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Potassium Homeostasis

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1. Renal potassium handling in carriers of the Gly40Ser mutation of the glucagon receptor suggests a role for glucagon in potassium homeostasis (PubMed)

Renal potassium handling in carriers of the Gly40Ser mutation of the glucagon receptor suggests a role for glucagon in potassium homeostasis Plasma potassium concentration (PK ) is tightly regulated. Insulin is known to favor potassium entry into cells. But how potassium leaves the cells later on is not often considered. Previous studies in rats showed that glucagon infusion increased urinary potassium excretion dose-dependently and reversibly. This prompted us to investigate the possible (...) influence of glucagon on potassium handling in humans. We took advantage of the Gly40Ser mutation of the glucagon receptor (GR) that results in a partial loss of function of the GR. In the Olivetti cohort (male workers), 25 subjects who carried this mutation were matched 1:4 to 100 noncarriers for age and weight. Estimated osmolarity of serum and 24-h urine (Sosm and Uosm, respectively) was calculated from the concentrations of the main solutes: [(Na+K)*2 + urea (+glucose for serum)]. Transtubular

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2018 Physiological reports

2. The Role of the Gut for Potassium Homeostasis in CKD

The Role of the Gut for Potassium Homeostasis in CKD Renal Fellow Network: The Role of the Gut for Potassium Homeostasis in CKD | | | | | Sunday, May 27, 2018 The Role of the Gut for Potassium Homeostasis in CKD Recently the FDA approved one of the newer exchange resins (Lokelma, ZS-9) for the treatment of hyperkalemia. (Veltassa, Patiromer), a calcium based cation exchange resin, was recently developed and approved since 2015 for the treatment of hyperkalemia. These two new drugs, which each (...) in these patients compared to controls with normal kidney function. The upregulation of BK-channels probably represent an adaptation to chronic potassium load in order to maintain homeostasis. Interestingly, a tested the effect of Bisacodyl on potassium in patients with ESKD. Eight controls normal kidney function and 13 patients with ESKD were given Bisacodyl 5-10mg PO titrated to achieve 2 soft bowel movements per day and these were compared to 5 ESKD patients given lactulose 10ml PO titrated also to 2 soft

2018 Renal Fellow Network

3. Urinary angiotensinogen level is associated with potassium homeostasis and clinical outcome in patients with polycystic kidney disease: a prospective cohort study. (PubMed)

Urinary angiotensinogen level is associated with potassium homeostasis and clinical outcome in patients with polycystic kidney disease: a prospective cohort study. Guidelines for general hypertension treatment do not recommend the combined use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors due to the risk of hyperkalemia. However, a recent clinical trial showed that polycystic kidney disease (PKD) patients had infrequent episodes of hyperkalemia despite receiving combined RAAS (...) inhibitors. Because intrarenal RAAS is a main component for renal potassium handling, we further investigated the association between intrarenal RAAS activity and serum potassium level in patients with chronic kidney disease, particularly in PKD patients, and examined whether intrarenal RAAS activity has a prognostic role in patients with PKD.A total of 1788 subjects from the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) were enrolled in this study. Intrarenal RAAS

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2019 BMC Nephrology

4. Physiology and Pathophysiology of Potassium Homeostasis: Core Curriculum 2019. (PubMed)

Physiology and Pathophysiology of Potassium Homeostasis: Core Curriculum 2019. Total-body potassium (K+) content and appropriate distribution of K+ across the cell membrane is vitally important for normal cellular function. Total-body K+ content is determined by changes in excretion of K+ by the kidneys in response to intake levels. Under normal conditions, insulin and β-adrenergic tone also make important contributions in maintaining internal distribution of K+. However, despite (...) these homeostatic pathways, disorders of altered K+ homeostasis are common. Appreciating the pathophysiology and regulatory influences that determine the internal distribution and external balance of K+ is critical in designing effective treatments to restore K+ homeostasis. We provide an up-to-date review of the regulatory aspects of normal K+ physiology as a preface to highlighting common disorders in K+ homeostasis and their treatment. This review of K+ homeostasis is designed as a resource for clinicians

2019 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

5. Coping with an Essential Poison: a Genetic Suppressor Analysis Corroborates a Key Function of c-di-AMP in Controlling Potassium Ion Homeostasis in Gram-Positive Bacteria (PubMed)

Coping with an Essential Poison: a Genetic Suppressor Analysis Corroborates a Key Function of c-di-AMP in Controlling Potassium Ion Homeostasis in Gram-Positive Bacteria Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is an important second messenger in bacteria. In most Firmicutes, the molecule is required for growth in complex media but also toxic upon accumulation. In an article on their current study, Zarrella and coworkers present a suppressor analysis of a Streptococcus pneumoniae strain that is unable (...) to degrade c-di-AMP (T. M. Zarrella, D. W. Metzger, and G. Bai, J Bacteriol 200:e00045-18, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00045-18). Their study identifies new links between c-di-AMP and potassium homeostasis and supports the hypothesis that c-di-AMP serves as a second messenger to report about the intracellular potassium concentrations.Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

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2018 Journal of bacteriology

6. Trk2 Potassium Transport System in Streptococcus mutans and Its Role in Potassium Homeostasis, Biofilm Formation, and Stress Tolerance (PubMed)

Trk2 Potassium Transport System in Streptococcus mutans and Its Role in Potassium Homeostasis, Biofilm Formation, and Stress Tolerance Potassium (K(+)) is the most abundant cation in the fluids of dental biofilm. The biochemical and biophysical functions of K(+) and a variety of K(+) transport systems have been studied for most pathogenic bacteria but not for oral pathogens. In this study, we establish the modes of K(+) acquisition in Streptococcus mutans and the importance of K(+) homeostasis (...) an Escherichia coli TK2420 mutant strain, which resulted in significant K(+) accumulation, improved growth, and survival under stress. Taken together, these results suggest that Trk2 is the main facet of the K(+)-dependent cellular response of S. mutans to environment stresses.Biofilm formation and stress tolerance are important virulence properties of caries-causing Streptococcus mutans. To limit these properties of this bacterium, it is imperative to understand its survival mechanisms. Potassium

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2016 Journal of bacteriology

7. Potassium Homeostasis in Health and Disease: A Scientific Workshop Cosponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the American Society of Hypertension. (PubMed)

Potassium Homeostasis in Health and Disease: A Scientific Workshop Cosponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the American Society of Hypertension. While much emphasis, and some controversy, centers on recommendations for sodium intake, there has been considerably less interest in recommendations for dietary potassium intake, in both the general population and patients with medical conditions, particularly acute and chronic kidney disease. Physiology literature and cohort studies have (...) noted that the relative balance in sodium and potassium intakes is an important determinant of many of the sodium-related outcomes. A noteworthy characteristic of potassium in clinical medicine is the extreme concern shared by many practitioners when confronted by a patient with hyperkalemia. Fear of this often asymptomatic finding limits enthusiasm for recommending potassium intake and often limits the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers in patients with heart failure and chronic

2017 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

8. Potassium Homeostasis: The Knowns, the Unknowns, and the Health Benefits (PubMed)

Potassium Homeostasis: The Knowns, the Unknowns, and the Health Benefits Potassium homeostasis has a very high priority because of its importance for membrane potential. Although extracellular K+ is only 2% of total body K+, our physiology was evolutionarily tuned for a high-K+, low-Na+ diet. We review how multiple systems interface to accomplish fine K+ balance and the consequences for health and disease.©2017 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

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2017 Physiology

9. Induction of Barley Silicon Transporter HvLsi1 and HvLsi2, increased silicon concentration in the shoot and regulated Starch and ABA Homeostasis under Osmotic stress and Concomitant Potassium Deficiency (PubMed)

Induction of Barley Silicon Transporter HvLsi1 and HvLsi2, increased silicon concentration in the shoot and regulated Starch and ABA Homeostasis under Osmotic stress and Concomitant Potassium Deficiency Drought is one of the major stress factors reducing cereal production worldwide. There is ample evidence that the mineral nutrient status of plants plays a critical role in increasing plant tolerance to different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this regard, the important role of various (...) nutrients e.g., potassium (K) or silicon (Si) in the mitigation of different stress factors, such as drought, heat or frost has been well documented. Si application has been reported to ameliorate plant nutrient deficiency. Here, we used K and Si either solely or in combination to investigate whether an additive positive effect on barley growth can be achieved under osmotic stress and which mechanisms contribute to a better tolerance to osmotic stress. To achieve this goal, barley plants were subjected

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2017 Frontiers in plant science

10. Potassium Homeostasis, Oxidative Stress, and Human Disease (PubMed)

Potassium Homeostasis, Oxidative Stress, and Human Disease Potassium is the most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid and it plays a vital role in the maintenance of normal cell functions. Thus, potassium homeostasis across the cell membrane, is very critical because a tilt in this balance can result in different diseases that could be life threatening. Both Oxidative stress (OS) and potassium imbalance can cause life threatening health conditions. OS and abnormalities in potassium (...) channel have been reported in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights the major factors involved in potassium homeostasis (dietary, hormonal, genetic, and physiologic influences), and discusses the major diseases and abnormalities associated with potassium imbalance including hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and Gordon's syndrome, Bartter syndrome, and Gitelman syndrome.

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2017 International journal of clinical and experimental physiology

11. An Arabidopsis Zinc Finger Protein Increases Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Regulating Sodium and Potassium Homeostasis, Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Osmotic Potential (PubMed)

An Arabidopsis Zinc Finger Protein Increases Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Regulating Sodium and Potassium Homeostasis, Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Osmotic Potential Plant zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) comprise a large protein family and they are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance. Although Arabidopsis RING/FYVE/PHD ZFP At5g62460 (AtRZFP) is found to bind to zinc, whether it is involved in abiotic stress tolerance is still unknown. In the present study, we characterized (...) aperture and the water loss rate. Conversely, AtRZFP knockout plants displayed the opposite physiological changes when exposed to salt or osmotic stress conditions. These data suggested that AtRZFP enhances salt and osmotic tolerance through a series of physiological processes, including enhanced ROSs scavenging, maintaining Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis, controlling the stomatal aperture to reduce the water loss rate, and accumulating soluble sugars and proline to adjust the osmotic potential.

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2016 Frontiers in plant science

12. Tissue-specific regulation of potassium homeostasis by high doses of cationic amino acids (PubMed)

Tissue-specific regulation of potassium homeostasis by high doses of cationic amino acids The administration of l-arginine hydrochloride has been used for testing pituitary secretion in humans, and as an experimental model for induction of acute pancreatitis in rats and mice. Whereas in the first case, the administration of the amino acid is associated with hiperkalemia, in the model of acute pancreatitis no data are available on possible changes in potassium homeostasis. The present study (...) shows that the acute administration to mice of l-arginine hydrochloride or other cationic amino acids almost duplicate plasma potassium levels. This effect was associated to a marked decrease of tissue potassium in both pancreas and liver. No changes were found in other tissues. These changes cannot be ascribed to the large load of chloride ions, since similar effects were produced when l-ornithine aspartate was administered. The changes in potassium levels were dependent on the dose

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2016 SpringerPlus

13. Glucagon actions on the kidney revisited. Possible role in potassium homeostasis. (PubMed)

Glucagon actions on the kidney revisited. Possible role in potassium homeostasis. It is now recognized that the metabolic disorders observed in diabetes are not, or not only due to the lack of insulin or insulin resistance, but also to elevated glucagon secretion. Accordingly, selective glucagon receptor antagonists are now proposed as a novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes. However, besides its metabolic actions, glucagon also influences kidney function. The glucagon receptor (...) regulation of potassium homeostasis. Several original findings suggest that pancreatic α-cells may express a "potassium sensor" sensitive to changes in plasma K concentration and could respond by adapting glucagon secretion that, in turn, would regulate urinary K excretion. By their combined actions, glucagon and insulin, working in a combinatory mode, could ensure an independent regulation of both plasma glucose and plasma K concentrations. The results and hypotheses reviewed here suggest that the use

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2016 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

14. Potassium Homeostasis

Potassium Homeostasis Potassium Homeostasis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Potassium Homeostasis Potassium (...) Homeostasis Aka: Potassium Homeostasis , Potassium , Potassium Ion II. Physiology: Potassium Distribution Background Potassium is primary intracellular cation and critical for normal cellular function Intracellular Potassium concentration of 130-140 mEq/L accounts for 98% of total body Potassium Extracellular Potassium (~4 mEq/L) is only 2% of total body Potassium (56 mEq total for entire ECF in 70 kg male) Maintenance of intracellular Potassium -Potassium ATPase pump (cellular membrane) Pumps 2 Potassium

2018 FP Notebook

15. (Pro)Renin Receptor Regulates Potassium Homeostasis through a Local Mechanism. (PubMed)

(Pro)Renin Receptor Regulates Potassium Homeostasis through a Local Mechanism. (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) is highly expressed in the distal nephron, but it has an unclear functional implication. The present study was conducted to explore a potential role of renal PRR during high K+ (HK) loading. In normal Sprague-Dawley rats, a 1-wk HK intake increased renal expression of full-length PRR and urinary excretion of soluble PRR (sPRR). Administration of PRO20, a decoy peptide antagonist of PRR, in K (...) +-loaded animals elevated plasma K+ level and decreased urinary K+ excretion, accompanied with suppressed urinary aldosterone excretion and intrarenal aldosterone levels. HK downregulated Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) expression but upregulated CYP11B2 (cytochrome P-450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2), renal outer medullary K+ channel (ROMK), calcium-activated potassium channel subunit α1 (α-BK), α-Na+-K+-ATPase (α-NKA), and epithelial Na+ channel subunit β (β-ENaC), all of which were blunted

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2016 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

16. SPAK and OSR1 play essential roles in potassium homeostasis through actions on the distal convoluted tubule (PubMed)

SPAK and OSR1 play essential roles in potassium homeostasis through actions on the distal convoluted tubule STE20 (Sterile 20)/SPS-1 related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-response kinase-1 (OSR1) phosphorylate and activate the renal Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) and Na(+) Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC). Mouse models suggest that OSR1 mainly activates NKCC2-mediated sodium transport along the thick ascending limb, while SPAK mainly activates NCC along (...) the collecting duct were also observed. Potassium restriction revealed that SPAK and OSR1 play essential roles in the emerging model that NCC activation is central to sensing changes in plasma [K(+) ].STE20 (Sterile 20)/SPS-1 related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-response kinase-1 (OSR1) activate the renal cation cotransporters Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) and Na(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) via phosphorylation. Knockout mouse models suggest that OSR1 mainly activates

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2016 The Journal of physiology

17. Energy and Potassium Ion Homeostasis during Gamma Oscillations (PubMed)

Energy and Potassium Ion Homeostasis during Gamma Oscillations Fast neuronal network oscillations in the gamma frequency band (30-100 Hz) occur in various cortex regions, require timed synaptic excitation and inhibition with glutamate and GABA, respectively, and are associated with higher brain functions such as sensory perception, attentional selection and memory formation. However, little is known about energy and ion homeostasis during the gamma oscillation. Recent studies addressed (...) this topic in slices of the rodent hippocampus using cholinergic and glutamatergic receptor models of gamma oscillations (GAM). Methods with high spatial and temporal resolution were applied in vitro, such as electrophysiological recordings of local field potential (LFP) and extracellular potassium concentration ([K(+)]o), live-cell fluorescence imaging of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) and flavin adenine dinucleotide [NAD(P)H and FAD, respectively] (cellular redox state), and monitoring

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2016 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

18. Potassium Homeostasis

Potassium Homeostasis Rotation Prep | NEJM Resident 360 Social Login Email Login Log in via Email Create Your Account We will not share your email with anyone. Password must be at least 8 characters. Show or Hide the password you are typing. Request to Join has invited you to join this group Your browser does not support video tags Welcome! NEJM Resident 360 helps you prepare for your next rotation quickly and efficiently, provides support for coping with the pressures of resident life

2015 Now@NEJM

19. An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. (PubMed)

An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. 26510039 2015 10 30 2018 12 02 1533-4406 373 18 2015 10 29 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. 1787-8 10.1056/NEJMc1509656 Gumz Michelle L ML Rabinowitz Lawrence L Wingo Charles S CS eng Letter Comment United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 RWP5GA015D Potassium AIM IM N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 2;373(1):60-72 26132942 N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 29;373(18):1786 26510040 N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct (...) 29;373(18):1786-7 26510041 N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 29;373(18):1787 26510042 Circadian Clocks physiology Homeostasis physiology Humans Potassium metabolism 2015 10 29 6 0 2015 10 29 6 0 2015 10 31 6 0 ppublish 26510039 10.1056/NEJMc1509656 10.1056/NEJMc1509656#SA4

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2015 NEJM

20. An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. (PubMed)

An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. 26510040 2015 10 30 2018 12 02 1533-4406 373 18 2015 10 29 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. 1786 10.1056/NEJMc1509656 Hoorn Ewout J EJ Loffing Johannes J Ellison David H DH eng I01 BX002228 BX BLRD VA United States Letter Comment United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 RWP5GA015D Potassium AIM IM N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 2;373(1):60-72 26132942 N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 29;373(18):1787 (...) -8 26510039 Circadian Clocks physiology Homeostasis physiology Humans Potassium metabolism 2015 10 29 6 0 2015 10 29 6 0 2015 10 31 6 0 ppublish 26510040 10.1056/NEJMc1509656 10.1056/NEJMc1509656#SA1

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2015 NEJM

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