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Potassium Replacement

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181. Dietary Potassium

Potassium , Foods with High Potassium Content , Potassium Content in Food II. Precautions Potassium Content in Food is not an exact replacement Renal disease patients or those with other risk factors should avoid high foods III. Background: Potassium Elemental (K+): 39 mg/meq Chloride (KCl): 75 mg/meq IV. Preparations: Salt Substitute contains extremely high Potassium Most salt substitutes (e.g. no-salt) are composed of chloride (75 mg/meq) Chloride Salt-Substitute Products Nu-Salt (mg): 530 mg per 1 g (...) tsp (as calculated above) Mrs. Dash only contains 0.4 meq per 1/4 tsp Highly concentrated, chloride salt substitute can easily be over-dosed ( caution) At 67 to 82 meq per teaspoon, NoSalt, Nu-Salt or Morton's Salt Substitute can easily exceed safe limits VI. Preparations: Potassium content (from USDA, with meq based on 39 mg/meq for elemental Potassium) Acorn Squash (cooked) : 448 mg or 11.5 meq per 1/2 cub acorn squash cubes Almonds 200 mg or 5 meq per 1 ounce of almonds cot (dried) : 41 mg

2015 FP Notebook

182. RNA editing in eag potassium channels: Biophysical consequences of editing a conserved S6 residue Full Text available with Trip Pro

RNA editing in eag potassium channels: Biophysical consequences of editing a conserved S6 residue RNA editing at four sites in eag, a Drosophila voltage-gated potassium channel, results in the substitution of amino acids into the final protein product that are not encoded by the genome. These sites and the editing alterations introduced are K467R (Site 1, top of the S6 segment), Y548C, N567D and K699R (sites 2-4, within the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain). We mutated these residues individually

2012 Channels

183. The Effects of Sodium and Potassium on Blood Pressure, Vascular Function and Renal Function

The Effects of Sodium and Potassium on Blood Pressure, Vascular Function and Renal Function The Effects of Sodium and Potassium on Blood Pressure, Vascular Function and Renal Function - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more (...) studies before adding more. The Effects of Sodium and Potassium on Blood Pressure, Vascular Function and Renal Function (KaNa) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01575041 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : April 10, 2012 Last Update Posted : August 10, 2012 Sponsor: Wageningen

2012 Clinical Trials

184. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human dipeptidyl peptidase 10 (DPPY), a component of voltage-gated potassium channels Full Text available with Trip Pro

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human dipeptidyl peptidase 10 (DPPY), a component of voltage-gated potassium channels Dipeptidyl peptidase 10 (DPP10, DPPY) is an inactive peptidase associated with voltage-gated potassium channels, acting as a modulator of their electrophysiological properties, cell-surface expression and subcellular localization. Because potassium channels are important disease targets, biochemical and structural characterization (...) replacement protocol.

2012 Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications

185. Vasorelaxant action of the total alkaloid fraction obtained from Solanum paludosum Moric. (Solanaceae) involves NO/cGMP/PKG pathway and potassium channels. (Abstract)

Vasorelaxant action of the total alkaloid fraction obtained from Solanum paludosum Moric. (Solanaceae) involves NO/cGMP/PKG pathway and potassium channels. Solanum paludosum Moric. (jurubeba-roxa) is commonly used to treat hypertension as a substitute for Solanum paniculatum L. (jurubeba verdadeira). The total ethanolic extract from the root bark of Solanum paludosum have been found to cause hypotension in rats.To investigate the mechanism by which the total alkaloid fraction obtained from (...) -radical nitric oxide), 1-H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3a]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, selective blocker of soluble guanylate cyclase), Rp-8-bromo-β-phenyl-1,N(2)-ethenoguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate sodium salt hydrate (Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS, competitive inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase G) or TEA(+) (tetraethylammonium, nonselective potassium channel blocker), the vasorelaxant effect was significantly reduced, suggesting the involvement of NO/sCG/PKG pathway and potassium channel opening

2012 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

186. THE IMPORTANCE OF POTASSIUM AFTER OPERATION Full Text available with Trip Pro

THE IMPORTANCE OF POTASSIUM AFTER OPERATION A deficiency of potassium in a patient after operation is manifest clinically by anorexia, malaise, apathy, weakness, abdominal distention and hypochloremia. Many patients who have had a prolonged disturbance in nutrition may have a "subclinical" hypopotassemia. Prophylaxis by means of replacement of the potassium excreted daily in the urine is the ideal treatment. When the clinical picture of potassium deficit develops, the amount of the potassium (...) ion needed for replacement should be calculated on the basis of the total amount of water in the body of the patient.

1953 California Medicine

187. CALCIUM INFLUX IN SKELETAL MUSCLE AT REST, DURING ACTIVITY, AND DURING POTASSIUM CONTRACTURE Full Text available with Trip Pro

CALCIUM INFLUX IN SKELETAL MUSCLE AT REST, DURING ACTIVITY, AND DURING POTASSIUM CONTRACTURE Calcium influx in the sartorius muscle of the frog (Rana pipiens) has been estimated from the rate of entry of Ca(45). In the unstimulated preparation it is about equal to what has been reported for squid giant axons, but that per impulse is at least 30 times greater than in nerve fibers. The enhanced twitch when NO(-) (2) replaces Cl(-) in Ringer's is associated with at least a 60 per cent increase (...) in influx during activity, whereas this anion substitution does not affect the passive influx significantly. Calcium entry during potassium contracture is even more markedly augmented than during electrical stimulation, but only at the beginning of the contracture; thus, when a brief Ca(45) exposure precedes excess K(+) application, C(45) uptake is increased three- to fivefold over the controls not subjected to K(+), whereas when C(45) and K(+) are added together, no measurable increase in Ca(45) uptake

1959 The Journal of general physiology

188. RADIOACTIVITY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF POTASSIUM Full Text available with Trip Pro

RADIOACTIVITY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF POTASSIUM 1. The non-radioactive cesium ion can replace the potassium ion almost quantitatively in solutions required for the development of the egg of the sea urchin into swimming blastulae. 2. Thorium chloride and uranium acetate cannot replace the potassium chloride in the solutions required for the development of the egg. 3. Thorium chloride and uranium acetate do not antagonize the action of the potassium contained in sea water upon the development

1920 The Journal of general physiology

189. CHEMICAL CHARACTER AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF THE POTASSIUM ION Full Text available with Trip Pro

CHEMICAL CHARACTER AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF THE POTASSIUM ION 1. It is shown that the NH(4) ion acts in cases of antagonism on the egg of Fundulus more like the K ion than the Na ion; this corresponds to the fact that in its general chemical behavior the NH(4) ion resembles the K ion more closely than the Na ion. 2. It is shown that the tolerance of sea urchin eggs towards the Li ion can be increased 500 per cent or more if at the same time a certain amount of Na ion is replaced by K, Rb

1920 The Journal of general physiology

190. THE CONCENTRATION EFFECT WITH VALONIA: POTENTIAL DIFFERENCES WITH DILUTED POTASSIUM-RICH SEA WATERS Full Text available with Trip Pro

THE CONCENTRATION EFFECT WITH VALONIA: POTENTIAL DIFFERENCES WITH DILUTED POTASSIUM-RICH SEA WATERS The concentration effect with sea waters containing more than the normal amount of potassium has been studied in Valonia macrophysa. This was done by comparing the initial changes in P.D. across the protoplasm when natural sea water bathing the cell was replaced by various isotonic dilutions of KCl-rich sea waters. With small dilutions of KCl-rich sea waters, the P.D.-time curves are of the same (...) in the concentration of potassium, and increases with increasing dilution. That is, with these higher dilutions, the sign of the concentration effect is reversed, becoming the same as with diluted natural sea water. The greater the concentration of KCl in the undiluted sea water, the higher is the critical dilution at which K(+) ceases to influence the P.D. For a wide range of sea waters containing both KCl and NaCl, it is shown that the concentration effect above the critical dilution is determined solely

1938 The Journal of general physiology

191. DELAYED POTASSIUM EFFECT IN NITELLA Full Text available with Trip Pro

DELAYED POTASSIUM EFFECT IN NITELLA In normal cells of Nitella replacement of NaCl by KCl makes the P.D. much less positive: this is called the potassium effect. Cells which have lost the potassium effect usually show little or no change of P.D. when NaCl is replaced by KCl but an occasional cell responds after a delay. It seems possible that the delay may be largely due to the time required for potassium to combine with an organic substance, thus forming a compound which sensitizes (...) the protoplasmic surface to the action of potassium.

1938 The Journal of general physiology

192. EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM ON THE POTENTIAL OF HALICYSTIS Full Text available with Trip Pro

EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM ON THE POTENTIAL OF HALICYSTIS Sea water in which sodium has been replaced by potassium produces about the same degree of negativity in Halicystis and in Valonia. With increasing dilution of this sea water up to 1 / 16 the degree of negativity steadily falls off in Halicystis. This differs from the situation in Valonia where Damon finds that with increasing dilution the negativity passes through a minimum after which increasing dilution produces increasing negativity

1938 The Journal of general physiology

193. A MODEL OF THE POTASSIUM EFFECT Full Text available with Trip Pro

A MODEL OF THE POTASSIUM EFFECT The protoplasm of certain cells is able to distinguish electrically between K(+) and Na(+). This has been called the potassium effect. This is illustrated by experiments with Nitella. When 0.01 M KCl which has stood in contact with Nitella is replaced by 0.01 M NaCl the P.D. changes in a positive direction by an amount which varies between 30 and 95 mv. This ability to distinguish between K(+) and Na(+) disappears with the removal of an organic substance from (...) the cell. The amount of this substance is doubtless too small to make it possible to obtain enough for analysis. An attempt has therefore been made to find an organic compound which can produce similar effects. It is found that when M/1 KCl in contact with nitrobenzene (previously shaken with M/1 KCl) is replaced by M/1 NaCl the potential changes in a positive direction to the extent of 67 mv. which compares favorably with the values found in Nitella. This is not due to a greater mobility

1943 The Journal of general physiology

194. POTASSIUM ACCUMULATION IN THE PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULES OF THE FROG'S KIDNEY Full Text available with Trip Pro

POTASSIUM ACCUMULATION IN THE PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULES OF THE FROG'S KIDNEY 1. In a manner similar to that of the sartorius muscle, the isolated kidney of the frog can accumulate K against a gradient to upwards of three times its normal concentration. 2. The K-accumulating region is identified as the proximal tubule, which in the isolated tissue immersed over 24 hours in the cold (2-3 degrees C.) amounts to about 90 per cent of the nephron minus the glomerulus. In the fresh tissue (...) tubules is in accordance with the equations established for the sartorius muscle, and, as theoretically expected, there is no volume increase (but rather a small decrease) with the large accumulations, when the external Na concentration is maintained throughout. 5. With K accumulation in isotonic mixtures large volume changes occur as K is progressively substituted for Na. Over the range of external K concentration of 10 to 100 mM per litre the weight of the whole kidney changes to 2.5 times

1946 The Journal of general physiology

195. Effects of noradrenaline on potassium efflux, membrane potential and electrolyte levels in tissue slices prepared from guinea-pig liver Full Text available with Trip Pro

content rose.6. Traverses of the slices with micro-electrodes showed many negative-going deflexions of 30-40 mV in amplitude. The evidence suggests that these correspond to the membrane potentials of the parenchymal cells.7. Noradrenaline (1 muM) caused a reversible hyperpolarization of about 10 mV. The response became larger on replacing external chloride by isethionate or methylsulphate, but was little affected by a reduction in external potassium.8. After slices had been bathed in potassium (...) Effects of noradrenaline on potassium efflux, membrane potential and electrolyte levels in tissue slices prepared from guinea-pig liver 1. Some effects of noradrenaline on potassium efflux, electrolyte levels, membrane potential and current distribution in guinea-pig liver slices have been examined.2. The slices (thickness ca. 300 mum) were prepared from the median lobe of the liver and incubated at 38 degrees C in a mammalian Ringer fluid containing 2 mM pyruvate. After an initial recovery

1972 The Journal of physiology

196. Post-stimulus hyperpolarization and slow potassium conductance increase in Aplysia giant neurone Full Text available with Trip Pro

Post-stimulus hyperpolarization and slow potassium conductance increase in Aplysia giant neurone 1. Intracellular records from Aplysia giant (R2) cell somata showed long lasting 4-10 mV hyperpolarizations after passage of outward current through a second intracellular electrode.2. An increase in membrane slope conductance occurred simultaneously with the post-stimulus hyperpolarization (PSH).3. Both the PSH and conductance-increase varied strongly with stimulus amplitude and duration.4. Both (...) the PSH and the conductance increase occurred in Ca-free medium containing tetrodotoxin, when action-potential production was completely blocked.5. The PSH persisted in the presence of ouabain or DNP, with cooling, with removal of external K(+), and in media where all the Na(+) was replaced with Li(+), suggesting that it was not due to the activity of an electrogenic pump.6. A reversal potential for the PSH was demonstrated by application of maintained inward current following the end of an outward

1972 The Journal of physiology

197. The effect of potassium loading on sodium excretion and plasma renin activity in Addisonian man. Full Text available with Trip Pro

days in the control period and then for 3-4 days after potassium intake had been increased to 200-300 meq/day. Potassium loading induced a natriuresis. Hence, patients were either sodium replaced (six studies in four patients) or allowed to become sodium depleted (three patients). Potassium loading without replacement was associated with a decrease in weight, negative sodium balance, hyperkalemia, and a positive potassium balance. PRA rose during the experimental period. Potassium loading (...) with sodium replacement was associated with little change in weight or sodium balance. Hyperkalemia and positive potassium balance were present to the same degree as found in the studies without sodium replacement. When all PRA values are considered (both morning and evening values) there was no significant change with potassium loading (+ 1.31 ng/ml per h; range + 6.9 to -2.0). We conclude that hyperkalemia or a positive potassium balance did not suppress PRA in Addisonian man in these studies when

1975 Journal of Clinical Investigation

198. Membrane potentials in pinched-off presynaptic nerve ternimals monitored with a fluorescent probe: evidence that synaptosomes have potassium diffusion potentials. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Membrane potentials in pinched-off presynaptic nerve ternimals monitored with a fluorescent probe: evidence that synaptosomes have potassium diffusion potentials. 1. Some physiological properties of tissue fractions from rat brain homogenates have been examined. Of the three fractions studied (presynaptic nerve terminals, mitochondria and fragmented membranes), only the nerve terminals (synaptosomes) have the ability to accumulate 42K from physiological salt solutions. 2. The ability (...) . In the squid axon, the fluorescent emission of CC5 is directly proportional to membrane potential; depolarization causes an increase in fluorescence. 5. The fluorescence of synaptosomes ('synaptosome fluorescence') treated with CC5 is increased when [K]o is increased or [K]o is reduced; replacement of external Na by Li or choline has little effect on the synaptosome fluorescence. In quantitative terms, synaptosome fluorescence is proportional to log ([K]o plus 0-05[Na]o). Rb is about as effective as K

1975 The Journal of physiology

199. Effects of potassium, veratridine, and scorpion venom on calcium accumulation and transmitter release by nerve terminals in vitro. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of potassium, veratridine, and scorpion venom on calcium accumulation and transmitter release by nerve terminals in vitro. 1. 45-Ca uptake by pinched-off nerve terminals (synaptosomes) of rat brain incubated in standard physiological saline (including 132 mM-Na + 5mM-K + 1-2 mM-Ca) at 30 degrees C averages about 0-5 mumole Ca per g protein per minute. This may be equivalent to a Ca influx of about 0-03 p-mole/cm-2 sec. 2. The rate of 45-Ca uptake is increased when the concentration of K (...) in the medium is increased above 15-20 mM, K replacing Na isosmotically. Maximum stimulation, a three- to six-fold increase in the rate of Ca uptake, occurs when [K]o is about 60 mM. The effect of increased [K]o is reversible. 3. The K-stimulated Ca uptake is associated primarily with the nerve terminal fraction of brain homogenates. The entering Ca is not accompanied by extracellular markers such as mannitol or inulin. Replacement of external chloride by methylsulphate or sulphate does not prevent

1975 The Journal of physiology

200. Control of the delayed outward potassium currents in bursting pace-maker neurones of the snail, Helix pomatia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Control of the delayed outward potassium currents in bursting pace-maker neurones of the snail, Helix pomatia. The net outward current in bursting pace-maker neurones of the snail (Helix pomatia) during sustained and repeated voltage clamp pulses was studied. The properties of currents remaining in cobalt-Ringer or after TEA injection were compared with those in untreated cells. 2. With sustained voltage clamp depolarizations the net outward current first increases to a maximum at 150 msec (...) and then declines to 60% or less of its peak intensity. This depression, which is greater during repetition of short pulses (e.g. 100 msec pulses at 0-5 sec intervals), represents a true decrease in the outward flow of K (designated IK) and is not due to a decreased driving force resulting from extracellular K accumulation. The steady-state current-voltage (I-V) relationship for IK is N-shaped (Heyer & Lux, 1976). 3. A component of IK persists when Ca and Mg in the medium are replaced by Co (ICo-res

1976 The Journal of physiology

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