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41. Overexpression of tissue factor induced atherothrombosis in apolipoprotein E-/- mice via both enhanced plaque thrombogenicity and plaque instability. (PubMed)

Overexpression of tissue factor induced atherothrombosis in apolipoprotein E-/- mice via both enhanced plaque thrombogenicity and plaque instability. The mechanisms leading to atherothrombosis from "vulnerable plaque" are more complex than initially proposed. We aimed to clarify whether plaque thrombogenicity is critical in atherothrombosis in mice. In a murine model of plaque destabilization, we enhanced plaque thrombogenicity by systemically overexpressing murine tissue factor (TF (...) ) by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. The potential effects and mechanisms of TF on plaque destabilization were examined in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs), RAW264.7 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). To elucidate the TF noncoagulant effects on plaque destabilization, TF-overexpressed mice were treated with the protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) antagonist ENMD-1068. In TF-overexpressing apolipoprotein (E)-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice, 67% (8 of 12) of carotid

2018 Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology

42. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for plaque characterization and stent implantation

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for plaque characterization and stent implantation Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for plaque characterization and stent implantation Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for plaque characterization and stent implantation HAYES, Inc. Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation HAYES, Inc.. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT (...) ) for plaque characterization and stent implantation. Lansdale: HAYES, Inc.. Directory Publication. 2016 Authors' conclusions Purpose of Technology: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) relies on detection of reflected infrared light to generate a highly detailed, magnified view of a thin layer of tissue. This technology has been adapted to percutaneous catheters and is being used to examine features of intracoronary plaques and stents that may increase the risk of subsequent adverse events such as clot

2016 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

43. Targeted Immunomodulators for the Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis: Effectiveness and Value

Targeted Immunomodulators for the Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis: Effectiveness and Value ©Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, 2016 Targeted Immunomodulators for the Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis: Effectiveness and Value Evidence Report November 4, 2016 Prepared for ©Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, 2016 Page ii Evidence Report -Targeted Immunomodulators for the Treatment of Moderate-Severe Plaque Psoriasis Return to Table of Contents ICER (...) , 2016 Page iii Evidence Report -Targeted Immunomodulators for the Treatment of Moderate-Severe Plaque Psoriasis Return to Table of Contents Disclosure Statement: Dr. Linder owns stock in Amgen, Biogen, and Eli Lily, has contingent value rights in Sanofi Genzyme (related to alemtuzumab for multiple sclerosis); in the past 3 years, Dr. Linder has received grant support from Astellas Pharma on an unrelated topic (overactive bladder) and Clintrex, which was supported by AstraZeneca on an unrelated topic

2016 California Technology Assessment Forum

44. The Use of Aloe Vera Mouthwash in a Healthy Adult Patient Does Effectively Reduce Plaque Index

The Use of Aloe Vera Mouthwash in a Healthy Adult Patient Does Effectively Reduce Plaque Index UTCAT3070, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title The Use of Aloe Vera Mouthwash in a Healthy Adult Patient Does Effectively Reduce Plaque Index Clinical Question In a healthy adult patient, does the use of Aloe Vera mouthwash effectively reduce plaque index as compared to no treatment? Clinical Bottom Line (...) For healthy adult patients, the use of Aloe Vera mouthwash effectively reduces plaque index as compared to no treatment. Aloe Vera mouthwash has proven to be an effective anti-plaque agent and can be used as a possible affordable herbal substitute for Chlorhexidine, as well as having fewer side affects. This is supported by two randomized controlled trials and is within the capability of the average general dental practice and likely to be accepted by the average patient. Best Evidence (you may view more

2016 UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library

45. Interdental Brushes Are As Effective As Floss In Removing Interproximal Plaque

Interdental Brushes Are As Effective As Floss In Removing Interproximal Plaque UTCAT3041, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Interdental Brushes Are As Effective As Floss In Removing Interproximal Plaque Clinical Question In patients 18 years and older, are interdental brushes as effective as traditional waxed floss in reducing interproximal plaque? Clinical Bottom Line In patients 18 years and older (...) , interdental brushes are as effective as traditional floss in reducing interproximal plaque. This is supported by a meta analysis of multiple studies and a randomized controlled trial in which interdental brushes performed equally well, and in some studies better, as compared to floss by a clinically significant margin. Use of an interdental brush is easier to use and less technique sensitive for most patients and will likely result in increased use in comparison to floss. Best Evidence (you may view more

2016 UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library

46. DD2-Coronary Plaque Morphology and Plaque Progression

DD2-Coronary Plaque Morphology and Plaque Progression DD2-Coronary Plaque Morphology and Plaque Progression - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. DD2-Coronary Plaque Morphology and Plaque (...) , as the vast majority of studies have concerned diabetes populations with more than 5 years average diabetes age or high-risk subgroups, who at inclusion already had atherosclerotic disease manifestations. Consequently, this study aims on evaluating the occurrence of early-stage subclinical atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed type-2 diabetes with special emphasis on coronary plaque characteristics by modern imaging techniques. These findings will be compared to the functional status of various peripheral

2017 Clinical Trials

47. Coronary Artery Calcium Progression Is Associated With Coronary Plaque Volume Progression: Results From a Quantitative Semiautomated Coronary Artery Plaque Analysis. (PubMed)

Coronary Artery Calcium Progression Is Associated With Coronary Plaque Volume Progression: Results From a Quantitative Semiautomated Coronary Artery Plaque Analysis. The aim of this study was to determine whether coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression was associated with coronary plaque progression on coronary computed tomographic angiography.CAC progression and coronary plaque characteristics are associated with incident coronary heart disease. However, natural history of coronary (...) atherosclerosis has not been well described to date, and the understanding of the association between CAC progression and coronary plaque subtypes such as noncalcified plaque progression remains unclear.Consecutive patients who were referred to our clinic for evaluation and had serial coronary computed tomography angiography scans performed were included in the study. Coronary artery plaque (total, fibrous, fibrous-fatty, low-attenuation, densely calcified) volumes were calculated using semiautomated plaque

2017 JACC. Cardiovascular imaging

48. Plaque Rupture in Coronary Atherosclerosis Is Associated With Increased Plaque Structural Stress. (PubMed)

Plaque Rupture in Coronary Atherosclerosis Is Associated With Increased Plaque Structural Stress. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of plaque structural stress (PSS) and the relationship between PSS and plaques with rupture.Plaque rupture is the most common cause of myocardial infarction, occurring particularly in higher risk lesions such as fibroatheromas. However, prospective intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology studies indicate that <10% higher risk plaques cause (...) clinical events over 3 years, indicating that other factors also determine plaque rupture. Plaque rupture occurs when PSS exceeds its mechanical strength; however, the determinants of PSS and its association with plaques with proven rupture are not known.We analyzed plaque structure and composition in 4,053 virtual histology intravascular ultrasound frames from 32 fibroatheromas with rupture from the intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology in Vulnerable Atherosclerosis study and 32 fibroatheromas

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2017 JACC. Cardiovascular imaging

49. Fibrinolysis Inhibitors in Plaque Stability - a Morphological Association; PAI-1 and TAFI in advanced carotid plaque. (PubMed)

Fibrinolysis Inhibitors in Plaque Stability - a Morphological Association; PAI-1 and TAFI in advanced carotid plaque. Essentials Fibrinolysis inhibitors are localized in advanced atheroma by immunohistology of endarterectomies. Neovascular endothelium/neocapillaries show thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI). Macrophage areas show free plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), notably in the vulnerable part. Free PAI-1 and TAFI stabilize active plaque area by inhibition (...) of fibrinolysis and inflammation.Background Fibrinolysis plays an important role in destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques and is tightly regulated by specific inhibitors. Objective The fibrinolysis inhibitors plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) were quantified and described in the morphological context of advanced carotid plaques American Heart Association VI-VIII to elucidate their role in plaque stability. Methods Immunohistochemistry

2017 Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis

50. Ipsilateral plaques display higher T1 signals than contralateral plaques in recently symptomatic patients with bilateral carotid intraplaque hemorrhage. (PubMed)

Ipsilateral plaques display higher T1 signals than contralateral plaques in recently symptomatic patients with bilateral carotid intraplaque hemorrhage. Prospective studies have shown a strong association between carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cerebrovascular ischemic events. However, IPH is also observed in a substantial number of asymptomatic patients. We hypothesized that there are differences in the characteristics of IPH+ plaques (...) associated with recent symptoms, compared to IPH+ plaques not associated with recent symptoms.Patients with recent (≤2 weeks) anterior circulation ischemic events were scanned using a standardized multisequence protocol. Those showing IPH bilaterally were included and analyzed for differences in T1/T2 signals, plaque morphology, and coexisting plaque characteristics between the ipsilateral symptomatic and contralateral asymptomatic sides.Thirty-one subjects (67 ± 9 years, 97% males) with bilateral IPH

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2017 Atherosclerosis

51. Coronary Plaque Burden and Adverse Plaque Characteristics Are Increased in Healthy Relatives of Patients With Early Onset Coronary Artery Disease. (PubMed)

Coronary Plaque Burden and Adverse Plaque Characteristics Are Increased in Healthy Relatives of Patients With Early Onset Coronary Artery Disease. This study characterized and quantified subclinical atherosclerosis by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in first-degree relatives of patients with early onset coronary artery disease (CAD).A strong family history of CAD is an important risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. Whether predisposed individuals suffer an increased (...) burden of coronary atherosclerosis and adverse plaque features is not known.We included 88 healthy middle-aged first-degree relatives from 59 families with early onset CAD. Participants were matched by age and sex with 88 control patients with atypical angina or nonanginal chest pain and no family history of CAD, referred for coronary CTA. A blinded analysis of plaque burden and composition was performed using semiautomated plaque quantification software. The relative differences between the median

2017 JACC. Cardiovascular imaging

52. Metabolic phenotyping of human atherosclerotic plaques: Metabolic alterations and their biological relevance in plaque-containing aorta. (PubMed)

Metabolic phenotyping of human atherosclerotic plaques: Metabolic alterations and their biological relevance in plaque-containing aorta. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by thickening of the arterial wall. However, a limited number of studies have been conducted on metabolic profiling of human aortic tissue.We applied liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to perform global and targeted profiling of plaque-containing aortic tissue. The aorta samples included (...) plaque-containing (n = 18) and control plaque-free (n = 24) aortic tissue from patients undergoing aortic surgery.The metabolic patterns of atherosclerotic and control vessels were significantly different. Metabolites in the purine and glutathione pathways showed dysregulation of oxidative stress in plaques, and levels of glucosylceramide, tryptophan, and kynurenine, which are related to inflammation, were also altered. Interestingly, an increased level of quinic acid was observed in plaques (p

2017 Atherosclerosis

53. The Lipid-Rich Plaque Study of vulnerable plaques and vulnerable patients: Study design and rationale. (PubMed)

The Lipid-Rich Plaque Study of vulnerable plaques and vulnerable patients: Study design and rationale. It has been hypothesized that the outcome post-PCI could be improved by the detection and subsequent treatment of vulnerable patients and lipid-rich vulnerable coronary plaques (LRP). A near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) catheter capable of detecting LRP is being evaluated in The Lipid-Rich Plaque Study.The LRP Study is an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study conducted (...) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent cardiac catheterization with possible ad hoc PCI for an index event. Patient level and plaque level events were detected by follow-up in the subsequent 2 years. Enrollment began in February 2014 and was completed in March 2016; a total of 1,562 patients were enrolled. Adjudication of new coronary event occurrence and de novo culprit lesion location during the 2-year follow-up is performed by an independent clinical end-points committee

2017 American Heart Journal

54. The New Marginal Plaque Index May Allow a More Valid Assessment of Gingival Plaque Level Than the Turesky Modification of the Quigley and Hein Index. (PubMed)

The New Marginal Plaque Index May Allow a More Valid Assessment of Gingival Plaque Level Than the Turesky Modification of the Quigley and Hein Index. Establishment of a new marginal plaque index with high sensitivity for changes in oral hygiene. Deinzer R, Jahns S, Harnacke D. J Periodontol 2014; 85(12):1730-8.The study was supported by a sponsorship from GABA International, Therwil, Switzerland.Observational case-control study.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2017 Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice

55. Community-based statins and advanced carotid plaque: Role of CD163 positive macrophages in lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A<sub>2</sub> activity in atherosclerotic plaque. (PubMed)

Community-based statins and advanced carotid plaque: Role of CD163 positive macrophages in lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity in atherosclerotic plaque. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), an enzymatic inflammatory biomarker primarily bound to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, is associated with an approximate twofold increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Despite indications that circulating Lp-PLA2 is sensitive to statins, it remains (...) largely unknown whether statin usage exerts local effects on Lp-PLA2 expression at the site of atheromatous plaque.Carotid plaques (n = 38) were prospectively collected from symptomatic (n = 18) and asymptomatic (n = 20) patients with (n = 20) or without (n = 18) documented statin history. In all cases, endarterectomy was performed where the primary stenosis was removed in an undisturbed manner. Serial cryosections of the presenting lesion were assessed histologically for macrophages, Lp-PLA2

2017 Atherosclerosis

56. Inhibition of plaque progression and promotion of plaque stability by glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist: Serial in vivo findings from iMap-IVUS in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits. (PubMed)

Inhibition of plaque progression and promotion of plaque stability by glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist: Serial in vivo findings from iMap-IVUS in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is thought to inhibit development of aortic atherosclerosis and plaque formation. However, whether GLP-1 stabilizes fully developed atherosclerotic plaque or alters the complicated plaque composition remains unclarified.Ten Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL (...) ) rabbits were divided into GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment group and control group. After confirmation of atherosclerotic plaques in brachiocephalic arteries by iMap intravascular ultrasound (iMAP-IVUS), GLP-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide was administered to WHHL rabbits at 30 nmoL/kg/day for 12 weeks by osmotic pump. An equal volume of normal saline was administered in a control group. After evaluation by iMAP-IVUS at 12 weeks, brachiocephalic arteries were harvested for pathological histological

2017 Atherosclerosis

57. Head-to-Head Comparison of Inflammation and Neovascularization in Human Carotid Plaques: Implications for the Imaging of Vulnerable Plaques. (PubMed)

Head-to-Head Comparison of Inflammation and Neovascularization in Human Carotid Plaques: Implications for the Imaging of Vulnerable Plaques. Inflammation and intraplaque neovascularization are acknowledged to be 2 features of plaque vulnerability, although their temporal expression and their respective value in predicting clinical events are poorly understood. To determine their respective temporal associations, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of inflammation and intraplaque (...) neovascularization in the carotid plaque of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.Thirty patients with severe carotid stenosis underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomographic imaging. Plaque 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-uptake, indicative of inflammation, was measured by calculating the target:background ratio. The presence of intraplaque neovascularization during contrast-enhanced ultrasound was judged semiquantitatively; low-grade contrast enhancement (CE) suggested its absence

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2017 Circulation. Cardiovascular imaging

58. Anti-plaque and antimicrobial efficiency of different oral rinses in a 3-day plaque accumulation model. (PubMed)

Anti-plaque and antimicrobial efficiency of different oral rinses in a 3-day plaque accumulation model. The idea of incorporating a mouthrinse with normal tooth brushing could be a useful adjunct to oral hygiene. Despite the principle nature of the toothpaste vehicle, most alcohol-based chemical plaque-control agents have been evaluated and later formulated in the mouthrinse vehicle. The current study was aimed to investigate the persistence of antimicrobial action and plaque inhibitory (...) properties of a new alcohol-free mouthrinse when compared with positive control, chlorhexidine 0.12% and placebo control, physiologic saline solution mouthrinses. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by saliva samples collected during the 3 days of usage. The results of this study indicate that this new oral rinse has an equivalent plaque inhibitory action to chlorhexidine, and the plaque inhibitory action of the rinse appears to be derived from a persistence of antimicrobial action

2017 Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents

59. Carotid atherosclerotic plaque instability and cognition determined by ultrasound-measured plaque strain in asymptomatic patients with significant stenosis. (PubMed)

Carotid atherosclerotic plaque instability and cognition determined by ultrasound-measured plaque strain in asymptomatic patients with significant stenosis. OBJECTIVE This article describes the use of ultrasound measurements of physical strain within carotid atherosclerotic plaques as a measure of instability and the potential for vascular cognitive decline, microemboli, and white matter changes. METHODS Asymptomatic patients with significant (> 60%) carotid artery stenosis were studied (...) for dynamic measures of plaque instability, presence of microemboli, white matter changes, and vascular cognitive decline in comparison with normative controls and premorbid state. RESULTS Although classically asymptomatic, these patients showed vascular cognitive decline. The degree of strain instability measured within the atherosclerotic plaque directly predicted vascular cognitive decline in these patients thought previously to be asymptomatic according to classic criteria. Furthermore, 26

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2017 Journal of Neurosurgery

60. Increased cathepsin K levels in human atherosclerotic plaques are associated with plaque instability (PubMed)

Increased cathepsin K levels in human atherosclerotic plaques are associated with plaque instability [This corrects the article DOI: 10.3892/etm.2017.4935.].

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2017 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

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