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Potassium Replacement

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1. Estimated population wide benefits and risks in China of lowering sodium through potassium enriched salt substitution: modelling study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Estimated population wide benefits and risks in China of lowering sodium through potassium enriched salt substitution: modelling study. To estimate the effects of nationwide replacement of discretionary salt (used at table or during cooking) with potassium enriched salt substitute on morbidity and death from cardiovascular disease in China.Modelling study.China.Adult population in China, and specifically individuals with chronic kidney disease (about 17 million people).Comparative risk (...) assessment models were used to estimate the effects of a nationwide intervention to replace discretionary dietary salt with potassium enriched salt substitutes (20-30% potassium chloride). The models incorporated existing data and corresponding uncertainties from randomised trials, the China National Survey of Chronic Kidney Disease, the Global Burden of Disease Study, and the Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium.Averted deaths from cardiovascular disease, non-fatal events, and disability adjusted

2020 BMJ

2. Spot urine samples compared with 24-h urine samples for estimating changes in urinary sodium and potassium excretion in the China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spot urine samples compared with 24-h urine samples for estimating changes in urinary sodium and potassium excretion in the China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. The capacity of spot urine samples for detecting changes in population sodium and potassium excretion is unclear.Changes in urinary sodium and potassium excretion, over a 6-month to 2-year interval, were measured from 24-h urine samples and estimated from spot urine samples using several published methods in 3270 Chinese. Additional (...) estimates were made by multiplying individual spot sodium and potassium concentrations by a single estimated 24-h urine volume derived from external data.The measured difference in 24-h urinary excretion between intervention and control groups was -0.35 g (95% CI: -0.68 to -0.02; P = 0.039) for sodium and 0.66 g (95% CI: 0.52 to 0.80; P < 0.001) for potassium, based upon 24-h urine samples. The corresponding estimates of sodium differences for the Tanaka (-0.06 g), Kawasaki (-0.09 g), Intersalt without

2019 International journal of epidemiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3. Glucose-insulin-potassium improves left ventricular performances after aortic valve replacement: a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Glucose-insulin-potassium improves left ventricular performances after aortic valve replacement: a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Patients with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may suffer ischemia-reperfusion injuries at the time of cardiac surgery with impairment in left ventricular function. Using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), we evaluated the impact of glucose-insulin potassium (GIK) on LV performances in patients undergoing valve replacement for aortic

2019 BMC Anesthesiology

4. Effectiveness and Safety of Potassium Replacement in Critically Ill Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effectiveness and Safety of Potassium Replacement in Critically Ill Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Rules of thumb for potassium replacement are used in intensive care units despite minimal empirical validation.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rule-of-thumb potassium replacement in critically ill patients with mild and moderate hypokalemia.A retrospective, observational study was done of patients with mild (potassium, 3-3.9 mEq/L) and moderate (potassium, 2-2.9 mEq/L (...) ) hypokalemia admitted to a medical intensive care unit who received potassium replacement. Expected and actual frequencies of replacement that achieved target potassium concentrations (≥ 4 mEq/L) were compared by using a χ2 test. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess whether rule-of-thumb administration affected the probability of target attainment within 24 hours of replacement.Serum potassium concentrations were checked within 24 hours after potassium replacement on 354 of 577 days (61.4%) when

2019 Critical care nurse

5. Initial Potassium Replacement in Diabetic Ketoacidosis: The Unnoticed Area of Gap Full Text available with Trip Pro

Initial Potassium Replacement in Diabetic Ketoacidosis: The Unnoticed Area of Gap 29619008 2018 11 14 1664-2392 9 2018 Frontiers in endocrinology Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) Initial Potassium Replacement in Diabetic Ketoacidosis: The Unnoticed Area of Gap. 109 10.3389/fendo.2018.00109 Usman Atif A School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia. eng Journal Article 2018 03 21 Switzerland Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 101555782 1664-2392 cardiovascular diseases (...) diabetic ketoacidosis hypokalemia mortality potassium replacement treatment outcome 2018 01 16 2018 03 05 2018 4 6 6 0 2018 4 6 6 0 2018 4 6 6 1 epublish 29619008 10.3389/fendo.2018.00109 PMC5871863 N Engl J Med. 1982 Dec 23;307(26):1603-10 6815530 Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1947 Dec;80(6):728-38 18897476 Am J Med. 1981 Sep;71(3):456-67 7025622 Diabetes Care. 2006 Dec;29(12):2739-48 17130218 J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1948 Aug;8(8):658-65 18877063 Am J Nephrol. 2013;38(1):50-7 23817179 Can J Diabetes. 2016

2018 Frontiers in endocrinology

6. Renal replacement therapy and conservative management

Renal replacement therapy and conservative management Renal replacement ther Renal replacement therap apy and y and conservativ conservative management e management NICE guideline Published: 3 October 2018 nice.org.uk/guidance/ng107 © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice-of- rights).Y Y our responsibility our responsibility The recommendations in this guideline represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful (...) in a way that would be inconsistent with complying with those duties. Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible. Renal replacement therapy and conservative management (NG107) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 2 of 33Contents

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

7. Renal Replacement Therapy for Critically Unwell Adult Patients: Guidelines for best practice and service resilience during COVID-19

Renal Replacement Therapy for Critically Unwell Adult Patients: Guidelines for best practice and service resilience during COVID-19 Clinical Practice Guidelines Renal Replacement Therapy for Critically Unwell Adult Patients: Guidelines for best practice and service resilience during COVID-19 Final version: 8 October 2020 Review date: 30 November 2020 RRT for Critically Unwell Adult Patients: Guidelines for best practice and service resilience during COVID-19 – 2020 2 Authors Co-chairs Dr (...) made declarations of interest in line with the policy in the Renal Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Development Manual. Further details can be obtained on request from the Renal Association. Nomenclature The term "Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT)" has been utilised within this guideline as this nomenclature is used routinely by healthcare professionals working within the United Kingdom. It should be noted however that this term is interchangeable with the term "Kidney Replacement Therapy

2020 Renal Association

8. Commentary on the NICE Guideline on Renal Replacement Therapy and Conservative Management

by a specialist renal dietitian to people starting dialysis or conservative management. This should include: Renal Association commentary on the NICE Guideline on Renal Replacement Therapy and Conservative Management 13 • weight history • fluid intake • sodium • potassium • phosphate • protein • calories • micronutrients (vitamin and minerals) 1.7.2 After transplantation, offer dietary advice from a healthcare professional with training and skills in this area. 1.7.3 Re-assess dietary management and fluid (...) Commentary on the NICE Guideline on Renal Replacement Therapy and Conservative Management Commentary on the NICE Guideline on Renal Replacement Therapy and Conservative Management Authors: Kunaal Kharbanda Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester Osasuyi Iyasere John Walls Renal unit, Leicester General Hospital Fergus Caskey Bristol Medical School: Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol Richard Bright

2020 Renal Association

9. Commentary on the NICE Guideline on Renal Replacement Therapy and Conservative Management

by a specialist renal dietitian to people starting dialysis or conservative management. This should include: Renal Association commentary on the NICE Guideline on Renal Replacement Therapy and Conservative Management 13 • weight history • fluid intake • sodium • potassium • phosphate • protein • calories • micronutrients (vitamin and minerals) 1.7.2 After transplantation, offer dietary advice from a healthcare professional with training and skills in this area. 1.7.3 Re-assess dietary management and fluid (...) Commentary on the NICE Guideline on Renal Replacement Therapy and Conservative Management Commentary on the NICE Guideline on Renal Replacement Therapy and Conservative Management Authors: Kunaal Kharbanda Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester Osasuyi Iyasere John Walls Renal unit, Leicester General Hospital Fergus Caskey Bristol Medical School: Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol Richard Bright

2020 Renal Association

10. Covid-19: Clinical guide for renal replacement therapy options in critical care during the coronavirus pandemic (amended version)

-of-novel-coronavirus The need to provide renal replacement therapy (RRT) to an increasing number of critically ill patients is likely to exceed machine capacity. In all cases, maximal medical management should be considered before attempting RRT, including: • appropriate dose loop diuretics (oral or intravenous) for fluid overload • potassium binders as per NICE guidance and other measures to manage acute hyperkalaemia (see Clinical guide for acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalised patients (...) Covid-19: Clinical guide for renal replacement therapy options in critical care during the coronavirus pandemic (amended version) Publications approval reference: 001559 NHS England and NHS Improvement Specialty guides for patient management during the coronavirus pandemic Clinical guide for renal replacement therapy options in critical care during the coronavirus pandemic 15 April 2020 Version 1.1 As doctors we all have general responsibilities in relation to coronavirus and for these we

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc guidelines

11. Chemical substitutions in the selectivity filter of potassium channels do not rule out constricted-like conformations for C-type inactivation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chemical substitutions in the selectivity filter of potassium channels do not rule out constricted-like conformations for C-type inactivation In many K+ channels, prolonged activating stimuli lead to a time-dependent reduction in ion conduction, a phenomenon known as C-type inactivation. X-ray structures of the KcsA channel suggest that this inactivated state corresponds to a "constricted" conformation of the selectivity filter. However, the functional significance of the constricted (...) conformation has become a matter of debate. Functional and structural studies based on chemically modified semisynthetic KcsA channels along the selectivity filter led to the conclusion that the constricted conformation does not correspond to the C-type inactivated state. The main results supporting this view include the observation that C-type inactivation is not suppressed by a substitution of D-alanine at Gly77, even though this modification is believed to lock the selectivity filter into its conductive

2017 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

12. Interim effects of salt substitution on urinary electrolytes and blood pressure in the China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study (SSaSS). (Abstract)

Interim effects of salt substitution on urinary electrolytes and blood pressure in the China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study (SSaSS). The Salt Substitute and Stroke Study is an ongoing 5-year large-scale cluster randomized trial investigating the effects of potassium-enriched salt substitute compared to usual salt on the risk of stroke. The study involves 600 villages and 20,996 individuals in rural China. Intermediate risk markers were measured in a random subsample of villages every 12 (...) months over 3 years to track progress against key assumptions underlying study design. Measures of 24-hour urinary sodium, 24-hour urinary potassium, blood pressure and participants' use of salt substitute were recorded, with differences between intervention and control groups estimated using generalized linear mixed models. The primary outcome of annual event rate in the two groups combined was determined by dividing confirmed fatal and non-fatal strokes by total follow-up time in the first 2 years

2020 American Heart Journal

13. Potassium Replacement

Potassium Replacement Potassium Replacement Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Potassium Replacement Potassium (...) Replacement Aka: Potassium Replacement , Potassium Supplementation II. Indications III. Precautions is typically needed in conjunction with Adjust protocol for renal disease : < 30 ml/hour : > 3.0 mg/dl IV. Preparations Extended release tablets (preferred) Order generic chloride ER ($15 per month) KDUR brand-name is not available in U.S. as of 2016 Immediate-release powder Expensive ($290 per month) Diluted in liquid and are less than palatable Better tolerated in divided dosing (20 mEq at a time

2018 FP Notebook

14. How should intravenous (IV) potassium chloride be administered in adults?

is not available or will not achieve the required increase of serum potassium within a clinically acceptable time. Wherever possible commercially available ready to use diluted solutions should be prescribed and used. During initial replacement it may be preferable to use premixed infusions that are glucose-free. Administration should be via a volumetric infusion pump. The concentration of potassium for intravenous administration via a peripheral line should not exceed 40mmol/L, as higher strengths can cause (...) How should intravenous (IV) potassium chloride be administered in adults? How should intravenous (IV) potassium chloride be administered in adults? – SPS - Specialist Pharmacy Service – The first stop for professional medicines advice Menu · · Coronavirus (COVID-19) or . Use for the government response, and for health information. Published 20th September 2020 , updated 8th October 2020 · UKMi Potassium administration via the intravenous route should only be used when the oral or enteral route

2020 Specialist Pharmacy Services

15. A pilot study on efficacy and safety of a new salt substitute with very low sodium among hypertension patients on regular treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

anti-hypertensive medications regularly.Patients received the salt substitute with 18% sodium chloride for 8 weeks.Patients were followed up weekly for the use of antihypertensive medications and measurements of blood pressure. We collected 24-h urine before and after the trial to measure sodium and potassium intake.Among 39 patients who completed the 8 weeks' intervention, 30.8% patients stopped or reduced anti-hypertensive medications during the trial. For patients that stopped or reduced (...) (P < .001) and potassium increased (P < .001) among all patients. No severe adverse events were reported.The novel salt substitute showed potential in reducing blood pressure and use of antihypertensive medications. Further randomized double-blind controlled trial is warranted to validate these findings.Clinical Trial Registration-URL:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03226327.

2020 Medicine

16. Effects of Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks

hypertension. • Use of potassium-containing salt substitutes in the diet to reduce sodium intake most likely reduces blood pressure in adults. • Increasing potassium intake most likely decreases blood pressure in adults with hypertension. • All-cause mortality may be associated with sodium intake. • Reduced sodium intake may decrease the risk for combined CVD morbidity and mortality.iii This report is based on research conducted by the RAND Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center under contract (...) /morbidity and a composite outcome of any CVD events (low SoE). Although sodium levels appear to be associated with all-cause mortality (low SoE), the shape of this relationship could not be determined (insufficient SoE), and evidence from prospective cohort studies was insufficient to draw conclusions regarding associations with combined CVD morbidity/mortality and stroke risk. Use of potassium salt substitutes in place of sodium chloride and increasing potassium intake itself through the use

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

17. Sodium and Potassium Intake: Effects on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks

hypertension. • Use of potassium-containing salt substitutes in the diet to reduce sodium intake most likely reduces blood pressure in adults. • Increasing potassium intake most likely decreases blood pressure in adults with hypertension. • All-cause mortality may be associated with sodium intake. • Reduced sodium intake may decrease the risk for combined CVD morbidity and mortality.iii This report is based on research conducted by the RAND Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center under contract (...) /morbidity and a composite outcome of any CVD events (low SoE). Although sodium levels appear to be associated with all-cause mortality (low SoE), the shape of this relationship could not be determined (insufficient SoE), and evidence from prospective cohort studies was insufficient to draw conclusions regarding associations with combined CVD morbidity/mortality and stroke risk. Use of potassium salt substitutes in place of sodium chloride and increasing potassium intake itself through the use

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

18. The NxStage System One NX1000-1 home haemodialysis device for renal replacement therapy in chronic kidney disease

The NxStage System One NX1000-1 home haemodialysis device for renal replacement therapy in chronic kidney disease The NxStage System One NX1000-1 home The NxStage System One NX1000-1 home haemodialysis de haemodialysis device for renal replacement vice for renal replacement ther therap apy in chronic kidne y in chronic kidney disease y disease Medtech innovation briefing Published: 19 November 2014 nice.org.uk/guidance/mib12 pathways Summary Summary The NxStage System One is a haemodialysis (...) system for renal replacement therapy to be used at home or while travelling. The system can run from standard home electricity and water supplies, and is smaller than standard home haemodialysis systems. © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 1 of 42Effectiv Effectiveness eness The available evidence comes from 7 published studies (reported in 9 publications) involving a total of 12,604 people. Four small

2014 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

19. Substituting potassium iodide for methimazole as the treatment for Graves' disease during the first trimester may reduce the incidence of congenital anomalies: a retrospective study at a single medical institution in Japan. (Abstract)

Substituting potassium iodide for methimazole as the treatment for Graves' disease during the first trimester may reduce the incidence of congenital anomalies: a retrospective study at a single medical institution in Japan. To control hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease, antithyroid drugs should be administered. Several studies have shown that exposure to methimazole (MMI) during the first trimester of pregnancy increases the incidence of specific congenital anomalies that are collectively (...) referred to as MMI embryopathy. Congenital anomalies associated with exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU) have also recently been reported.This study investigated whether substituting potassium iodide (KI) for MMI in the first trimester would result in a lower incidence of major congenital anomalies than continuing treatment with MMI alone. The cases of 283 women with Graves' disease (GD) were reviewed whose treatment was switched from MMI to KI in the first trimester (iodine group), as well as the cases

2015 Thyroid

20. Is Potassium Supplementation Beneficial in Hospitalized Patients?

. 2015 Jan;128(1):60-7. Cohn JN, Kowey PR, Whelton PK, Prisant LM. New guidelines for potassium replacement in clinical practice: a contemporary review by the National Council on Potassium in Clinical Practice. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Sep 11;160(16):2429-36. Review. Conway R, Creagh D, Byrne DG, O’Riordan D, Silke B. Serum potassium levels as an outcome determinant in acute medical admissions. Clin Med (Lond). 2015 Jun;15(3):239-43. Khanagavi J, Gupta T, Aronow WS, et al. Hyperkalemia among (...) Is Potassium Supplementation Beneficial in Hospitalized Patients? Is Potassium Supplementation Beneficial in Hospitalized Patients? – Clinical Correlations Search Is Potassium Supplementation Beneficial in Hospitalized Patients? October 25, 2017 6 min read By Sara Stream, MD Peer Reviewed As resident physicians, we are taught to supplement serum potassium to a goal level of 4.0 mEq/L in all hospitalized patients. While the dangers of severe potassium abnormalities are well established

2017 Clinical Correlations

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