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Potassium Replacement

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181. Dietary Potassium

Potassium , Foods with High Potassium Content , Potassium Content in Food II. Precautions Potassium Content in Food is not an exact replacement Renal disease patients or those with other risk factors should avoid high foods III. Background: Potassium Elemental (K+): 39 mg/meq Chloride (KCl): 75 mg/meq IV. Preparations: Salt Substitute contains extremely high Potassium Most salt substitutes (e.g. no-salt) are composed of chloride (75 mg/meq) Chloride Salt-Substitute Products Nu-Salt (mg): 530 mg per 1 g (...) tsp (as calculated above) Mrs. Dash only contains 0.4 meq per 1/4 tsp Highly concentrated, chloride salt substitute can easily be over-dosed ( caution) At 67 to 82 meq per teaspoon, NoSalt, Nu-Salt or Morton's Salt Substitute can easily exceed safe limits VI. Preparations: Potassium content (from USDA, with meq based on 39 mg/meq for elemental Potassium) Acorn Squash (cooked) : 448 mg or 11.5 meq per 1/2 cub acorn squash cubes Almonds 200 mg or 5 meq per 1 ounce of almonds cot (dried) : 41 mg

2015 FP Notebook

182. The Effects of Sodium and Potassium on Blood Pressure, Vascular Function and Renal Function

The Effects of Sodium and Potassium on Blood Pressure, Vascular Function and Renal Function The Effects of Sodium and Potassium on Blood Pressure, Vascular Function and Renal Function - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more (...) studies before adding more. The Effects of Sodium and Potassium on Blood Pressure, Vascular Function and Renal Function (KaNa) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01575041 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : April 10, 2012 Last Update Posted : August 10, 2012 Sponsor: Wageningen

2012 Clinical Trials

183. RNA editing in eag potassium channels: Biophysical consequences of editing a conserved S6 residue Full Text available with Trip Pro

RNA editing in eag potassium channels: Biophysical consequences of editing a conserved S6 residue RNA editing at four sites in eag, a Drosophila voltage-gated potassium channel, results in the substitution of amino acids into the final protein product that are not encoded by the genome. These sites and the editing alterations introduced are K467R (Site 1, top of the S6 segment), Y548C, N567D and K699R (sites 2-4, within the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain). We mutated these residues individually

2012 Channels

184. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human dipeptidyl peptidase 10 (DPPY), a component of voltage-gated potassium channels Full Text available with Trip Pro

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human dipeptidyl peptidase 10 (DPPY), a component of voltage-gated potassium channels Dipeptidyl peptidase 10 (DPP10, DPPY) is an inactive peptidase associated with voltage-gated potassium channels, acting as a modulator of their electrophysiological properties, cell-surface expression and subcellular localization. Because potassium channels are important disease targets, biochemical and structural characterization (...) replacement protocol.

2012 Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications

185. Vasorelaxant action of the total alkaloid fraction obtained from Solanum paludosum Moric. (Solanaceae) involves NO/cGMP/PKG pathway and potassium channels. (Abstract)

Vasorelaxant action of the total alkaloid fraction obtained from Solanum paludosum Moric. (Solanaceae) involves NO/cGMP/PKG pathway and potassium channels. Solanum paludosum Moric. (jurubeba-roxa) is commonly used to treat hypertension as a substitute for Solanum paniculatum L. (jurubeba verdadeira). The total ethanolic extract from the root bark of Solanum paludosum have been found to cause hypotension in rats.To investigate the mechanism by which the total alkaloid fraction obtained from (...) -radical nitric oxide), 1-H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3a]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, selective blocker of soluble guanylate cyclase), Rp-8-bromo-β-phenyl-1,N(2)-ethenoguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate sodium salt hydrate (Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS, competitive inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase G) or TEA(+) (tetraethylammonium, nonselective potassium channel blocker), the vasorelaxant effect was significantly reduced, suggesting the involvement of NO/sCG/PKG pathway and potassium channel opening

2012 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

186. Release of noradrenaline from the cat spleen by potassium Full Text available with Trip Pro

Release of noradrenaline from the cat spleen by potassium 1. Cat spleens were perfused with Krebs-bicarbonate solution by means of a constant flow pump. The amount of noradrenaline released by an injection of potassium chloride solution (3.7M) was measured. The dependence of noradrenaline released by KCl on the ionic composition of perfusion medium was determined.2. In normal cats, the average output was 166 ng following a low dose of KCl (0.2 ml.), and 507 ng following a high dose (0.8 ml (...) .). After phenoxybenzamine treatment, the outputs with both doses were nearly doubled.3. In both normal and phenoxybenzamine treated cats, removal of calcium from the perfusing solution nearly abolished the release of noradrenaline. Replacing the calcium in Krebs solution restored the output. Increasing the magnesium concentration to 20 mM also markedly reduced the noradrenaline output.4. Lowering the sodium concentration to either 25 or 0 mM increased the noradrenaline output by nearly two

1968 The Journal of physiology

187. Further Studies on the Roles of Sodium and Potassium in the Generation of the Electro-Olfactogram : Effects of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations Full Text available with Trip Pro

Further Studies on the Roles of Sodium and Potassium in the Generation of the Electro-Olfactogram : Effects of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations In the negative EOG-generating process a cation which can substitute for Na(+) was sought among the monovalent ions, Li(+), Rb(+), Cs(+), NH(4) (+), and TEA(+), the divalent ions, Mg(++), Ca(++), Sr(++), Ba(++), Zn(++), Cd(++), Mn(++), Co(++), and Ni(++), and the trivalent ions, Al(+++) and Fe(+++). In Ringer solutions in which Na(+) was replaced (...) by one of these cations the negative EOG's decreased in amplitude and could not maintain the original amplitudes. In K(+)-Ringer solution in which Na(+) was replaced by K(+), the negative EOG's reversed their polarity. Recovery of these reversed potentials was examined in modified Ringer solutions in which Na(+) was replaced by one of the above cations. Complete recovery was found only in the normal Ringer solution. Thus, it was clarified that Na(+) plays an irreplaceable role in the generation

1969 The Journal of general physiology

188. Effects of Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium Ions on Slow and Spike Potentials in Single Photoreceptor Cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium Ions on Slow and Spike Potentials in Single Photoreceptor Cells The influence of changes in the ionic composition of the bathing medium on responses of the retinula cell of the honeybee drone to light was examined by means of intracellular microelectrodes. The resting potential of the cell was influenced mainly by the concentration of K. The peak of the receptor potential (the transient), which in a normal solution and with strong light approaches zero (...) membrane potential, overshot this level in a K-rich solution. An increase in the concentration of K also raised the level of the steady-state phase of the receptor potential (the plateau). The amplitude of the receptor potential was decreased and the spike potential rapidly abolished when Na was replaced by either sucrose, choline, or Tris. In a Ca-free solution the amplitude of the response and especially that of the plateau, was increased. An increase in Ca had the opposite effects. All these changes

1969 The Journal of general physiology

189. Effects of Nigericin and Monactin on Cation Permeability of Streptococcus faecalis and Metabolic Capacities of Potassium-depleted Cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Nigericin and Monactin on Cation Permeability of Streptococcus faecalis and Metabolic Capacities of Potassium-depleted Cells At a concentration of 10(-6)m, nigericin and monactin inhibited growth of Streptococcus faecalis, and the inhibition was reversed by addition of excess K(+). In the presence of certain antibiotics, the cells exhibited increased permeability to certain cations; internal Rb(+) was rapidly lost by exchange with external H(+), K(+) Rb(+), and, more slowly, with Na (...) (+) and Li(+). No effect was observed on the penetration of other small molecules. Cation exchanges induced by nigericin and monactin were metabolically passive and apparently did not involve the energy-dependent K(+) pump. When the cells were washed, the cytoplasmic membrane recovered its original impermeability to cations. By use of monactin, we prepared cells whose K(+) content had been completely replaced by other cations, and the metabolic characteristics of K(+)-depleted cells were studied. Cells

1968 Journal of bacteriology

190. The ouabain-sensitive fluxes of sodium and potassium in squid giant axons Full Text available with Trip Pro

The ouabain-sensitive fluxes of sodium and potassium in squid giant axons 1. Fifty to ninety per cent of the Na efflux from axons of Loligo forbesi is inhibited by ouabain. The properties of the ouabain-sensitive component of the Na efflux are different from those of the ouabain-insensitive component.2. In unpoisoned axons with an average Na content of 75 m-mole/kg axoplasm the bulk of the ouabain-sensitive Na efflux is dependent on external K.3. In the presence of 460 mM Na in the external (...) medium, raising the external K concentration from 0 to 100 mM increases the ouabain-sensitive Na efflux along a sigmoid curve which shows signs of saturating at high K concentrations.4. The curve relating ouabain-sensitive K influx to external K concentration is similar in shape to that for the ouabain-sensitive Na efflux. At all K concentrations examined the ouabain-sensitive K influx was less than the ouabain-sensitive Na efflux.5. Potassium-free sea water acts rapidly in reducing the Na efflux

1969 The Journal of physiology

191. The Roles of Sodium and Potassium Ions in the Generation of the Electro-Olfactogram Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Roles of Sodium and Potassium Ions in the Generation of the Electro-Olfactogram In order to clarify whether or not the electronegative olfactory mucosal potentials (EOG) are generator potentials, the effects of changed ionic enviroment were studied. The EOG decreased in amplitude and in some cases nearly or completely disappeared, when Na(+) in the bathing Ringer solution was replaced by sucrose, Li(+), choline(+), tetraethylammonium(+) (TEA), or hydrazine. In the K(+)-free Ringer solution (...) , the negative EOG's initially increased and then decreased in amplitude. In Ringer's solution with increased K(+), the negative EOG's increased in amplitude. When K(+) was increased in exchange for Na(+) in Ringer's solution, the negative EOG's decreased, disappeared, and then reversed their polarity (Fig. 6). Next, when the K(+) was replaced by equimolar sucrose, Li(+), choline(+), TEA(+), hydrazine, or Na(+), the reversed potentials recovered completely only in Na(+)-Ringer's solution, but never

1968 The Journal of general physiology

192. Sodium and Potassium Fluxes in Isolated Barnacle Muscle Fibers Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sodium and Potassium Fluxes in Isolated Barnacle Muscle Fibers Sodium and potassium influxes and outfluxes have been studied in single isolated muscle fibers from the giant barnacle both by microinjection and by external loading. The sodium influxes and outfluxes were 49 and 39 pmoles /cm(2)-sec (temperature = 15-16 degrees C) respectively. The potassium influxes and outfluxes were 28 and 60 pmoles/cm(2)-sec (temperature = 13-16 degrees C) respectively. Replacement of external sodium by lithium (...) reduced sodium outflux by 67% but had no effect on potassium outflux. Removal of external potassum reduced the sodium outflux by 51% but had no effect on potassium outflux. External strophanthidin (10-30 microM) reduced sodium outflux by 80-90% and increased potassium outflux by 40% in normal fibers. The time constant for sodium exchange increased linearly with internal sodium concentration, as did the fraction of sodium outflux insensitive to a maximally inhibitory concentration of external

1968 The Journal of general physiology

193. The activities and concentrations of sodium and potassium in toad oocytes Full Text available with Trip Pro

The activities and concentrations of sodium and potassium in toad oocytes 1. The activity of potassium, a(K), in the cytoplasm of oocytes from the toad, Bufo bufo, as measured by potassium-sensitive glass micro-electrodes, was 82 mM. The concentration of potassium, C(K), in oocytes from the same ovaries, as determined by flame photometric analysis, was 113 mM. The ratio a(K)/C(K) = 0.73 does not differ significantly from the measured activity coefficient of the normal Ringer bathing solution (...) that about half the sodium in the cell is sequestered in some manner, such that it is unavailable to affect a cation-sensitive micro-electrode.3. When the oocytes were bathed for 5 hr in a sodium-free, lithium-substituted, Ringer solution the a(Na)/C(Na) ratio decreased to 0.06-0.10. This drop in the a(Na)/C(Na) ratio implies that the sodium available to the cation-sensitive micro-electrode can leave the cell much faster than the sequestered sodium.

1969 The Journal of physiology

194. The Effect of Ouabain and External Potassium on the Ion Transport of Rabbit Red Cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Effect of Ouabain and External Potassium on the Ion Transport of Rabbit Red Cells Na efflux of rabbit RBC is approximately 10 mmoles/kg wet weight. hr. One-half of this consists of a ouabain-insensitive exchange diffusion component. Ouabain inhibits 2.5 mmoles/kg.hr of Na efflux. K influx is 3.0 mmoles/kg.hr; 2.2 mmoles/kg.hr are inhibited by ouabain. In contrast with human RBC, ouabain inhibition of Na efflux and K influx of rabbit RBC is easily reversible. After 2 hr, ouabain inhibition (...) to the same extent (1.6 mmoles/kg.hr). Removal of Na from K-free Ringer has an inhibitory effect on efflux similar to that of ouabain. These findings suggest that the fraction of Na efflux inhibited by removal of external K is completely replaced by a new, ouabain-sensitive exchange diffusion of Na ions.

1969 The Journal of general physiology

195. The Influence of Potassium- and Sodium-Free Solutions on Sodium Efflux from Squid Giant Axons Full Text available with Trip Pro

increases in sodium efflux occurred, however, the greater the sensitivity of sodium efflux to external potassium ions. When lithium ions were used to replace external sodium ions, increases in sodium efflux occurred if the sensitivity of efflux to external potassium ions was strong whereas decreases in sodium efflux took place if the sensitivity of efflux to external potassium ions was weak. Intermediate sensitivities of efflux to external potassium resulted in no change in efflux upon substitution (...) The Influence of Potassium- and Sodium-Free Solutions on Sodium Efflux from Squid Giant Axons The sensitivity of sodium efflux to the removal of potassium ions from the external solution and the change in sodium efflux occurring when sodium ions are also removed were observed to be related. When Tris was used to replace external sodium ions, increases in sodium efflux were always observed whether the sensitivity of sodium efflux to external potassium ions was weak or strong. Greater percentage

1969 The Journal of general physiology

196. Oesophageal obstruction and ulceration caused by oral potassium therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oesophageal obstruction and ulceration caused by oral potassium therapy A case is described of oesophageal ulceration and hold up following oral potassium therapy. The patient had recently undergone mitral valve replacement.

1970 British Heart Journal

197. The dependence of the transmembrane salivary secretory potential on the external potassium and sodium concentration Full Text available with Trip Pro

The dependence of the transmembrane salivary secretory potential on the external potassium and sodium concentration 1. The submandibular gland of the cat was perfused with equi-osmolar Locke solutions of different cationic composition. The increase in acinar membrane potential (secretory potential), measured with a glass capillary micro-electrode, was recorded after intra-arterial injection of acetylcholine.2. When nearly all Na in the perfusion fluid was replaced by tetraethylammonium (TEA

1970 The Journal of physiology

198. Role of liver-cell potassium ions in secretion of serum albumin and lipoproteins Full Text available with Trip Pro

Role of liver-cell potassium ions in secretion of serum albumin and lipoproteins 1. The incorporation of l-[1-(14)C]leucine into the proteins of liver slices and into the serum albumin and lipoproteins transported by these slices was investigated. 2. Transport rates were found to be dependent on the K(+) content of the slices. 3. The effect of K(+) on transport of serum albumin and of serum lipoprotein can be separated from any effect on synthesis by altering K(+) concentrations after (...) inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide or puromycin. 4. The effect of low K(+) concentrations is reversible. 5. There is linear relationship between the K(+) content of the slices and the transport of protein. A simple method is described for maintaining various steady concentrations of K(+) in the liver slices. 6. K(+) may be replaced by Rb(+). Cs(+) is partly effective, but NH(4) (+) and Li(+) are no more effective than Na(+). 7. We found evidence that K(+) content rather than the flux rates

1970 Biochemical Journal

199. Factors affecting the permeability of isolated fat-cells from the rat to [42K]potassium and [36Cl]chloride ions Full Text available with Trip Pro

Factors affecting the permeability of isolated fat-cells from the rat to [42K]potassium and [36Cl]chloride ions 1. The effluxes of (42)K(+) and (36)Cl(-) from isolated fat-cells from the rat were studied under a variety of conditions known to affect the metabolism of the cells. 2. (42)K(+) efflux from isolated fat cells was increased in a Na(+)-free-high-K(+) medium and decreased in a K(+)-free medium. The existence of K(+) exchange diffusion across the fat-cell membrane is suggested. 3. (36)Cl (...) (-) efflux from isolated fat-cells was decreased when the Cl(-) component of the wash medium was replaced by acetate. The basal (36)Cl(-) efflux is suggested to be partly by Cl(-) exchange diffusion and partly in company with a univalent cation. 4. A variety of lipolytic stimuli, adrenaline, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, N-6,O-2'-dibutyryladenosine cyclic 3':5'-monophosphate and theophylline, increased (42)K(+) efflux from isolated fat-cells. The adrenaline stimulation was biphasic; an initial, rapid

1970 Biochemical Journal

200. Studies on the microsomal sodium-plus-potassium ion-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase system in rat ventral prostate Full Text available with Trip Pro

Studies on the microsomal sodium-plus-potassium ion-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase system in rat ventral prostate A Mg(2+)+Na(+)+K(+)-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) preparation was isolated from rat ventral prostate by flotation of microsomal membranes in high-density sucrose solutions. The reaction medium for optimum Na(+)+K(+)-stimulated ATPase activity was found to be: Na(+), 115mm; K(+), 7-10mm; Mg(2+), 3mm; ATP, 3mm; tris buffer, pH7.4 at 38 degrees , 20mm. The average (...) as substrate. The apparent K(m) for ATP for Na(+)+K(+)-stimulated activity was about 0.3x10(-3)m. Ca(2+) inhibited only the Na(+)+K(+)-stimulated ATPase activity. Mg(2+) could be replaced by Ca(2+) but then no Na(+)+K(+) stimulation of ATPase activity was noticed. The addition of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one) in vitro at 0.1-10mum under a variety of experimental conditions did not significantly increase the Na(+)+K(+)-stimulated ATPase activity. The enzyme

1969 Biochemical Journal

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