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Potassium Homeostasis

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1. Renal potassium handling in carriers of the Gly40Ser mutation of the glucagon receptor suggests a role for glucagon in potassium homeostasis (Full text)

Renal potassium handling in carriers of the Gly40Ser mutation of the glucagon receptor suggests a role for glucagon in potassium homeostasis Plasma potassium concentration (PK ) is tightly regulated. Insulin is known to favor potassium entry into cells. But how potassium leaves the cells later on is not often considered. Previous studies in rats showed that glucagon infusion increased urinary potassium excretion dose-dependently and reversibly. This prompted us to investigate the possible (...) influence of glucagon on potassium handling in humans. We took advantage of the Gly40Ser mutation of the glucagon receptor (GR) that results in a partial loss of function of the GR. In the Olivetti cohort (male workers), 25 subjects who carried this mutation were matched 1:4 to 100 noncarriers for age and weight. Estimated osmolarity of serum and 24-h urine (Sosm and Uosm, respectively) was calculated from the concentrations of the main solutes: [(Na+K)*2 + urea (+glucose for serum)]. Transtubular

2018 Physiological reports PubMed abstract

2. Urinary angiotensinogen level is associated with potassium homeostasis and clinical outcome in patients with polycystic kidney disease: a prospective cohort study. (Full text)

Urinary angiotensinogen level is associated with potassium homeostasis and clinical outcome in patients with polycystic kidney disease: a prospective cohort study. Guidelines for general hypertension treatment do not recommend the combined use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors due to the risk of hyperkalemia. However, a recent clinical trial showed that polycystic kidney disease (PKD) patients had infrequent episodes of hyperkalemia despite receiving combined RAAS (...) inhibitors. Because intrarenal RAAS is a main component for renal potassium handling, we further investigated the association between intrarenal RAAS activity and serum potassium level in patients with chronic kidney disease, particularly in PKD patients, and examined whether intrarenal RAAS activity has a prognostic role in patients with PKD.A total of 1788 subjects from the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) were enrolled in this study. Intrarenal RAAS

2019 BMC Nephrology PubMed abstract

3. Physiology and Pathophysiology of Potassium Homeostasis: Core Curriculum 2019. (Full text)

Physiology and Pathophysiology of Potassium Homeostasis: Core Curriculum 2019. Total-body potassium (K+) content and appropriate distribution of K+ across the cell membrane is vitally important for normal cellular function. Total-body K+ content is determined by changes in excretion of K+ by the kidneys in response to intake levels. Under normal conditions, insulin and β-adrenergic tone also make important contributions in maintaining internal distribution of K+. However, despite (...) these homeostatic pathways, disorders of altered K+ homeostasis are common. Appreciating the pathophysiology and regulatory influences that determine the internal distribution and external balance of K+ is critical in designing effective treatments to restore K+ homeostasis. We provide an up-to-date review of the regulatory aspects of normal K+ physiology as a preface to highlighting common disorders in K+ homeostasis and their treatment. This review of K+ homeostasis is designed as a resource for clinicians

2019 American Journal of Kidney Diseases PubMed abstract

4. Coping with an Essential Poison: a Genetic Suppressor Analysis Corroborates a Key Function of c-di-AMP in Controlling Potassium Ion Homeostasis in Gram-Positive Bacteria (Full text)

Coping with an Essential Poison: a Genetic Suppressor Analysis Corroborates a Key Function of c-di-AMP in Controlling Potassium Ion Homeostasis in Gram-Positive Bacteria Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is an important second messenger in bacteria. In most Firmicutes, the molecule is required for growth in complex media but also toxic upon accumulation. In an article on their current study, Zarrella and coworkers present a suppressor analysis of a Streptococcus pneumoniae strain that is unable (...) to degrade c-di-AMP (T. M. Zarrella, D. W. Metzger, and G. Bai, J Bacteriol 200:e00045-18, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00045-18). Their study identifies new links between c-di-AMP and potassium homeostasis and supports the hypothesis that c-di-AMP serves as a second messenger to report about the intracellular potassium concentrations.Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

2018 Journal of bacteriology PubMed abstract

5. The Role of the Gut for Potassium Homeostasis in CKD

The Role of the Gut for Potassium Homeostasis in CKD Renal Fellow Network: The Role of the Gut for Potassium Homeostasis in CKD | | | | | Sunday, May 27, 2018 The Role of the Gut for Potassium Homeostasis in CKD Recently the FDA approved one of the newer exchange resins (Lokelma, ZS-9) for the treatment of hyperkalemia. (Veltassa, Patiromer), a calcium based cation exchange resin, was recently developed and approved since 2015 for the treatment of hyperkalemia. These two new drugs, which each (...) in these patients compared to controls with normal kidney function. The upregulation of BK-channels probably represent an adaptation to chronic potassium load in order to maintain homeostasis. Interestingly, a tested the effect of Bisacodyl on potassium in patients with ESKD. Eight controls normal kidney function and 13 patients with ESKD were given Bisacodyl 5-10mg PO titrated to achieve 2 soft bowel movements per day and these were compared to 5 ESKD patients given lactulose 10ml PO titrated also to 2 soft

2018 Renal Fellow Network

6. Potassium Homeostasis in Health and Disease: A Scientific Workshop Cosponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the American Society of Hypertension. (Abstract)

Potassium Homeostasis in Health and Disease: A Scientific Workshop Cosponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the American Society of Hypertension. While much emphasis, and some controversy, centers on recommendations for sodium intake, there has been considerably less interest in recommendations for dietary potassium intake, in both the general population and patients with medical conditions, particularly acute and chronic kidney disease. Physiology literature and cohort studies have (...) noted that the relative balance in sodium and potassium intakes is an important determinant of many of the sodium-related outcomes. A noteworthy characteristic of potassium in clinical medicine is the extreme concern shared by many practitioners when confronted by a patient with hyperkalemia. Fear of this often asymptomatic finding limits enthusiasm for recommending potassium intake and often limits the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers in patients with heart failure and chronic

2017 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

7. Potassium Homeostasis: The Knowns, the Unknowns, and the Health Benefits (Full text)

Potassium Homeostasis: The Knowns, the Unknowns, and the Health Benefits Potassium homeostasis has a very high priority because of its importance for membrane potential. Although extracellular K+ is only 2% of total body K+, our physiology was evolutionarily tuned for a high-K+, low-Na+ diet. We review how multiple systems interface to accomplish fine K+ balance and the consequences for health and disease.©2017 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

2017 Physiology PubMed abstract

8. Induction of Barley Silicon Transporter HvLsi1 and HvLsi2, increased silicon concentration in the shoot and regulated Starch and ABA Homeostasis under Osmotic stress and Concomitant Potassium Deficiency (Full text)

Induction of Barley Silicon Transporter HvLsi1 and HvLsi2, increased silicon concentration in the shoot and regulated Starch and ABA Homeostasis under Osmotic stress and Concomitant Potassium Deficiency Drought is one of the major stress factors reducing cereal production worldwide. There is ample evidence that the mineral nutrient status of plants plays a critical role in increasing plant tolerance to different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this regard, the important role of various (...) nutrients e.g., potassium (K) or silicon (Si) in the mitigation of different stress factors, such as drought, heat or frost has been well documented. Si application has been reported to ameliorate plant nutrient deficiency. Here, we used K and Si either solely or in combination to investigate whether an additive positive effect on barley growth can be achieved under osmotic stress and which mechanisms contribute to a better tolerance to osmotic stress. To achieve this goal, barley plants were subjected

2017 Frontiers in plant science PubMed abstract

9. Potassium Homeostasis, Oxidative Stress, and Human Disease (Full text)

Potassium Homeostasis, Oxidative Stress, and Human Disease Potassium is the most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid and it plays a vital role in the maintenance of normal cell functions. Thus, potassium homeostasis across the cell membrane, is very critical because a tilt in this balance can result in different diseases that could be life threatening. Both Oxidative stress (OS) and potassium imbalance can cause life threatening health conditions. OS and abnormalities in potassium (...) channel have been reported in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights the major factors involved in potassium homeostasis (dietary, hormonal, genetic, and physiologic influences), and discusses the major diseases and abnormalities associated with potassium imbalance including hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and Gordon's syndrome, Bartter syndrome, and Gitelman syndrome.

2017 International journal of clinical and experimental physiology PubMed abstract

10. An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. (Full text)

An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. 26510039 2015 10 30 2018 12 02 1533-4406 373 18 2015 10 29 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. 1787-8 10.1056/NEJMc1509656 Gumz Michelle L ML Rabinowitz Lawrence L Wingo Charles S CS eng Letter Comment United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 RWP5GA015D Potassium AIM IM N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 2;373(1):60-72 26132942 N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 29;373(18):1786 26510040 N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct (...) 29;373(18):1786-7 26510041 N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 29;373(18):1787 26510042 Circadian Clocks physiology Homeostasis physiology Humans Potassium metabolism 2015 10 29 6 0 2015 10 29 6 0 2015 10 31 6 0 ppublish 26510039 10.1056/NEJMc1509656 10.1056/NEJMc1509656#SA4

2015 NEJM PubMed abstract

11. An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. (Full text)

An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. 26510040 2015 10 30 2018 12 02 1533-4406 373 18 2015 10 29 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. 1786 10.1056/NEJMc1509656 Hoorn Ewout J EJ Loffing Johannes J Ellison David H DH eng I01 BX002228 BX BLRD VA United States Letter Comment United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 RWP5GA015D Potassium AIM IM N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 2;373(1):60-72 26132942 N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 29;373(18):1787 (...) -8 26510039 Circadian Clocks physiology Homeostasis physiology Humans Potassium metabolism 2015 10 29 6 0 2015 10 29 6 0 2015 10 31 6 0 ppublish 26510040 10.1056/NEJMc1509656 10.1056/NEJMc1509656#SA1

2015 NEJM PubMed abstract

12. An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. (Full text)

An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. 26510041 2015 10 30 2018 12 02 1533-4406 373 18 2015 10 29 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. 1786-7 10.1056/NEJMc1509656 Pavletic Adriana J AJ eng Z99 MH999999 NULL Intramural NIH HHS United States Letter Comment United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 RWP5GA015D Potassium AIM IM N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 2;373(1):60-72 26132942 N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 29;373(18):1787-8 26510039 (...) Circadian Clocks physiology Homeostasis physiology Humans Potassium metabolism No potential conflict of interest relevant to this letter was reported. 2015 10 29 6 0 2015 10 29 6 0 2015 10 31 6 0 ppublish 26510041 10.1056/NEJMc1509656 PMC5177965 NIHMS835265 10.1056/NEJMc1509656#SA2 Int J Psychiatry Med. 2004;34(1):79-82 15242143 Brain Dev. 2007 Jul;29(6):369-72 17194559 Psychosomatics. 2011 Sep-Oct;52(5):494-5 21907077

2015 NEJM PubMed abstract

13. An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. (Full text)

An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. 26510042 2015 10 30 2018 12 02 1533-4406 373 18 2015 10 29 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. 1787 10.1056/NEJMc1509656 Ardalan Mohammadreza M Golzari Samad E J SE eng Letter Comment United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 RWP5GA015D Potassium AIM IM N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 2;373(1):60-72 26132942 N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 29;373(18):1787-8 26510039 Circadian Clocks physiology (...) Homeostasis physiology Humans Potassium metabolism 2015 10 29 6 0 2015 10 29 6 0 2015 10 31 6 0 ppublish 26510042 10.1056/NEJMc1509656 10.1056/NEJMc1509656#SA3

2015 NEJM PubMed abstract

14. An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. (Full text)

An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. 26398093 2015 09 24 2017 11 09 1533-4406 373 13 2015 Sep 24 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis. 1281 10.1056/NEJMx150027 eng Published Erratum United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 2;373(1):60-72 26132942 2015 9 24 6 0 2015 9 24 6 0 2015 9 24 6 1 ppublish 26398093 10.1056/NEJMx150027

2015 NEJM PubMed abstract

15. Potassium Homeostasis

Potassium Homeostasis Potassium Homeostasis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Potassium Homeostasis Potassium (...) Homeostasis Aka: Potassium Homeostasis , Potassium , Potassium Ion II. Physiology: Potassium Distribution Background Potassium is primary intracellular cation and critical for normal cellular function Intracellular Potassium concentration of 130-140 mEq/L accounts for 98% of total body Potassium Extracellular Potassium (~4 mEq/L) is only 2% of total body Potassium (56 mEq total for entire ECF in 70 kg male) Maintenance of intracellular Potassium -Potassium ATPase pump (cellular membrane) Pumps 2 Potassium

2018 FP Notebook

16. Trk2 Potassium Transport System in Streptococcus mutans and Its Role in Potassium Homeostasis, Biofilm Formation, and Stress Tolerance (Full text)

Trk2 Potassium Transport System in Streptococcus mutans and Its Role in Potassium Homeostasis, Biofilm Formation, and Stress Tolerance Potassium (K(+)) is the most abundant cation in the fluids of dental biofilm. The biochemical and biophysical functions of K(+) and a variety of K(+) transport systems have been studied for most pathogenic bacteria but not for oral pathogens. In this study, we establish the modes of K(+) acquisition in Streptococcus mutans and the importance of K(+) homeostasis (...) an Escherichia coli TK2420 mutant strain, which resulted in significant K(+) accumulation, improved growth, and survival under stress. Taken together, these results suggest that Trk2 is the main facet of the K(+)-dependent cellular response of S. mutans to environment stresses.Biofilm formation and stress tolerance are important virulence properties of caries-causing Streptococcus mutans. To limit these properties of this bacterium, it is imperative to understand its survival mechanisms. Potassium

2016 Journal of bacteriology PubMed abstract

17. Inward-rectifying potassium channelopathies: new insights into disorders of sodium and potassium homeostasis. (Abstract)

Inward-rectifying potassium channelopathies: new insights into disorders of sodium and potassium homeostasis. Inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels allow more inward than outward potassium flux when channels are open in mammalian cells. At physiological resting membrane potentials, however, they predominantly mediate outward potassium flux and play important roles in regulating the resting membrane potential in diverse cell types and potassium secretion in the kidneys. Mutations of Kir (...) channels cause human hereditary diseases collectively called Kir channelopathies, many of which are characterized by disorders of sodium and potassium homeostasis. Studies on these genetic Kir channelopathies have shed light on novel pathophysiological mechanisms, including renal sodium and potassium handling, potassium shifting in skeletal muscles, and aldosterone production in the adrenal glands. Here, we review several recent advances in Kir channels and their clinical implications in sodium

2015 Pediatric Nephrology

18. CRACKCast E126 – Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis

CRACKCast E126 – Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis CRACKCast E126 - Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis - CanadiEM CRACKCast E126 – Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis In by Chris Lipp November 13, 2017 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s Chapter 118, Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Glucose Homeostasis. This chapter covers diabetes and its related complications. Having knowledge of these disease states and their related (...) complications is essential in Emergency Medicine, as we often encounter patients afflicted with diabetes and related disorders of glucose homeostasis on shift. Shownotes – Also check out EMCases Rapid Review video on DKA and Rosen’s In Perspective : This is an important topic – the complications of diabetes lead to immense morbidity and mortality. Our body (specifically the brain) needs a tight control on serum glucose for optimal functioning – this podcast is all about what happens when the balance is off

2017 CandiEM

19. (Pro)Renin Receptor Regulates Potassium Homeostasis through a Local Mechanism. (Full text)

(Pro)Renin Receptor Regulates Potassium Homeostasis through a Local Mechanism. (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) is highly expressed in the distal nephron, but it has an unclear functional implication. The present study was conducted to explore a potential role of renal PRR during high K+ (HK) loading. In normal Sprague-Dawley rats, a 1-wk HK intake increased renal expression of full-length PRR and urinary excretion of soluble PRR (sPRR). Administration of PRO20, a decoy peptide antagonist of PRR, in K (...) +-loaded animals elevated plasma K+ level and decreased urinary K+ excretion, accompanied with suppressed urinary aldosterone excretion and intrarenal aldosterone levels. HK downregulated Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) expression but upregulated CYP11B2 (cytochrome P-450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2), renal outer medullary K+ channel (ROMK), calcium-activated potassium channel subunit α1 (α-BK), α-Na+-K+-ATPase (α-NKA), and epithelial Na+ channel subunit β (β-ENaC), all of which were blunted

2016 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology PubMed abstract

20. Glucagon actions on the kidney revisited. Possible role in potassium homeostasis. (Full text)

Glucagon actions on the kidney revisited. Possible role in potassium homeostasis. It is now recognized that the metabolic disorders observed in diabetes are not, or not only due to the lack of insulin or insulin resistance, but also to elevated glucagon secretion. Accordingly, selective glucagon receptor antagonists are now proposed as a novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes. However, besides its metabolic actions, glucagon also influences kidney function. The glucagon receptor (...) regulation of potassium homeostasis. Several original findings suggest that pancreatic α-cells may express a "potassium sensor" sensitive to changes in plasma K concentration and could respond by adapting glucagon secretion that, in turn, would regulate urinary K excretion. By their combined actions, glucagon and insulin, working in a combinatory mode, could ensure an independent regulation of both plasma glucose and plasma K concentrations. The results and hypotheses reviewed here suggest that the use

2016 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology PubMed abstract

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