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Potassium Replacement

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4281. Role of glucocorticoid in excretion of an acute potassium load in patients with Addison's disease and panhypopituitarism. (Abstract)

Role of glucocorticoid in excretion of an acute potassium load in patients with Addison's disease and panhypopituitarism. Glucocorticoid (GC) has been shown to stimulate potassium (K) excretion in various conditions, but it is still incompletely resolved whether its presence is essential for the normal K homeostasis. We addressed this question in patients with selective GC deficiency (panhypopituitarism) and with combined GC and mineralocorticoid deficiency (Addison's disease), studied 24 hours (...) after withdrawal of their regular substitution therapy. Compared to data in healthy subjects, both basal K excretion and the kaliuresis after a KCl load (1 mmol/kg body wt orally) were impaired in either patient group (P < 0.05). Physiological cortisol supplementation (20 mg 3 hr prior to test, and 1 mg/hr during test) increased basal K excretion (from 10.6 +/- 1.8 to 19.2 +/- 1.9 mmol/5 hr, P < 0.01) and KCl stimulated kaliuresis (from 47.9 +/- 6.1 to 54.8 +/- 4.7 mmol/5 hr, P = 0.06) to normal

1993 Kidney international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4282. Magnesium repletion and its effect on potassium homeostasis in critically ill adults: results of a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. (Abstract)

Magnesium repletion and its effect on potassium homeostasis in critically ill adults: results of a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. The aims of this study were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of magnesium replacement therapy and to determine its effect on potassium retention in hypokalemic, critically ill patients.A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.A surgical intensive care unit (ICU).A total of 32 adult surgical ICU patients were admitted (...) dose was held if hypermagnesemia (magnesium of > 2.8 mg/dL [> 1.15 mmol/L]) was documented at any time during the study. Routine replacements of potassium and magnesium continued during the duration of the study, when clinically indicated, for serum potassium concentrations of 3.5 mmol/L or serum magnesium concentrations of < 1.8 mg/dL (< 0.74 mmol/L).Age, weight, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were recorded on entry into the study. Just before administration of each

1996 Critical care medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

4283. Unchanged central hemodynamics after six months of moderate sodium restriction with or without potassium supplement in essential hypertension. (Abstract)

Unchanged central hemodynamics after six months of moderate sodium restriction with or without potassium supplement in essential hypertension. Sodium (Na) restriction and potassium (K) supplementation has been recommended as treatment of essential hypertension but the mechanism by which these may reduce blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined if moderately reduced Na intake, combined with a low-Na/high-K salt alternative (Pansalt: NaCl 57%, KCl 28%, MgSO4 12%) as substitute for standard

1995 Blood pressure Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4284. Haemodynamic and renal responses to oral losartan potassium during salt depletion or salt repletion in normal human volunteers. (Abstract)

replacement, salt repletion by placebo frusemide (b.i.d.), and active salt replacement (100 mmol/day). On day 4, subjects received randomised double-blind placebo or losartan. Prestudy salt depletion was associated with nonsignificant decreases in serum sodium (138 +/- 2 mM), potassium (3.5 +/- 0.2 mM) and increased urea (6.5 +/- 1.1 mM), and creatinine (91 +/- 6 microM) as compared with screening. Prestudy (day 3) 24-h urinary volume was similar during deplete preparation (placebo 1.707 +/- 0.81 L (...) Haemodynamic and renal responses to oral losartan potassium during salt depletion or salt repletion in normal human volunteers. We examined the haemodynamic and renal response to oral losartan potassium (100 mg) during activation of the renin system in humans. Eight healthy volunteers followed a low-salt (40 mmol sodium) diet for 4 days on four occasions 2 weeks apart. Double-blind salt depletion was achieved by 3-day administration of frusemide (40 mg twice daily, b.i.d.) with placebo salt

1995 Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4285. Blood pressure responses to high-calcium skim milk and potassium-enriched high-calcium skim milk. (Abstract)

in a double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over study. We asked them to replace their usual liquid milk with two servings per day of skim milk (control), high-calcium skim milk or potassium-enriched high-calcium skim milk. We measured office blood pressures (seated and standing) at the start and after 2 and 4 weeks of milk intervention and we measured daytime ambulatory blood pressures at the start and after 4 weeks of milk intervention. Each milk intervention was interspaced by a 4-week (...) Blood pressure responses to high-calcium skim milk and potassium-enriched high-calcium skim milk. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of high-calcium skim milk or potassium-enriched high-calcium skim milk on blood pressure compared with nonenriched skim milk.This was a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Each milk intervention lasted for 4 weeks, with a minimum of 4 weeks of wash-out between interventions.We recruited 38 healthy people, aged over 40 years, to take part

2000 Journal of hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4286. Lifestyle interventions influence relative errors in self-reported diet intake of sodium and potassium. (Abstract)

(weight loss, sodium reduction, and combined weight loss and sodium reduction) could effectively substitute for phamacotherapy. Repeated standardized 24-hour diet recalls and 24-hour urine collections were collected over up to three years of follow-up to estimate sodium and potassium intakes. By contrasting self-reported and urine-based sodium and potassium data collected before and during interventions, we examined the relative impact of intervention assignment on estimated intakes, repeatability (...) Lifestyle interventions influence relative errors in self-reported diet intake of sodium and potassium. To characterize the distribution of errors in self-reported sodium and potassium dietary intakes relative to more objective urine measures among participants receiving lifestyle interventions.We analyzed longitudinal data from 900 individuals with hypertension who had been enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial to establish whether usual care or three lifestyle interventions

2001 Annals of epidemiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4287. Cross-over study of the influence of bicarbonate-rich mineral water on urinary composition in comparison with sodium potassium citrate in healthy male subjects. (Abstract)

(Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, 1996). On the loading day of the cross-over phase, fruit tea was substituted for either mineral water or sodium potassium citrate dissolved in fruit tea. The treatment offered during the second part of the cross-over phase was continued for a 4-week follow-up under normal dietary conditions. During the cross-over phase, there was a significant increase in urinary pH (p < 0.001). There was also a significant increase in the excretion of citric acid (P < 0.01 (...) Cross-over study of the influence of bicarbonate-rich mineral water on urinary composition in comparison with sodium potassium citrate in healthy male subjects. Urine volume is the greatest risk factor for nephrolithiasis. High fluid intake is the first general advice given to stone-forming patients for the prevention of their recurrence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (1715 mg bicarbonate/l) on urinary-stone risk factors

2000 The British journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4288. Patient tolerance to intravenous potassium chloride with and without lidocaine. (Abstract)

with lidocaine versus KCl infusions. Transient adverse effects occurred in both groups, but the incidence was not statistically different. Use of concentrated iv KCl infusions may benefit hypokalemic patients with hypervolemia and/or severe potassium deficits. Addition of lidocaine clearly improves patient tolerance to intravenous KCl replacement. (...) Patient tolerance to intravenous potassium chloride with and without lidocaine. Hypokalemia is a common electrolyte abnormality. Intravenous repletion therapy with potassium chloride (KCl) in concentrations greater than 80-100 mEq/L is not recommended due to patient intolerance. Since this guideline at times may be clinically impractical, this study was designed to examine use of peripheral vein infusions of high concentration KCl therapy. Tolerance to KCl 20 mEq/65 ml iv with and without

1988 Drug intelligence & clinical pharmacy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4289. NN414, a SUR1/Kir6.2-selective potassium channel opener, reduces blood glucose and improves glucose tolerance in the VDF Zucker rat. (Abstract)

NN414, a SUR1/Kir6.2-selective potassium channel opener, reduces blood glucose and improves glucose tolerance in the VDF Zucker rat. A novel potassium channel opener compound, NN414, selective for the SUR1/Kir6.2 subtype of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel, was used to examine the effect of reducing beta-cell workload in the male Vancouver diabetic fatty (VDF) Zucker rat model of mild type 2 diabetes. Two chronic dosing protocols of NN414 of 3 weeks' duration were compared with appropriate (...) vehicle-treated controls. In the first group, rats received NN414 (continued group; 1.5 mg/kg p.o. twice daily), during which an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (on day 19 of dosing) was performed and insulin secretion from an in situ perfused pancreas preparation (on day 21) was measured. The second group received NN414 (discontinued group; same dose), but active treatment was replaced by vehicle treatment 2 days before the OGTT and for a further 2 days before the perfused pancreas study. Basal

2003 Diabetes

4290. Differential effects of endothelin-1 on the vasorelaxant properties of benzopyran and non-benzopyran potassium channel openers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-3 (3 pig kg-, i.v.) failed to modify the effects of BRL-38227 on DBP or TLBVR.7. In conscious SHR, the fall in DBP to BRL-38227 (30 pgkg-', p.o.) was significantly reduced following ET-1 (1 pig kg-', i.a.) treatment. ET-1 (1 pg kg-', i.a.) pretreatment, however, failed to modify the decrease in DBP induced by an equieffective oral dose of RP-49356 (1001pgkg-1).8. In conclusion, ET-1 selectively attenuated the vasorelaxant effects of the potassium channel opener,BRL-38227 and other substituted (...) Differential effects of endothelin-1 on the vasorelaxant properties of benzopyran and non-benzopyran potassium channel openers. 1. The effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on the vasorelaxant properties of structurally different potassium channel openers (PCOs), BRL-38227, Ro 31-6930, SDZ PCO 400, EMD-52692, RP-49356 and pinacidil, were studied. 2. All PCOs evoked concentration-related relaxations of ET-1 (10 nM) or KCl (20 mM) contracted rat isolated aortic rings denuded of endothelium. BRL-38227

1992 British journal of pharmacology

4291. Voltage-gated calcium and potassium currents in megakaryocytes dissociated from guinea-pig bone marrow. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Voltage-gated calcium and potassium currents in megakaryocytes dissociated from guinea-pig bone marrow. 1. The electrophysiological properties of the cell membrane of guinea-pig megakaryocytes were studied using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The megakaryocytes (diameter, 17-42 microns) were dissociated mechanically from the bone marrow of adult guinea-pigs. 2. In a proportion of cells, spike-like action potentials were generated in response to depolarization when the cells were immersed (...) in standard saline containing 10 mM-Ca2+. Under voltage clamping, a transient inward current followed by a slowly Ca2+. Under voltage clamping, a transient inward current followed by a slowly developing outward current was produced when the membrane potential was made more positive than -55 mV. 3. The inward currents were identified as Ca2(+)-carried current, since the amplitude depended distinctly on external Ca2+ concentration and since replacement of external Ca2+ with Mn2+ reversibly diminished

1990 The Journal of physiology

4292. Block of ATP-regulated potassium channels by phentolamine and other alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Block of ATP-regulated potassium channels by phentolamine and other alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists. 1. The patch clamp technique has been used to characterize the effects of phentolamine, an unselective blocker of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors, on the electrical activity of isolated RINm5F insulin-secreting cells and the gating of ATP-regulated potassium (K+ATP) channels. 2. Current-clamp experiments carried out by use of both conventional whole-cell recordings and nystatin-perforated (...) to be approximately 0.7 microM when phentolamine was added to the inside of the membrane and the Hill coefficient approximately 1. 5. Yohimbine (1-10 microM) and the chemically 2-substituted imidazoline alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, antazoline (25 microM) and tolazoline (25 microM) were also found to block K+ATP channels in isolated patches of membrane. 6. In conclusion the present study demonstrates that phentolamine and other imidazoline adrenoceptor antagonists have effects upon ATP-sensitive K+ channels

1991 British journal of pharmacology

4293. Voltage-dependent calcium and potassium channels in Schwann cells cultured from dorsal root ganglia of the mouse. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Voltage-dependent calcium and potassium channels in Schwann cells cultured from dorsal root ganglia of the mouse. 1. Whole-cell patch clamp studies were carried out on Schwann cells in organotypic cultures of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from OF1 mice embryos (18-19 days). 2. In standard external solution, from a holding potential of -70 mV, two types of voltage-dependent K+ currents were recorded: a fast transient current and a delayed sustained current. With a holding potential of -30 mV, only (...) by 5 mM-Co2+. 6. Equimolar replacement of external Ca2+ by Ba2+ did not significantly modify the voltage dependence (threshold for activation -42.8 +/- 6.4 mV, n = 7) or the magnitude of the inward current. Ca2+ and Ba2+ were equally permeant. The fully inactivating current was insensitive to both nifedipine and Bay K 8644 (1 microM each). Increasing the external Ba2+ concentration from 10 to 89 mM enhanced the Ba2+ current and shifted the voltage dependence of the current (threshold for activation

1991 The Journal of physiology

4294. Properties of a potassium channel in cultured human gastric cells (HGT-1) possessing specific omeprazole binding sites. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Properties of a potassium channel in cultured human gastric cells (HGT-1) possessing specific omeprazole binding sites. The HGT-1 human gastric cell line is similar to acid secreting parietal cells in that it possesses H2 receptors, histamine sensitive adenyl cyclase, and Cl- channels, which are activated by histamine by a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) dependent mechanism. To discover if HGT-1 cells have additional properties found in parietal cells, [3H]omeprazole and patch clamp (...) substitution experiments confirmed that the channels were highly selective for K+, and channel activity was almost abolished by removal of Ca2+ or addition of 5 mM Ba2+. In quiescent cell attached patches, 0.1 mM dibutyryl cAMP failed to activate K+ channels. In contrast, 6.7 microM A23187 (a Ca2+ ionophore) increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration from mean (SEM) 14 (3) nM to 248 (30) nM and activated K+ channels in 21% of patches. It is concluded that the plasma membrane of HGT-1 cells possesses

1993 Gut

4295. Nitric oxide modulation of calcium-activated potassium channels in postganglionic neurones of avian cultured ciliary ganglia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

microM CaCl2, and the Ca2+ in the bathing solution was replaced with EGTA. Under these conditions sodium nitroprusside reduced the total outward current during a depolarizing pulse of + 40 mV by 9 +/_ 1% at 4.8 ms and by 36 +/- 3% at 350 ms. L-Arginine (270 microM) reduced this current under the same conditions by 9 +/- 1% at 4.8 ms and by 35 +/- 2% at 350 ms.5. Calcium-activated potassium currents were sensitive to apamin (50 nM), as this reduced the outward current by 23 +/- 3% at 350 ms when (...) Nitric oxide modulation of calcium-activated potassium channels in postganglionic neurones of avian cultured ciliary ganglia. 1. A study has been made of the modulation of calcium-activated potassium channels in cultured neurones of avian ciliary ganglia by sodium nitroprusside and L-arginine. 2. Sodium nitroprusside (100 microM) reduced the net outward current by 22 +/- 1% at 4.8 ms (mean +/- s.e. mean) and 25 +/- 1% at 350 ms during a test depolarization to +40 mV from a holding potential

1993 British journal of pharmacology

4296. Characterization of single potassium channels in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Characterization of single potassium channels in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. 1. Single K(+)-selective channels with a conductance of about 48 pS (pipette, 145 mM KCl; bath, 140 mM NaCl + 4.7 mM KCl) were recorded in the patch-clamp whole-cell configuration in isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. 2. Neither application of the secretagogues acetylcholine (second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) or secretin (second messenger, cAMP), nor addition of the catalytic subunit of protein (...) extracellular NaCl was replaced by KCl, whole-cell recordings revealed an inwardly rectifying K+ current carried by a 17 pS K+ channel. 6. The inwardly rectifying K+ current was not pH dependent and could largely be blocked by Ba2+ but not by TEA. 7. Since the 48 pS K+ channel is neither Ca2+ nor cAMP regulated, we suggest that this channel could play a role in the maintenance of the negative cell resting potential.

1995 The Journal of physiology

4297. Positively charged oligonucleotides overcome potassium-mediated inhibition of triplex DNA formation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Positively charged oligonucleotides overcome potassium-mediated inhibition of triplex DNA formation. The formation of triplex DNA using unmodified, purine-rich oligonucleotides (ODNs) is inhibited by physiologic levels of potassium. Changing negative phosphodiester bonds in a triplex forming oligonucleotide (TFO) to neutral linkages causes a small increase in triplex formation. When phosphodiester bonds in a TFO are converted to positively-charged linkages the formation of triplex DNA increases (...) dramatically. In the absence of KCl, a 17mer TFO containing 11 positively-charged linkages at a concentration of 0.2 microM converts essentially all of a 30 bp target duplex to a triplex. Less than 15% of the target duplex is shifted by 2 microMolar of the unmodified TFO. In 130 mM KCl, triplex formation is undetectable using the unmodified TFO, while triplex formation is nearly complete with 2 microM positively-charged TFO. With increasing potassium, TFOs containing a higher proportion of modified

1996 Nucleic acids research

4298. Characterization of an ultrarapid delayed rectifier potassium channel involved in canine atrial repolarization. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Characterization of an ultrarapid delayed rectifier potassium channel involved in canine atrial repolarization. 1. Depolarizing pulses positive to 0 mV elicit a transient outward current (Ito) and a sustained 'pedestal' current in canine atrial myocytes. The pedestal current was highly sensitive to 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and TEA, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (EC50) of 5.3 +/- 0.7 and 307 +/- 25 microM, respectively. When the pedestal current was separated from Ito with prepulses (...) or by studying current sensitive to 10 mM TEA, it showed very rapid activation and deactivation. We therefore designated the current IKur,d, for 'ultrarapid delayed rectifier, dog'. IKur,d inactivation was bi-exponential, with mean time constants of 609 +/- 91 and 5563 +/- 676 ms during a 20 s pulse to +40 mV. 2. The reversal potential of IKur,d tail currents are dependent on extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o; slope, 54.7 mV decade-1). The envelope of tails test was satisfied and the current

1996 The Journal of physiology

4299. Potassium-resistant triple helix formation and improved intracellular gene targeting by oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing 7-deazaxanthine. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Potassium-resistant triple helix formation and improved intracellular gene targeting by oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing 7-deazaxanthine. Triple helix formation by purine-rich oligonucleotides in the anti-parallel motif is inhibited by physiological concentrations of potassium. Substitution with 7-deazaxanthine (c7X) has been suggested as a strategy to overcome this effect. We have tested this by examining triple helix formation both in vitro and in vivo by a series of triple helix-forming (...) in a shuttle vector-based mutagenesis assay designed to detect mutations induced by third strand-directed psoralen adducts. When the phosphodiester backbone was replaced by a phosphorothioate one, the in vitro binding of the c7X-TFOs was not affected, but the efficiency of in vivo triple helix formation was reduced. These results indicate the utility of the c7X substitution for in vivo gene targeting experiments, and they show that the feasibility of the triplex anti-gene strategy can be significantly

1997 Nucleic acids research

4300. Effects of external calcium reduction on the kinetics of potassium contractures in frog twitch muscle fibres. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of external calcium reduction on the kinetics of potassium contractures in frog twitch muscle fibres. 1. The amplitude and time course of K contractures (Cl- constant) of single twitch muscle fibres of the frog have been analysed in three external Ca2+ concentrations. 2. The resting potential, effective resistance, threshold for the Na current and K-induced depolarizations were not modified by replacing 1.8 mM-Ca2+ by 3 mM-Mg2+ in absence (low-Ca saline: 3-6 micro M-Ca2 (...) (peak tension vs. logarithm of external K+ concentration) shifted by 3-5 mV towards more positive potentials while the inactivation curve (peak tension of the test contracture vs. logarithm of external K+ concentration during the conditioning period) shifted by 16-18 mV towards more negative potentials. Both curves became steeper in Ca-free saline. 6. The effects of external Ca2+ reduction were not modified by replacing all chloride for methanesulphonate. 7. Direct effects of external Ca2

1981 The Journal of physiology

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