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Potassium Replacement

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4201. Determination of ionic permeability coefficients of the plasma membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes under voltage clamp. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Determination of ionic permeability coefficients of the plasma membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes under voltage clamp. 1. A method of estimating absolute ionic permeability coefficients which does not depend on the use of impermeant substitutes is reported. 2. The method is based on a pump leak model of the Xenopus laevis oocyte membrane. The procedure consists of measuring, in the same experiment, the pump current and the currents generated under voltage clamp by the partial substitution (...) of one or two ions at a time. For each experimental condition, the measured currents are substituted in a Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz type equation with two unknowns (the permeability coefficients). The set of equations thus generated enables the computation of all the ionic permeability coefficients. 3. The Xenopus oocyte membrane (stages IV and V, Dumont, 1972) has been found to be permeable to conventional ion substitutes such as N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMG), sulphate, isethionate and gluconate. 4

1989 The Journal of physiology

4202. Strontium-induced creep currents associated with tonic contractions in cardiac myocytes isolated from guinea-pigs. Full Text available with Trip Pro

duration were applied to investigate changes of the steady-state current-voltage relationship produced by replacing Ca2+ with Sr2+. Large slow changes of membrane currents produced by Sr2+ were observed. The identity and time course of these currents were investigated after blocking Isi and potassium currents pharmacologically. The remaining current had many of the characteristics of 'creep currents' (Eisner & Lederer, 1979; Hume & Uehara, 1986 a, b). The creep currents were found to be paralleled (...) Strontium-induced creep currents associated with tonic contractions in cardiac myocytes isolated from guinea-pigs. 1. Strontium can replace calcium in a number of physiological and biochemical processes. The effects of Sr2+ were investigated in enzymatically isolated ventricular myocytes of the guinea-pig. Action potentials and membrane currents were measured with the patch-clamp technique used in the whole-cell recording configuration. Mechanical activity was assessed utilizing a laser-light

1989 The Journal of physiology

4203. The coupled movements of sodium and chloride across the basolateral membrane of frog skin epithelium. Full Text available with Trip Pro

potassium by sodium. 4. The effect on the short-circuit current of graded replacements by impermeant ions of sodium or chloride did not show saturation for concentrations of these ions up to their control values. 5. Replacement of basolateral potassium by sodium inhibited the short-circuit current and the recovery observed when potassium was reintroduced in the basolateral bathing solution was blocked by furosemide. 6. The replacement of basolateral sodium or chloride by impermeant ions induced (...) to the solution bathing the basolateral side of the preparation furosemide had no effect on the ion and water contents of the frog skin epithelium. 3. Furosemide but not SITS (4-acetamide-4'-isothiocyanate-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) or amiloride blocked the recovery of short-circuit current and the reuptake of chloride and water by preparations pre-incubated with chloride-free solution on the basolateral side. The recovery of the short-circuit current was also blocked by the replacement of basolateral

1989 The Journal of physiology

4204. Hypokalaemic paralysis revealing Sjögren syndrome in an elderly man. Full Text available with Trip Pro

tubular acidosis. Full recovery followed potassium and alkali replacement. This dramatic presentation of Sjögren syndrome has not previously been reported in an elderly man.

1999 Journal of Clinical Pathology

4205. Involvement of the N-terminus of Kir6.2 in the inhibition of the KATP channel by ATP Full Text available with Trip Pro

Involvement of the N-terminus of Kir6.2 in the inhibition of the KATP channel by ATP 1. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are composed of pore-forming Kir6.2 and regulatory SUR subunits. A truncated isoform of Kir6.2, Kir6.2DeltaC26, expresses ATP-sensitive channels in the absence of SUR1, suggesting the ATP-inhibitory site lies on the Kir6. 2 subunit. 2. We examined the effect on the channel ATP sensitivity of mutating the arginine residue at position 50 (R50) in the N-terminus of Kir6.2 (...) , by recording macroscopic currents in membrane patches excised from Xenopus oocytes expressing wild-type or mutant Kir6.2DeltaC26. 3. Substitution of R50 by serine, alanine or glycine reduced the Ki for ATP inhibition from 117 microM to 800 microM, 1.1 mM and 3.8 mM, respectively. The single-channel conductance and kinetics were unaffected by any of these mutations. Mutation to glutamate, lysine, asparagine, glutamine or leucine had a smaller effect (Ki, approximately 300-400 microM). The results indicate

1999 The Journal of physiology

4206. Rates of Sugar Uptake by Guard Cell Protoplasts of Pisum sativum L. Related to the Solute Requirement for Stomatal Opening Full Text available with Trip Pro

. At apoplastic sugar concentrations below 4 mM, sugar import was estimated to be mainly in the form of hexoses and too slow to support a simultaneous stomatal opening movement. If, however, during times of high photosynthesis and transpiration, the apoplastic Suc concentration rose and entered the range of non-saturating import, absorbed Suc could replace potassium malate as the osmoticum for the maintenance of stomatal opening.

1999 Plant physiology

4207. The role of lysine 185 in the Kir6.2 subunit of the ATP-sensitive channel in channel inhibition by ATP Full Text available with Trip Pro

by a positively charged amino acid (arginine) had no substantial effect on the sensitivity of the channel to ATP. Mutation to a negatively charged residue markedly decreased the channel ATP sensitivity: the Ki for ATP inhibition increased from 85 microM to >30 mM when arginine was replaced with aspartic acid. Substitution of neutral residues had intermediate effects. 5. The inhibitory effects of ADP, ITP and GTP were also reduced when K185 was mutated to glutamine or glutamate. 6. The results indicate (...) The role of lysine 185 in the Kir6.2 subunit of the ATP-sensitive channel in channel inhibition by ATP 1. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are composed of pore-forming Kir6.2 and regulatory SUR subunits. A truncated isoform of Kir6.2, Kir6.2DeltaC26, forms ATP-sensitive channels in the absence of SUR1, suggesting the ATP-inhibitory site lies on Kir6.2. 2. Previous studies have shown that mutation of the lysine residue at position 185 (K185) in the C-terminus of Kir6.2 to glutamine

1999 The Journal of physiology

4208. The I182 region of k(ir)6.2 is closely associated with ligand binding in K(ATP) channel inhibition by ATP. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The I182 region of k(ir)6.2 is closely associated with ligand binding in K(ATP) channel inhibition by ATP. The ATP-inhibited potassium (K(ATP)) channel is assembled from four inward rectifier potassium (K(ir)6.x) subunits and four sulfonylurea receptor (SURx) subunits. The inhibitory action of ATP is mediated by at least two distinct functional domains within the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of K(ir)6.2. The G334D mutation of K(ir)6.2 virtually eliminates ATP-dependent gating with no effect (...) of 15 substitutions at position 182. All substitutions decreased ATP-dependent inhibition gating as measured by the K(i), many profoundly so, yet had little or no effect on ligand-independent gating kinetics. Thus, substitutions at position 182 are unlikely to act by disrupting inhibition gate movement. Our results indicate an indispensable role for I182 in a step of the ATP binding mechanism, the linkage mechanism coupling the ATP binding site to the inhibition gate, or both.

2000 Biophysical journal

4209. A surprising cause of paresis following scoliosis correction Full Text available with Trip Pro

A surprising cause of paresis following scoliosis correction Paralysis following scoliosis correction is a catastrophic situation. We report an unusual metabolic cause of neurological deficit after anterior thoracic release. A 15-year-old female developed proximal leg paralysis 1 day after surgery. Investigations disclosed severe serum hypokalaemia (2.8 mmol/l). After intravenous potassium substitution the neurological status completely normalized within a few hours. We assume

2001 European Spine Journal

4210. Benzoquinolines and chloride secretion in murine colonic epithelium Full Text available with Trip Pro

absorption and Ba(2+) to prevent potassium secretion. 2. Single- or double-ring substitutions in 1,10 phenanthroline (EC(50)=612 microM) produced only modest increases in affinity of between 0.7- and 2.1-fold. 3. Naphthalenes with either one or two ring nitrogens showed some activity but had very low affinity, yet some (e.g. isoquinoline, EC(50)=700 microM) were able to produce maximal responses. 4. Removal of one nitrogen from 1,10-phenanthroline or from 4,7-phenanthroline gave, respectively, 7,8

2003 British journal of pharmacology

4211. Bombesin-like peptides depolarize rat hippocampal interneurones through interaction with subtype 2 bombesin receptors Full Text available with Trip Pro

, Des-Met14]bombesin-(6-14)ethyl amide. 2. The inward current elicited by NMB or GRP was unaffected by K+ channel blockade with external Ba2+ or by replacement of potassium gluconate in the electrode solution with caesium acetate. 3. Replacement of external NaCl with Tris-HCl significantly reduced the magnitude of the GRP-induced current at -60 mV. In contrast, replacement of external NaCl with LiCl had no effect on the magnitude of this current. 4. Photorelease of caged GTPgammaS inside neurones

1999 The Journal of physiology

4212. Influence of injury and nutrition on muscle water electrolytes: effect of elective operation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

replacement were studied. The patients undergoing colectomy resections received total parenteral nutrition with varying nitrogen intake. The patients undergoing hip replacement received either a) 5% dextrose solutions, b) 3.5% amino acid solutions, or c) both. Muscle biopsy procedures were performed preoperatively and postoperatively (day three on the colectomy patients) (day four on the hip replacement patients). The role of inactivity was assessed in eight healthy subjects maintained on strict bedrest (...) for four days. Four subjects received a regular diet, while four received 5% dextrose solution for four days. The tissue samples were analyzed for water, sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, and in selected cases glycogen. No significant effects of bedrest with either a regular diet or semistarvation were observed. Surgical injury caused an increase in muscle water, sodium, and chloride while there was a slight reduction in potassium in all groups, with the exception of those colectomy patients who

1981 Annals of Surgery

4213. Accidental poisoning deaths in British children 1958-77. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Accidental poisoning deaths in British children 1958-77. In the 20 years 1958-77 598 deaths were registered as due to accidental poisoning in British children under the age of 10-343 boys and 255 girls. Drugs caused 484 deaths, non-medicinal products 111, and plants three. The annual number of deaths reached a peak in 1964 but fell steadily thereafter; 16 deaths occurred in 1977. After 1970 tricyclic antidepressants replaced salicylates as the most commonly fatal poison. The next ten drugs most (...) often recorded in 1970-7 were, in order, opiates (including diphenoxylate/atropine (Lomotil)), barbiturates, digoxin, orphenadrine (Disipal), quinine, potassium, iron, fenfluramine (Ponderax), antihistamines, and phenothiazines. In 20 years paracetamol caused one death, and before 1976 deaths caused by aspirin had fallen to fewer than two a year. Thus the introduction in 1976 and 1977 of safety packaging of these drugs can be expected to have little impact on the mortality from them in childhood.

1980 British medical journal

4214. Evaluation of the efficacy of oral rehydration solutions using human whole gut perfusion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of the efficacy of oral rehydration solutions using human whole gut perfusion. Whole gut perfusion in humans was used to compare the effect on intestinal water and electrolyte transport of the World Health Organisation oral rehydration solution (solution II, composition in mmol/l: glucose 111, sodium 90, bicarbonate 30, potassium 20; 308 mOsm/kg); a hypertonic commercial oral rehydration solution (solution III, glucose 188, sodium 50, bicarbonate 20, potassium 20 mmol/l; 335 mOsm/kg (...) ); and three experimental bicarbonate free, hypotonic oral rehydration solutions: solution IV (glucose 111, sodium 60, potassium 20 mmol/l; 260 mOsm/kg), solution V (glucose 80, sodium 60, potassium 20 mmol/l; 219 mOsm/kg), and solution VI (glucose 80, sodium 30, potassium 20 mmol/l; 177 mOsm/kg). Perfusion of the intestine with a standard cleansing solution (solution I, sodium 125, potassium 10, bicarbonate 20, sulphate 40, mannitol 80 mmol/l; 275 mOsm/kg) confirmed published data on minimal water

1990 Gut

4215. Regulation of glycogen synthesis and glycolysis by insulin, pH and cell volume. Interactions between swelling and alkalinization in mediating the effects of insulin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

media and when K+ uptake was inhibited, but the stimulation of glycogen synthesis was abolished under these conditions, suggesting that it is secondary to ionic or volume changes. Alkalinization had converse effects on glycolysis and glycogen synthesis. 2. In HCO3(-)-containing media, replacement of NaCl with sodium acetate or potassium acetate, like acidification with CO2, inhibited glycolysis and stimulated glycogen synthesis. The latter correlated with an increase in cation content. Amiloride

1992 Biochemical Journal

4216. Myocardial dysfunction in treated adult hypopituitarism: a possible explanation for increased cardiovascular mortality. Full Text available with Trip Pro

deficiency, was 82.4 (45) micrograms/l. Lean body mass calculated by measuring total body potassium was 50 (9) kg. All patients had a normal left ventricular mass index and a normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Eight patients had abnormal left ventricular diastolic function. There was a significant correlation between IGF-1 and left ventricular mass (r = 0.45, p less than 0.02). Lean body mass was also significantly correlated with left ventricular mass (r = 0.78, p less than 0.0001) and left (...) exercise testing. These findings may explain the increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with hypopituitarism and may also have implications for growth hormone replacement therapy in adults.

1992 British Heart Journal

4217. Water and solute absorption from hypotonic glucose-electrolyte solutions in human jejunum. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Water and solute absorption from hypotonic glucose-electrolyte solutions in human jejunum. While oral rehydration therapy with glucose-electrolyte solutions is highly effective, the optimal formulation has not yet been defined. Recent clinical studies suggest that stool volume, and thus water losses, may be reduced if glucose is replaced by a polymeric substrate which reduces osmolality. It is possible that the efficacy of glucose monomer based oral rehydration solutions (ORS) will also improve (...) ). Greatest water absorption was seen with ORS 60:240 (p less than 0.01). Sodium absorption from ORS 60:240 and WHO-ORS was similar and greater than sodium absorption from ORS 45:210 (p less than 0.05). Potassium and glucose absorption were greater from ORS 60:240 than from any of the other hypotonic solutions (p less than 0.05) and were equal to absorption from WHO-ORS). These results in a short segment of healthy human jejunum suggest that hypotonic ORS containing monomeric glucose may increase water

1992 Gut

4218. Sodium-dependent net urea transport in rat initial inner medullary collecting ducts. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to the bath reversibly inhibited net urea transport from 14 +/- 3 to 6 +/- 2 pmol/mm per min (P < 0.01), and that replacing potassium (with sodium) in the bath reversibly inhibited net urea transport from 18 +/- 3 to 5 +/- 0 pmol/mm per min (P < 0.01). Replacing perfusate sodium with N-methyl-D-glucamine reversibly inhibited net urea transport from 12 +/- 2 to 0 +/- 1 pmol/mm per min (P < 0.01), whereas replacing bath sodium had no significant effect on net urea transport. Adding 10 nM vasopressin

1994 Journal of Clinical Investigation

4219. Mutation in DHP receptor alpha 1 subunit (CACLN1A3) gene in a Dutch family with hypokalaemic periodic paralysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mutation in DHP receptor alpha 1 subunit (CACLN1A3) gene in a Dutch family with hypokalaemic periodic paralysis. Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) is characterised by transient attacks of muscle weakness of varying duration and severity accompanied by a drop in serum potassium concentration during the attacks. The largest known HypoPP family is of Dutch origin and consists of 277 members in the last five generations, 55 of whom have HypoPP inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern (...) . Forty-eight persons including 28 patients with a proven diagnosis of HypoPP were used for linkage analysis. Microsatellite markers were used to exclude 45 to 50% of the genome and linkage to chromosome 1q31-32 was found. No recombinants were found between HypoPP and D1S412 and a microsatellite contained within the DHP receptor alpha 1 subunit (CACLN1A3) gene. A previously reported G to A mutation causing an arginine to histidine substitution at residue 528 in the transmembrane segment IIS4

1995 Journal of Medical Genetics

4220. Volumetric control of continuous haemodialysis in multiple organ failure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Volumetric control of continuous haemodialysis in multiple organ failure. A system for precise volumetric control of continuous haemodialysis and its use in providing renal replacement treatment in the intensive care unit to 10 children with multiple organ failure are described. The system, termed slow efficient dialysis, provided effective clearance of urea, creatinine, potassium, and phosphate. It provided precise control of the volume of ultrafiltrate removed in a prospective manner ('dial

1995 Archives of Disease in Childhood

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