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Potassium Replacement

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4181. Formation of Crystalline δ-Endotoxin or Poly-β-Hydroxybutyric Acid Granules by Asporogenous Mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis Full Text available with Trip Pro

no insecticidal activity against silkworms and were isolated and identified as poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Supplementation of the potassium-deficient ST-a medium with 0.1% KH(2)PO(4) (3.7 mM) led to the formation of crystalline delta-endotoxin. The replacement of KH(2)PO(4) with equimolar amounts of KCl, KNO(3), and potassium acetate or an equivalent amount of K(2)SO(4) had a similar effect, whereas the addition of an equimolar amount of NaH(2)PO(4) or NH(4)H(2)PO(4) did not cause the endotoxin to form (...) . An asporogenous mutant, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain 290-1, produced delta-endotoxin on ST-a medium supplemented with 3 mM or more potassium but formed only poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid granules on the media containing potassium. These results clearly indicate that a certain concentration of potassium is essential for the fermentative production of delta-endotoxin by these isolates of B. thuringiensis. Manganese could not be substituted for potassium. Phosphate ions stimulated poly-beta

1982 Applied and environmental microbiology

4182. Electrophysiological effects of the salicylates on isolated atrial muscle of the rabbit Full Text available with Trip Pro

potential amplitude (APA), in the overshoot (OS) of the action potential and in the maximum rate of rise of the action potential (V(max)). All these effects were completely reversed on washing.5 Substitution of the NaCl of the bathing Tyrode solution by an equimolar concentration of Na isethionate did not affect the plateau depression induced by the salicylates in atrial muscle fibres.6 After increasing the K concentration to 27 mM in the presence of isoprenaline (1 muM), ;slow responses' were obtained (...) the K concentration in the Tyrode solution was increased from 2.7 mM to 5.4 mM, the effects of 5-bromo salicylate on the APA, OS and V(max) were potentiated. However, a significant reduction in the shortening of the APD produced by the salicylate was observed.10 It is suggested that the salicylates possibly depress the slow inward current in both S-A node cells and atrial muscle fibres of the rabbit heart. In atrial muscle fibres, a concomitant increase in the outward potassium current is probably

1982 British journal of pharmacology

4183. Mechanism of the effect of cyanide on cell membrane potentials in Necturus gall-bladder epithelium. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of the equivalent resistance of the cell membranes, as shown by cable analysis and input resistance measurements, and (b) increase of the potassium selectivity of both cell membranes, as evidenced by the effects of external substitutions of potassium for sodium on cell membrane potentials. We conclude that the cyanide-induced hyperpolarization is caused mainly or exclusively by an increase of the potassium permeability of the cell membranes. 3. Addition of the calcium ionophore A23187 (5 microM) to the mucosal (...) medium in the presence of 1 mM-calcium caused similar effects to those produced by cyanide. After either cyanide or A23187, addition of the other agent did not cause further membrane potential changes. 4. Quinine (100 microM, mucosal medium) reduced the potassium permeability of the apical membrane both under control conditions and during exposure to cyanide. 5. We suggest that the cyanide-induced increase of the potassium permeability of the cell membrane is mediated by an elevation of intracellular

1981 The Journal of physiology

4184. Calcium release and ionic changes in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of tetanized muscle: an electron-probe study Full Text available with Trip Pro

to the concentration of binding sites on the calcium-binding proteins (troponin and parvalbumin) in frog muscle. Calcium release was associated with a significant uptake of magnesium and potassium into the TC, but the amount of calcium released exceeded the total measured cation accumulation by 62 mEq/kg dry weight. It is suggested that most of the charge deficit is apparent, and charge compensation is achieved by movement of protons into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and/or by the movement of organic co (...) to be a major site of calcium storage and delayed return to the TC. The potassium concentration in the LSR was not significantly different from the adjacent cytoplasmic concentration. Analysis of small areas of I-band and large areas, including several sarcomeres, suggested that chloride is anisotropically distributed, with some of it probably bound to myosin. In contrast, the distribution of potassium in the fiber cytoplasm followed the water distribution. The mitochondrial concentration of calcium was low

1981 The Journal of cell biology

4185. Na and Ca channels in a transformed line of anterior pituitary cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

by using series resistance compensation and "ballistic charging" of the cell capacitance. We have identified and partially characterized at least three conductances, one carrying only outward current, and the other two normally inward. The outward current is absent when the pipette is filled with Cs+ instead of K+, and has the characteristics of a voltage-dependent potassium conductance. One of the two inward conductances (studied with Cs+ inside) has fast activation, inactivation and deactivation (...) ++ entirely replaces Ca++ in the external medium, there is no inactivation, but deactivation kinetics of Ca channels vary as pulse duration increases: the slow phase disappears, the fast phase grows in amplitude. Inactivation (Ca++ outside) is unaltered by 50 mM EGTA in the pipette: inactivation cannot be the result of internal accumulation of Ca++.

1984 The Journal of general physiology

4186. Egg yolk-free Baird-Parker medium for the accelerated enumeration of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Egg yolk-free Baird-Parker medium for the accelerated enumeration of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus. A simplified procedure is described for the accelerated enumeration of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus. This involves the replacement of egg yolk in the Baird-Parker medium with Tween 80 and MgCl2. These compounds, along with pyruvate, allow the recovery of stressed cells of S. aureus on a medium which contains potassium tellurite, LiCl, and glycine as selective agents. Black colonies

1984 Applied and environmental microbiology

4187. Extracellular ions and excitation-contraction coupling in frog twitch muscle fibres. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Extracellular ions and excitation-contraction coupling in frog twitch muscle fibres. Intracellular calcium transients were recorded from voltage-clamped frog twitch muscle fibres using Arsenazo III. The possible role of extracellular ions in excitation-contraction (e.-c.) coupling was examined using ion substitutions and blocking drugs in the bathing medium. Parameters measured included the Arsenazo response size to a standard depolarizing pulse (5 ms, 0 mV) and the strength-duration curve (...) for threshold Arsenazo signal. Addition of tetrodotoxin (TTX) decreased the response size to small (-30 mV, 5 ms), but not large (+30 mV, 10 ms) depolarizations, probably because of poor voltage clamp of the tubular membrane in the absence of TTX. Clamping TTX-treated fibres with the wave form of a recorded action potential gave an Arsenazo response similar to that elicited by the normal action potential (at 10 degrees C). Complete substitution of sodium (by choline, lithium or Tris) or chloride (by methyl

1984 The Journal of physiology

4188. The effects of N-(cyclopropylmethyl)-19-isopentylnororvinol (M320), a potent agonist at kappa- and mu-opiate receptors, on urine excretion of rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

both sodium and potassium excretion. M320 (10 micrograms kg-1 s.c.) did not increase the volume of urine voided in 2 h by Brattleboro rats showing diabetes insipidus, even when urine excretion was reduced to normal by 1 week of vasopressin replacement. The volume of urine voided in 4 h by Brattleboro rats was progressively reduced to zero by M320 (10-100 micrograms kg-1 s.c.). Urinary retention contributed to but did not account for this reduction. Plasma levels of immunoreactive arginine

1986 British journal of pharmacology

4189. Potential-dependent calcium inward current in a single isolated smooth muscle cell of the guinea-pig taenia caeci. Full Text available with Trip Pro

current. The replacement of potassium ions by caesium ions and TEA (tetraethyl-ammonium) in the pipette solution resulted in an effective suppression of potassium outward current permitting a study of the calcium current solely. The calcium inward current was blocked by 5 mM-cobalt and 5 X 10(-6) M-verapamil. Activation of the calcium current occurred at a membrane potential of between -35 and -25 mV. The calcium current was maximal in the potential range +10 to +20 mV and did not reverse even at +60 (...) Potential-dependent calcium inward current in a single isolated smooth muscle cell of the guinea-pig taenia caeci. A single glass micropipette voltage-clamp technique was used to study a potential-dependent calcium inward current in isolated smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig taenia caeci. Experiments were performed at 22-24 degrees C. With potassium as the main cation in the pipette solution, a transient inward current appeared in response to a depolarizing pulse, followed by an outward

1986 The Journal of physiology

4190. Ionic requirements for entry of Shiga toxin from Shigella dysenteriae 1 into cells. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and CaCl2. Both cell lines were protected by BaCl2, CoCl2, and MnCl2. Inhibitors of Ca2+ transport, like verapamil, D600, and Co2+ as well as the calcium-ionophores A23187 and ionomycin, protected both cell lines. HEp-2 cells were protected against Shiga toxin by a high concentration of potassium in the medium as well as by potassium depletion of the cells. Substitution of chloride in the medium with slowly permeable anions, like SO42- and SCN-, protected the cells against Shiga toxin. High

1987 Infection and immunity

4191. Characterization of choline transport at maternal and fetal interfaces of the perfused guinea-pig placenta. Full Text available with Trip Pro

either circulation. Analogues of choline such as hemicholinium-3, thiamine, ethanolamine and N,N-dimethylethanolamine inhibited choline unidirectional influx, whereas betaine and acetate had no effect. The absence of the normal sodium gradient (perfusate sodium was replaced by Tris or by lithium) did not inhibit choline transport. The metabolic inhibitors dinitrophenol (1.0 mM) and potassium cyanide (1.0 mM) were essentially ineffective (up to 40 min perfusion). The sulphydryl reagent N

1985 The Journal of physiology

4192. The arrhythmogenic current ITI in the absence of electrogenic sodium-calcium exchange in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibres. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The arrhythmogenic current ITI in the absence of electrogenic sodium-calcium exchange in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibres. Sheep cardiac Purkinje fibres were voltage clamped with a two-microelectrode technique. Under conditions that are known to elevate intracellular calcium (0 mM-external potassium), membrane currents were examined. In the above conditions, a brief depolarizing pulse leads to an oscillatory inward current (ITI) which peaks at about 300 ms after the repolarization. An after (...) -contraction is also observed, the peak of which occurs about 80 ms after the peak of ITI. This result is in accord with the results of Kass, Lederer, Tsien & Weingart (1978a). We replaced external sodium with an isotonic CaCl2 solution to remove the sodium-calcium exchange mechanism as a possible current carrier for ITI. In the steady state under these conditions an oscillatory membrane current and after-contraction are seen following repolarization. This current was identified as ITI on the basis of its

1986 The Journal of physiology

4193. Transient inward current in guinea-pig atrial myocytes reflects a change of sodium-calcium exchange current. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Transient inward current in guinea-pig atrial myocytes reflects a change of sodium-calcium exchange current. 1. Enzymatically isolated, cultured myocytes from hearts of adult guinea-pigs were voltage clamped with a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The pipette-filling solution for internal dialysis contained 65 mM-citrate and 50 microM-EGTA as Ca2+-chelating agents and 20 mM-Na+. Potassium channel currents were blocked by replacing this ion on both sides of the membrane by Cs+. 2. In the above

1988 The Journal of physiology

4194. Heat production of quiescent ventricular trabeculae isolated from guinea-pig heart. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(NaCl replaced by KCl) induced a transient rise in the rate of heat production up to 115 mW/cm3. 6. The heat production during uncoupling of the mitochondria and during potassium contractures was inversely related to the diameter of the preparation. Calculation based on Hill's equation (Hill, 1928) indicated that this was caused by the development of anoxia at the core of the preparation. 7. In contrast, the rate of heat production of quiescent preparations was not correlated with diameter

1988 The Journal of physiology

4195. The inhibition of a tumour cell surface protease in vivo and its re-activation by oxidation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The inhibition of a tumour cell surface protease in vivo and its re-activation by oxidation. Colonic tumour cells possess a cell surface protease capable of binding 9-aminoacridine to its active centre, thus locating cells when viewed under a fluorescence microscope. In vivo and in frozen sections, the enzyme is masked by a protein inhibitor. This inhibitor can be displaced by formaldehyde fixation of the tissue and then replaced by adding a fresh extract of colon or lung tissue. The inhibitor (...) is modified by oxidation; provided by air, oxidized glutathione or potassium permanganate, resulting in a change in conformation in the inhibitor and this then results in the enzyme binding the fluorescent probe. The effect of oxidation can be reversed by dithiothreitol. It is proposed that these changes are brought about by a disulphide exchange acting on the inhibitor which indirectly controls the activity of the cell surface enzyme in vivo. The steps described above can be conveniently followed

1988 British journal of cancer

4196. Purification and biochemical characterization of tellurite-reducing activities from Thermus thermophilus HB8. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Purification and biochemical characterization of tellurite-reducing activities from Thermus thermophilus HB8. Cell-free extracts of Thermus thermophilus HB8 catalyze the in vitro, NADH-dependent reduction of potassium tellurite (K2TeO3). Three different protein fractions with tellurite-reducing activities were identified. Two exhibited high molecular weight and were composed of at least two different polypeptides. The protein in the third fraction was purified to homogeneity and had a single (...) polypeptide chain of 53 to 54 kilodaltons, with an isoelectric point of 8.1. Each enzyme was thermostable, the temperature optimum was 75 degrees C, and 30 mM NaCl, 1.5 M urea, or 0.004% sodium dodecyl sulfate caused 50% inhibition of the enzymes. However, 2% Triton X-100 did not have an inhibitory effect. The enzymes were also able to catalyze the reduction of sodium selenite and sodium sulfite in vitro. NADH was replaceable by NADPH. Divalent cations, such as Ca2+ and Ba2+, had no effect on the activity

1988 Journal of bacteriology

4197. Boron and Calcium Sites Involved in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Transport in Sunflower Hypocotyl Segments Full Text available with Trip Pro

Boron and Calcium Sites Involved in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Transport in Sunflower Hypocotyl Segments Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Russian Mammoth) hypocotyl segments deficient in either B or Ca exhibited a higher rate of potassium leakage, compared to nondeficient segments. Potassium leakage, used here as an indication of membrane integrity, was completely reversed by the addition of H(3)BO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2) to the incubation medium of the B-deficient or Ca-deficient hypocotyl segments (...) . The requirement for Ca in the first site can be substituted by other divalent cations, while the second site is highly specific for Ca.

1986 Plant physiology

4198. Microaerophilic growth and induction of the photosynthetic reaction center in Rhodopseudomonas viridis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Microaerophilic growth and induction of the photosynthetic reaction center in Rhodopseudomonas viridis. Rhodopseudomonas viridis was grown in liquid culture at 30 degrees C anaerobically in light (generation time, 13 h) and under microaerophilic growth conditions in the dark (generation time, 24 h). The bacterium could be cloned at the same temperature anaerobically in light (1 week) and aerobically in the dark (3 to 4 weeks) if oxygen was limited to 0.1%. Oxygen could not be replaced (...) by dimethyl sulfoxide, potassium nitrate, or sodium nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor. No growth was observed anaerobically in darkness or in the light when air was present. A variety of additional carbon sources were used to supplement the standard succinate medium, but enhanced stationary-phase cell density was observed only with glucose. Conditions for induction of the photosynthetic reaction center upon the change from microaerophilic to phototrophic growth conditions were investigated

1989 Journal of bacteriology

4199. The effect of cromakalim on the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig urinary bladder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

86Rb+ were unable to demonstrate any significant effect on transmembrane movement produced by cromakalim (10(-5)M). 5. 43K+ efflux showed a dose-dependent increase in the rate constant on addition of cromakalim. The difference in the selectivity for K+ over Rb+ was confirmed in dual label uptake experiments. 6. Substitution experiments in which the K+ ions in the tissue were gradually replaced by Rb+ demonstrated that cromakalim had a progressively decreasing effect on spontaneous activity (...) a dose-dependent hyperpolarization of the cell membrane and loss of spike activity. These events are consistent with the opening of K+ channels. 3. The effects of 10(-6)M and 10(-5)M cromakalim on the contractile responses to carbachol, potassium and transmural nerve stimulation were studied. Cromakalim did not prevent the detrusor from responding to these agents, although it significantly reduced the contractile response to K+ at concentrations below 70 mM. 4. Uptake and efflux experiments using

1989 British journal of pharmacology

4200. (+)-[3H]-PN 200-110 binding to cell membranes and intact strips of portal vein smooth muscle: characterization and modulation by membrane potential and divalent cations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

inhibitory effects, whereas KCl and NaCl had no effect. 4. When intact strips of portal vein were incubated in high external potassium concentrations for 30 min, the Kd was lowered to 0.04 +/- 0.01 nM from the control value of 0.14 +/- 0.02 nM (n = 5), thereby indicating that (+)-[3H]-PN 200-110 bound to voltage-dependent calcium channels, with a higher affinity, in the depolarized state. 5. When external Ca2+ was removed or substituted with Ba2+ or Sr2+, Kd values increased suggesting

1989 British journal of pharmacology

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