiological, or pharmacological doses of aldosterone and were fed varying potassium diets to produce hypokalemia, normokalemia, or hyperkalemia. Radiochemical measurement of ATPase activities showed that collecting tubule H (...) /K-ATPase changed inversely with potassium and not with aldosterone whereas H-ATPase changed directly with aldosterone but not with potassium. When both enzymes changed in the same direction, alterations in acid-base composition were profound; however, when these two acidifying enzymes changed in opposite directions or when only one enzyme changed, the effect on acid-base balance was modest. Serum bicarbonate was approximately 45 meq/liter when aldosterone was high and potassium was low

1993 Journal of Clinical Investigation PubMed abstract

4348. Taurodeoxycholate activates potassium and chloride conductances via an IP3-mediated release of calcium from intracellular stores in a colonic cell line (T84) (Full text)

Taurodeoxycholate activates potassium and chloride conductances via an IP3-mediated release of calcium from intracellular stores in a colonic cell line (T84) Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques and fluorescence measurements of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, (Ca2+)i, were used to investigate the mechanism of taurodeoxycholate (TDC) stimulation of Cl- secretion in the T84 colonic cell line. During perforated whole-cell recordings, the cell membrane voltage was alternately clamped to EK and ECl (...) not stimulate colonic Cl- secretion, induced no current response. The TDC-induced currents could be activated in Ca(2+)-free bathing solutions. Preincubation of cells with the Ca2+ chelator, bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethy)-ester (20 microM), (BAPTA-AM), eliminated the K+ and Cl- current responses, although the nonselective cation channel events were still present. Replacement of bath Na+ with NMDG+ inhibited the TDC-induced nonselective cation current but did

1993 Journal of Clinical Investigation PubMed abstract

4349. Consequences of potassium recycling in the renal medulla. Effects of ion transport by the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. (Full text)

Consequences of potassium recycling in the renal medulla. Effects of ion transport by the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. The consequences of K recycling and accumulation in the renal medulla were examined by measuring the effect of elevated K concentration on ion transport by the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. Perfused and bathed in vitro, thick limbs from both mouse and rabbit displayed a graded, reversible reduction of transepithelial voltage after increasing (...) K concentration from 5 to 10, 15, or 25 mM. The effect was reproducible whether osmolality was 328 or 445 mosmol/kg H2O, and whether K replaced Na or choline. Net chloride absorption and transepithelial voltage were reduced by almost 90% when ambient K concentration was 25 mM. When either lumen or bath K was increased to 25 mM, net Na absorption was reduced. There was spontaneous net K absorption when perfusate and bath K concentration was 5 mM. Analysis of transepithelial K transfer after

1982 Journal of Clinical Investigation PubMed abstract

4350. Regulation by adrenal corticosteroids of sodium and potassium transport in loop of Henle and distal tubule of rat kidney. (Full text)

Regulation by adrenal corticosteroids of sodium and potassium transport in loop of Henle and distal tubule of rat kidney. Studies were conducted to examine the effects of adrenalectomy (ADX) and selective, physiological adrenal corticosteroid replacement on sodium and potassium transport by the superficial loop of Henle and distal tubule of rat kidney in vivo. In the loop of Henle, ADX inhibited sodium reabsorption by 33%. Whereas dexamethasone had no effect on reabsorption, aldosterone (...) increased sodium transport to control levels. Thus, physiological levels of mineralocorticoids, but not glucocorticoids, control a fraction of sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle. ADX also inhibited potassium reabsorption in the loop of Henle. Both dexamethasone and aldosterone reversed the inhibition, although only aldosterone increased reabsorption to control levels. In the distal tubule, ADX reduced sodium reabsorption by 44%. Both aldosterone and dexamethasone stimulated reabsorption: however

1986 Journal of Clinical Investigation PubMed abstract

4351. Effects of potassium on ammonia transport by medullary thick ascending limb of the rat. (Full text)

Effects of potassium on ammonia transport by medullary thick ascending limb of the rat. Renal ammonium excretion is increased by potassium depletion and reduced by potassium loading. To determine whether changes in potassium concentration would alter ammonia transport in the medullary thick ascending limb (MAL), tubules from rats were perfused in vitro and effects of changes in K concentration within the physiological range (4-24 mM) were evaluated. Increasing K concentration from 4 to 24 mM (...) in perfusate and bath inhibited total ammonia absorption by 50% and reduced the steady-state transepithelial NH+4 concentration gradient. The inhibition of total ammonia absorption was reversible and occurred when K replaced either Na or N-methyl-D-glucamine. Increasing K concentration in the luminal perfusate alone gave similar inhibition of total ammonia absorption. At 1-2 nl/min per mm perfusion rate, increasing K concentration in perfusion and bathing solutions had no significant effect

1987 Journal of Clinical Investigation PubMed abstract

4352. Urinary concentrating defect in hypothyroid rats: role of sodium, potassium, 2-chloride co-transporter, and aquaporins. (Abstract)

Urinary concentrating defect in hypothyroid rats: role of sodium, potassium, 2-chloride co-transporter, and aquaporins. Hypothyroidism is associated with impaired urinary concentrating ability in humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to examine protein expression of renal sodium chloride and urea transporters and aquaporins in hypothyroid rats (HT) with diminished urinary concentration as compared with euthyroid controls (CTL) and hypothyroid rats replaced with L-thyroxine (HT+T

2003 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

4353. Role of luminal anion and pH in distal tubule potassium secretion. (Full text)

Role of luminal anion and pH in distal tubule potassium secretion. Potassium secretory flux (J(K)) by the distal nephron is regulated by systemic and luminal factors. In the present investigation, J(K) was measured with a double-barreled K(+) electrode during paired microperfusion of superficial segments of the rat distal nephron. We used control solutions (100 mM NaCl, pH 7.0) and experimental solutions in which Cl(-) had been replaced with a less permeant anion and/or pH had been increased (...) to 8.0. J(K) increased when Cl(-) was replaced by either acetate ( approximately 37%), sulfate ( approximately 32%), or bicarbonate ( approximately 62%), and also when the pH of the control perfusate was increased ( approximately 26%). The majority (80%) of acetate-stimulated J(K) was Ba(2+) sensitive, but furosemide (1 mM) further reduced secretion ( approximately 10% of total), suggesting that K(+)-Cl(-) cotransport was operative. Progressive reduction in luminal Cl(-) concentration from 100 to 20

2003 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology PubMed abstract

4354. Potassium iodide remains the most effective therapy for cutaneous sporotrichosis. (Abstract)

Potassium iodide remains the most effective therapy for cutaneous sporotrichosis. Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous fungal infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Itraconazole has largely replaced older therapies, but we present a case of lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis that failed to respond to an adequate course of itraconazole yet responded dramatically to treatment with saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI).

2003 Journal of Dermatological Treatment

4355. RAL-eve Study: Raltegravir Substitution Study

RAL-eve Study: Raltegravir Substitution Study RAL-eve Study: Raltegravir Substitution Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. RAL-eve Study: Raltegravir Substitution Study The safety (...) . Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 14 participants Allocation: Non-Randomized Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment Masking: None (Open Label) Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: Raltegravir Substitution for Enfuvirtide in Patients Suffering From Injection Site Reactions (ISRs): The Raleve Pilot Study Study Start Date : October 2007 Actual Primary Completion Date : March 2009 Actual Study Completion Date

2007 Clinical Trials

4356. Partial substitution of carbohydrate intake with protein intake from lean red meat lowers blood pressure in hypertensive persons. (Full text)

were higher [0.33 mmol/L (0.09, 0.58 mmol/L), P = 0.008] in the protein group. These differences were independent of age, sex, and changes in weight, alcohol intake, or urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Diastolic blood pressure and heart rate, arterial compliance, blood lipids, and serum insulin were not significantly different between the groups.Within the context of other studies, these results suggest that modest substitution of carbohydrate-rich foods with protein-rich foods may lower (...) Partial substitution of carbohydrate intake with protein intake from lean red meat lowers blood pressure in hypertensive persons. Compared with carbohydrate intake, dietary intake of plant protein can lower blood pressure in humans, but the effects of animal protein intake on blood pressure have yet to be investigated.We aimed to determine whether partial substitution of carbohydrate intake with animal protein intake from lean red meat changes blood pressure and other markers of cardiovascular

2006 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

4357. Salt substitution: a low-cost strategy for blood pressure control among rural Chinese. A randomized, controlled trial. (Abstract)

-potassium salt substitute (65% sodium chloride, 25% potassium chloride, 10% magnesium sulphate) compared to normal salt (100% sodium chloride) on blood pressure among high-risk individuals. Following a 4-week run-in period on salt substitute, participants were randomly assigned to replace their household salt with either the study salt substitute or normal salt for a 12-month period.The mean age of the 608 randomized participants was 60 years and 56% of them were female. Sixty-four percent had a history (...) Salt substitution: a low-cost strategy for blood pressure control among rural Chinese. A randomized, controlled trial. Dietary sodium and potassium consumption is associated with blood pressure levels. The objective of this study was to define a practical and low-cost method for the control of blood pressure by modification of these dietary cations in rural Chinese.This study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial designed to establish the long-term effects of a reduced-sodium, high

2007 Journal of hypertension Controlled trial quality: predicted high

4358. China Salt Substitute Study

be more easily achieved. This study will test the effect of a salt substitute on blood pressure, among individuals at high-risk from cardiovascular disease in Northern China. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Hypertension Cardiovascular Diseases Drug: low sodium high potassium salt substitute Not Applicable Detailed Description: This randomised trial will clearly identify whether a low-sodium, high-potassium salt-substitute is a feasible means of lowering blood pressure in high-risk (...) Official Title: China Salt Substitute Study-A Randomised Trial to Determine the Long-Term Effects of a Low Sodium, High Potassium Salt Substitute on Blood Pressure Among High-Risk Individuals in Northern China Study Start Date : May 2004 Study Completion Date : September 2005 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: related topics: available for: Arms and Interventions Go to Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Clinical blood pressure Secondary Outcome

2005 Clinical Trials

4359. Aldo-Keto Reductases in which the Conserved Catalytic Histidine is Substituted (Full text)

CC double bonds instead of carbonyl groups, has a Glu substituted for His. Second, the Kvbeta subunits (AKR6A3, AKR6A5 and AKR6A9) which modulate opening of the voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv1) by oxidizing NADPH, have an Asn substituted for the His. Previously, we noted that conserved catalytic residues in AKRs perform similar functions in the short-chain dehydrogenases (SDRs). With the availability of crystal structures of AKR1D1 and two SDRs that catalyze double-bond reduction reactions (...) Aldo-Keto Reductases in which the Conserved Catalytic Histidine is Substituted Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are a major superfamily of monomeric NADPH-dependent carbonyl oxidoreductases. They are characterized by an (alpha/beta)(8)-barrel structure, which at its base contains a conserved catalytic tetrad of Tyr, Lys, His and Asp. Two AKR subfamilies contain other residues substituted for the catalytic His and perform different functions. First, the steroid 5beta-reductase (AKR1D1), which reduces

2008 Chemico-biological interactions PubMed abstract

4360. Non-Native R1 Substitution in the S4 Domain Uniquely Alters Kv4.3 Channel Gating (Full text)

Non-Native R1 Substitution in the S4 Domain Uniquely Alters Kv4.3 Channel Gating The S4 transmembrane domain in Shaker (Kv1) voltage-sensitive potassium channels has four basic residues (R1-R4) that are responsible for carrying the majority of gating charge. In Kv4 channels, however, R1 is replaced by a neutral valine at position 287. Among other differences, Kv4 channels display prominent closed state inactivation, a mechanism which is minimal in Shaker. To determine if the absence of R1

2008 PloS one PubMed abstract

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