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34941. Composition of the stable carotid plaque: insights from a multidetector computed tomography study of plaque volume. (PubMed)

Composition of the stable carotid plaque: insights from a multidetector computed tomography study of plaque volume. Calcification has been associated with carotid plaque stability; however, an acceptable in vivo method to define plaques based on this component remains to be developed. The purpose of our study was to compare calcified and noncalcified volumes of carotid artery culprit symptomatic plaques with asymptomatic plaques using multidetector computed tomography.We identified 102 patients (...) with > or =50% stenosis using NASCET criteria by multidetector computed tomography angiography between January 2004 and May 2006, which included 35 symptomatic (stenosis: 82.0+/-11.9%) and 67 asymptomatic patients (stenosis: 79.4+/-10.8%). Total plaque volume, noncalcified plaque volume, calcified plaque volume, and calcified/total ratio were measured for the 102 index plaques causing stenosis.In a model including age, stenosis, and cardiovascular risk factors, calcified plaque volume/total plaque volume

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2007 Stroke

34942. Stenting of culprit lesions in unstable angina leads to a marked reduction in plaque burden: a major role of plaque embolization? A serial intravascular ultrasound study. (PubMed)

Stenting of culprit lesions in unstable angina leads to a marked reduction in plaque burden: a major role of plaque embolization? A serial intravascular ultrasound study. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) studies have shown that a mechanism of plaque compression/embolization contributes toward the poststenting increase in lumen area. The aim of this IVUS study was to compare the mechanisms of lumen enlargement after coronary stenting in 54 consecutive patients with unstable angina (UA) (group 1 (...) ) and 56 with stable angina (group 2) to verify whether plaque embolization plays a major role in the former.Both groups underwent the IVUS assessment (speed, 0.5 mm/sec) before the intervention and after stent implantation. The lumen area, the external elastic membrane area, and the plaque+media area (PA) were measured at 0.5-mm intervals. PA reduction in the lesion site was significantly greater in group 1 (-2.50+/-1.97 versus -0.53+/-1.43 mm2, P<0.001). After stenting, 47% of the lumen area increase

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2003 Circulation

34943. Plaque neovascularization is increased in ruptured atherosclerotic lesions of human aorta: implications for plaque vulnerability. (PubMed)

Plaque neovascularization is increased in ruptured atherosclerotic lesions of human aorta: implications for plaque vulnerability. Growth of atherosclerotic plaques is accompanied by neovascularization from vasa vasorum microvessels extending through the tunica media into the base of the plaque and by lumen-derived microvessels through the fibrous cap. Microvessels are associated with plaque hemorrhage and may play a role in plaque rupture. Accordingly, we tested this hypothesis by investigating (...) whether microvessels in the tunica media, the base of the plaque, and the fibrous cap are increased in ruptured atherosclerotic plaques in human aorta.Microvessels, defined as CD34-positive tubuloluminal capillaries recognized in cross-sectional and longitudinal profiles, were quantified in 269 advanced human plaques by bicolor immunohistochemistry. Macrophages/T lymphocytes and smooth muscle cells were defined as CD68/CD3-positive and alpha-actin-positive cells. Total microvessel density

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2004 Circulation

34944. [Comparative plaque pH measurement in preschool children after the ingestion of high-carbohydrate foods]. (PubMed)

[Comparative plaque pH measurement in preschool children after the ingestion of high-carbohydrate foods]. 3465134 1986 12 15 2006 11 15 0175-7784 83 4 1986 Jul Zeitschrift fur Stomatologie (1984) Z Stomatol [Comparative plaque pH measurement in preschool children after the ingestion of high-carbohydrate foods]. 317-24 Schuh E E Hackl P P Steckel H H ger Clinical Trial English Abstract Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial Vergleichende Plaque-pH-Messungen bei Vorschilkindern nach Verzehr (...) Kohlenhydratreicher Nahrungsmittel. Austria Z Stomatol 8408177 0175-7784 0 Dietary Carbohydrates D Candy Child, Preschool Dental Plaque physiopathology Dietary Carbohydrates administration & dosage pharmacology Fruit Humans Hydrogen-Ion Concentration 1986 7 1 1986 7 1 0 1 1986 7 1 0 0 ppublish 3465134

1986 Zeitschrift fur Stomatologie (1984)

34945. [Gingivitis-and plaque-inhibiting action of Pyralvex Berna and its components]. (PubMed)

[Gingivitis-and plaque-inhibiting action of Pyralvex Berna and its components]. 7008191 1981 04 13 2016 10 20 0036-7702 90 8 1980 Aug Schweizerische Monatsschrift fur Zahnheilkunde = Revue mensuelle suisse d'odonto-stomatologie SSO Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnheilkd [Gingivitis-and plaque-inhibiting action of Pyralvex Berna and its components]. 718-24 Renggli H H ger Clinical Trial Comparative Study English Abstract Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial Gingivitis-und plaquehemmende Wirkung (...) von Pyralvex Berna und dessen Komponenten. Switzerland SSO Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnheilkd 20520010R 0036-7702 0 Anthraquinones 0 Drug Combinations 0 Salicylates 3K9958V90M Ethanol 62647-98-7 pyralvex berna D IM Adult Analysis of Variance Anthraquinones therapeutic use Clinical Trials as Topic Dental Plaque prevention & control Double-Blind Method Drug Combinations therapeutic use Ethanol therapeutic use Female Gingivitis prevention & control Humans Male Plants, Medicinal Rheum Salicylates

1981 Schweizerische Monatsschrift fur Zahnheilkunde = Revue mensuelle suisse d'odonto-stomatologie

34946. Serial intravascular ultrasound evidence of both plaque stabilization and lesion progression in patients with ruptured coronary plaques: effects of statin therapy on ruptured coronary plaque. (PubMed)

Serial intravascular ultrasound evidence of both plaque stabilization and lesion progression in patients with ruptured coronary plaques: effects of statin therapy on ruptured coronary plaque. Using serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), we evaluated the natural evolution of non-culprit/non-target lesion ruptured coronary plaques and assessed the impact of statin therapy. Twenty-eight patients with non-stenotic ruptured plaques underwent baseline and 12-month follow-up IVUS studies; half were (...) treated with statins. Standard IVUS analyses were performed. Complete healing of ruptured plaques was observed in four (29%) statin-treated patients and no non-statin-treated patients (p=0.049). Statin-treated patients had an increase in lumen area of 0.4+/-0.8 mm2 (versus a decrease in lumen area of -0.6+/-1.0 mm2 in non-statin-treated patients, p=0.007) and no change in plaque area (versus an increase in plaque area of 0.6+/-0.9 mm2, p=0.051). During 1-year follow-up, target lesion revascularization

2007 Atherosclerosis

34947. Limitation of angiography to identify the culprit plaque in acute myocardial infarction with coronary total occlusion utility of coronary plaque temperature measurement to identify the culprit plaque. (PubMed)

Limitation of angiography to identify the culprit plaque in acute myocardial infarction with coronary total occlusion utility of coronary plaque temperature measurement to identify the culprit plaque. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the maximal temperature (Tmax) site, as measured by thermal wire, coincides with the culprit plaque by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Subsequent thrombosis developing to the proximal (...) region from the site of plaque rupture or erosion can potentially complicate the ability of coronary angiography to identify the accurate culprit plaque in patients with coronary total occlusion.In 45 consecutive patients with a first anterior AMI, the Tmax site by thermal wire and the culprit plaque by IVUS were evaluated in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD).Twenty-five patients had LAD total occlusion, and the remaining 20 had LAD reperfusion. In both groups of patients, the Tmax

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2007 Journal of the American College of Cardiology

34948. Effect of Plax and chlorhexidine oral rinses on plaque, gingivitis, and plaque bacteria vitality. (PubMed)

Effect of Plax and chlorhexidine oral rinses on plaque, gingivitis, and plaque bacteria vitality. 8064937 1994 09 19 2013 11 21 0148-4893 41 4 1993 The Journal of the Western Society of Periodontology/Periodontal abstracts J West Soc Periodontol Periodontal Abstr Effect of Plax and chlorhexidine oral rinses on plaque, gingivitis, and plaque bacteria vitality. 113-7 Brecx M C MC School of Dental Hygiene, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. MacDonald L L LL Stoddart-Phillips M R MR Forgay M (...) G MG eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial United States J West Soc Periodontol Periodontal Abstr 7705433 0148-4893 0 Benzoates 0 Mouthwashes 0 Plax 368GB5141J Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate R4KO0DY52L Chlorhexidine D Adult Analysis of Variance Bacteria drug effects Benzoates pharmacology therapeutic use Chlorhexidine therapeutic use Colony Count, Microbial Dental Plaque microbiology therapy Dental Plaque Index Double-Blind Method Female Gingivitis prevention & control Humans

1994 The Journal of the Western Society of Periodontology/Periodontal abstracts

34949. Plaque rupture with severe pre-existing stenosis precipitating coronary thrombosis. Characteristics of coronary atherosclerotic plaques underlying fatal occlusive thrombi. (PubMed)

Plaque rupture with severe pre-existing stenosis precipitating coronary thrombosis. Characteristics of coronary atherosclerotic plaques underlying fatal occlusive thrombi. Ruptured atheromatous plaques were identified by step-sectioning technique as responsible for 40 of 51 recent coronary artery thrombi and 63 larger intimal haemorrhages. The degree of pre-existing luminal narrowing at the site of rupture was decisive for whether plaque rupture caused occlusive thrombosis or just intimal (...) haemorrhage. If the pre-existing stenosis was greater than 90% (histologically determined) then plaque rupture nearly always caused occlusive thrombosis. Clearly indicating the primary role of plaque rupture in thrombus formation were the frequent finding of plaque fragments deeply buried in the centre of the thrombus and the nature of the thrombus at the site of rupture where it consisted predominantly of platelets. Thus, a severe chronic stenosis seems to be a prerequisite for occlusive thrombus

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1983 British Heart Journal

34950. A comparative immunohistochemical study of Kuru and senile plaques with a special reference to glial reactions at various stages of amyloid plaque formation. (PubMed)

A comparative immunohistochemical study of Kuru and senile plaques with a special reference to glial reactions at various stages of amyloid plaque formation. The authors examined 10 patients with Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and 10 with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunohistochemistry using anti-prion protein (PrP) and anti-beta/A4 protein (beta/A4) coupled with formic acid pretreatment could detect Congophilic and non-Congophilic deposits. Prion protein deposits (...) were classified into five types and compared with types of beta/A4 deposits. Kuru plaques with multicentric cores and fine granular deposits were a characteristic feature of PrP deposits. Some types of PrP or beta/A4 deposits depend on the anatomic sites. To clarify the relationship of microglia and astrocytes to PrP or beta/A4 deposits, double-immunostaining method was performed. In both kuru and senile plaques, microglia were closely linked to the Congophilic plaques. Astrocytes, however

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1991 The American journal of pathology

34951. New insight into plaque healing after plaque rupture with subsequent thrombus formation detected by intravascular ultrasound. (PubMed)

New insight into plaque healing after plaque rupture with subsequent thrombus formation detected by intravascular ultrasound. 9093056 1997 04 17 2016 11 24 1355-6037 77 3 1997 Mar Heart (British Cardiac Society) Heart New insight into plaque healing after plaque rupture with subsequent thrombus formation detected by intravascular ultrasound. 293 Jeremias A A Ge J J Erbel R R eng Case Reports Journal Article England Heart 9602087 1355-6037 AIM IM Angina, Unstable diagnostic imaging surgery

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1997 Heart

34952. In vitro antiplaque activity of octenidine dihydrochloride (WIN 41464-2) against preformed plaques of selected oral plaque-forming microorganisms. (PubMed)

In vitro antiplaque activity of octenidine dihydrochloride (WIN 41464-2) against preformed plaques of selected oral plaque-forming microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of octenidine dihydrochloride (WIN 41464-2) against intact preformed in vitro plaques of four indigenous oral plaque-forming microorganisms, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, and Actinomyces naeslundii, was studied. Both absolute (plaque bactericidal index) and relative (chlorhexidine (...) coefficient) indices of antiplaque efficacy were established. Octenidine dihydrochloride compared favorably with chlorhexidine digluconate with respect to overall antiplaque potency in this in vitro plaque bactericidal model. These data indicate that prudent selection of treatment concentration and duration and frequency of exposure should provide an effective means to aid in controlling dental caries and Actinomyces-associated disease in vivo.

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1983 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

34953. An investigation of the efficacy and safety of a new electric interdental plaque remover for the reduction of interproximal plaque and gingivitis. (PubMed)

An investigation of the efficacy and safety of a new electric interdental plaque remover for the reduction of interproximal plaque and gingivitis. This clinical study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of the new Braun Oral-B Interclean (ID2) with that of dental floss in healthy adults. Volunteers with sufficient dental plaque and gingivitis were randomized to use the ID2 (n = 24) or American Dental Association-approved dental floss (n = 24) in conjunction with toothbrushing once (...) nightly for 6 weeks. All subjects received a supragingival prophylaxis and polishing at the start of the study. Over the study period, both devices produced significant reductions in interproximal plaque, gingivitis and bleeding (p < 0.01). With the ID2, there were reductions in interproximal plaque scores (all sites) of approximately 40% compared with 28% with dental floss. A decrease in gingivitis of 15% was observed with the ID2 compared with 12% for floss users. Bleeding on probing was reduced

1996 The Journal of clinical dentistry

34954. Assessment of the effects of dentifrices on plaque acidogenesis via intra-oral measurement of plaque acids. (PubMed)

Assessment of the effects of dentifrices on plaque acidogenesis via intra-oral measurement of plaque acids. Dionex ion chromatography was used for identification and quantification of the plaque acids (formate, lactate, acetate, and propionate) formed in vivo following a sucrose rinse. Consistent with other literature reports, lactate and acetate were the predominant acid species generated by plaque. This micro-analytical technique was used for investigation of the effects of dentifrice (...) formulations containing NaF, xylitol, or NaF/xylitol on plaque acid metabolism. Neither a single nor multiple exposures (three times daily for one week) to the experimental dentifrices significantly altered the profiles of the individual acids or total plaque acidity relative to the placebo dentifrice. The lack of an effect of fluoride and xylitol on plaque acid metabolism is attributed to the variability of dental plaque and the low concentrations of active ingredients reaching the plaque. However, we

1992 Journal of dental research

34955. Effect of delmopinol hydrochloride mouthrinse on plaque formation and gingivitis in "rapid" and "slow" plaque formers. (PubMed)

Effect of delmopinol hydrochloride mouthrinse on plaque formation and gingivitis in "rapid" and "slow" plaque formers. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in the plaque and gingivitis inhibiting effect of delmopinol rinsing between "rapid" and "slow" plaque formers. 23 subjects (12 "rapid" and 11 "slow" plaque formers) were selected from 71 healthy young adults. The selection was based on the plaque index on the buccal surfaces of all premolars and 1st molars after 3 (...) -days without plaque control. The 23 subjects were randomly assigned into 3 groups with different mouthrinses, i.e., 0.1% delmopinol, 0.2% delmopinol, and placebo. The study was double-blind with parallel design between the "rapid" and "slow" plaque formers and cross-over design between 2 active periods and a placebo period. Each rinsing period lasted for 5 days. During the 3 test periods, the subjects refrained from all oral hygiene and rinsed 2x daily with either one of the 3 solutions. Gingival

1997 Journal of clinical periodontology

34956. A plaque index for occlusal surfaces and fissures. Measurement of repeatability and plaque removal. (PubMed)

A plaque index for occlusal surfaces and fissures. Measurement of repeatability and plaque removal. Plaque indices have largely been developed for buccal and lingual tooth surfaces. There has been minimal interest in plaque accumulation on occlusal surfaces despite the predilection for caries at these sites. A numerical plaque index (0-5) is described based on the presence and distribution of plaque in the fissures and over the occlusal surfaces of permanent molar and premolar teeth (...) . The repeatability of a single examiner in scoring the index was performed using 4 groups of 10 subjects. Each group of volunteers suspended tooth cleaning for 48 h and the index scored after disclosing plaque deposits. The index was rescored 60-90 min later. Plaque area was also determined by drawing the outline of plaque onto grids. Except for one condition of repeatability for one group, the 4 conditions of repeatability in scoring the index were met for all 4 groups of subjects. The sensitivity of the index

1998 Journal of clinical periodontology

34957. Gingivitis, plaque accumulation and plaque composition under long-term use of Meridol. (PubMed)

Gingivitis, plaque accumulation and plaque composition under long-term use of Meridol. The effectiveness of amine fluoride and stannous fluoride in the prophylaxis of caries and gingivitis is well-known from the literature. The aim of this study was to assess whether these agents could be recommended for long-term use. Under conditions of a clinical double-blind study, the influence of an amine/stannous fluoride rinse on gingivitis, plaque accumulation and the composition of the supragingival (...) plaque was tested over a period of 7 months. 102 persons with signs of chronic gingivitis participated in the study. Gingival indices (GI, SBI) and plaque indices (PlI, API) were recorded at baseline, after 3.5 and 7 months. The composition of the supragingival plaque was evaluated by dark-field microscopy. During the 7 months, the GI decreased in the test group from 1.36 to 0.95, and the SBI from 52.0% to 29.3%. The PlI fell from 1.17 to 0.68, and the API from 61.3% to 50.6% (p < 0.001

1993 Journal of clinical periodontology

34958. Pravastatin treatment increases collagen content and decreases lipid content, inflammation, metalloproteinases, and cell death in human carotid plaques: implications for plaque stabilization. (PubMed)

Pravastatin treatment increases collagen content and decreases lipid content, inflammation, metalloproteinases, and cell death in human carotid plaques: implications for plaque stabilization. The clinical benefits of lipid lowering with statins are attributed to changes in plaque composition leading to lesion stability, but supporting clinical data from human studies are lacking. Therefore, we investigated the effect of 3 months of pravastatin treatment on composition of human carotid plaques (...) removed during carotid endarterectomy.Consecutive patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis received 40 mg/d pravastatin (n=11) or no lipid-lowering therapy (n=13; control subjects) for 3 months before scheduled carotid endarterectomy. Carotid plaque composition was assessed with special stains and immunocytochemistry with quantitative image analysis. Plaques from the pravastatin group had less lipid by oil red O staining (8.2+/-8.4% versus 23.9+/-21.1% of the plaque area, P<0.05), less

2001 Circulation

34959. Conversion of plaque-area measurements to plaque index scores. An assessment of variation and discriminatory power. (PubMed)

Conversion of plaque-area measurements to plaque index scores. An assessment of variation and discriminatory power. Plaque areas recorded graphically or photographically provide a permanent record of plaque accumulations on teeth at a moment in time. As such, these records could be re-evaluated and converted into other index scores. The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of scoring a plaque index from previously recorded plaque areas and to compare such scores (...) with the original scores of the same index. A randomised blind, crossover study comparing 5 treatments for plaque inhibition scored by plaque area and index was chosen. 2 examiners, the original scorer PRH and another, NC, 2x scored the plaque area tooth charts according to the criteria of the plaque index system used in the original study. Standard deviations of the differences showed intra-examiner repeatability to be high particularly for the original examiner. Inter-examiner reproducibility for the original

1999 Journal of clinical periodontology

34960. Effect of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride-containing toothpaste and mouthrinsings on dental plaque, gingivitis, plaque and enamel F-accumulation. (PubMed)

Effect of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride-containing toothpaste and mouthrinsings on dental plaque, gingivitis, plaque and enamel F-accumulation. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash on dental plaque and gingivitis, plaque F- accumulation, F- content and acid solubility of dental enamel. Participants in the 12-week double-blind study were 92 schoolchildren, with a mean age of 12.4 years, randomly distributed to four (...) groups: (1) AmF/SnF2 toothpaste, (2) placebo toothpaste, (3) AmF/SnF2 toothpaste plus AmF/SnF2 mouthwash, (4) placebo toothpaste plus AmF/SnF2 mouthwash. Analyzing the results, the mean values of dental plaque (Silness-Löe index) and of the sulcus bleeding index decreased statistically significantly in all groups except the placebo toothpaste users. Plaque F- and enamel F- content increased considerably only in the two groups using the AmF/SnF2 toothpaste. A decrease in acid solubility

1989 Caries research

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