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Physiologic Anemia of Infancy

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1. Physiologic Anemia of Infancy

Physiologic Anemia of Infancy Physiologic Anemia of Infancy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Physiologic Anemia (...) of Infancy Physiologic Anemia of Infancy Aka: Physiologic Anemia of Infancy II. Definition Normal decrease in young infants III. Physiology drops to low point at age 6 to 8 weeks nadir drops Term Infants: drops to 9-11 g/dl s: drops to 7-9 g/dl IV. Differential Diagnosis See Human ( ) (e.g. ) V. Management No work-up or treatment unless lower than expected VI. References Oblender in Daechner (1991) Pediatrics, p. 283 Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling

2018 FP Notebook

2. Physiologic Anemia of Infancy

Physiologic Anemia of Infancy Physiologic Anemia of Infancy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Physiologic Anemia (...) of Infancy Physiologic Anemia of Infancy Aka: Physiologic Anemia of Infancy II. Definition Normal decrease in young infants III. Physiology drops to low point at age 6 to 8 weeks nadir drops Term Infants: drops to 9-11 g/dl s: drops to 7-9 g/dl IV. Differential Diagnosis See Human ( ) (e.g. ) V. Management No work-up or treatment unless lower than expected VI. References Oblender in Daechner (1991) Pediatrics, p. 283 Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling

2015 FP Notebook

3. An economic analysis of anemia prevention during infancy

using reticulocyte hemoglobin content. JAMA 2005; 294(8): 924-930. Lozoff B, Jimenez E, Hagen J, Mollen E, Wolf AW. Poorer behavioral and developmental outcome more than 10 years after treatment for iron deficiency in infancy. Pediatrics 2000; 105(4):E51. Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Anemia, Iron-Deficiency /diagnosis /economics /prevention & Blood Cell Count; Cost of Illness; Cost-Benefit Analysis; Erythrocyte Indices /physiology; Hemoglobins /analysis; Humans; Infant (...) An economic analysis of anemia prevention during infancy An economic analysis of anemia prevention during infancy An economic analysis of anemia prevention during infancy Shaker M, Jenkins P, Ullrich C, Brugnara C, Nghiem BT, Bernstein H Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment

2009 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

4. Abusive Head Trauma and the Eye in Infancy

Abusive Head Trauma and the Eye in Infancy 1 The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health and The Royal College of Ophthalmologists Abusive Head Trauma and the Eye in Infancy June 2013 Scientific Department The Royal College of Ophthalmologists 17 Cornwall Terrace Regent’s Park London NW1 4QW Telephone: 020 7935 0702 Facsimile: 020 7487 4674 www.rcophth.ac.uk © The Royal College of Ophthalmologists 2013 All rights reserved For permission to reproduce any of the content contained herein (...) please contact events@rcophth.ac.uk 2 Executive Summary A child suspected of abusive head injury is referred by paediatricians to an ophthalmologist for evaluation. The incidence of abusive head injury in children is highest in infancy and less frequently seen in children over 3 years of age. Retinal haemorrhages have a high positive predictive rate for abusive head injury. In the presence of head injury without any plausible medical explanation the description of the retinal findings help

2013 Royal College of Ophthalmologists

5. Impact of Vaccination on Th2 Immunity in Infancy

Impact of Vaccination on Th2 Immunity in Infancy Impact of Vaccination on Th2 Immunity in Infancy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Impact of Vaccination on Th2 Immunity in Infancy The safety (...) for study information Study Type : Observational Actual Enrollment : 77 participants Observational Model: Case Control Time Perspective: Prospective Official Title: Impact of Vaccination on Th2 Immunity in Infancy Study Start Date : August 2014 Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2016 Actual Study Completion Date : June 2016 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: Groups and Cohorts Go to Group/Cohort Intervention/treatment Positive blood test to milk, egg

2014 Clinical Trials

6. Sickle Cell Anemia (Overview)

of fibrinogen, fibronectin, and D-dimer are elevated in these patients. Plasma clotting factors likely participate in the microthrombi in the pre-arterioles. Development of clinical disease Although hematologic changes indicative of SCD are evident as early as the age of 10 weeks, symptoms usually do not develop until the age of 6-12 months because of high levels of circulating fetal hemoglobin. After infancy, erythrocytes of patients with sickle cell anemia contain approximately 90% hemoglobin S (HbS), 2 (...) -10% hemoglobin F (HbF), and a normal amount of minor fraction of adult hemoglobin (HbA2). Adult hemoglobin (HbA), which usually gains prominence at the age of 3 months, is absent. The physiological changes in RBCs result in a disease with the following cardinal signs: Hemolytic anemia Painful vaso-occlusive crisis Multiple organ damage from microinfarcts, including heart, skeleton, spleen, and central nervous system Silent cerebral infarcts are associated with cognitive impairment in SCD

2014 eMedicine.com

7. Sickle Cell Anemia (Diagnosis)

of fibrinogen, fibronectin, and D-dimer are elevated in these patients. Plasma clotting factors likely participate in the microthrombi in the pre-arterioles. Development of clinical disease Although hematologic changes indicative of SCD are evident as early as the age of 10 weeks, symptoms usually do not develop until the age of 6-12 months because of high levels of circulating fetal hemoglobin. After infancy, erythrocytes of patients with sickle cell anemia contain approximately 90% hemoglobin S (HbS), 2 (...) -10% hemoglobin F (HbF), and a normal amount of minor fraction of adult hemoglobin (HbA2). Adult hemoglobin (HbA), which usually gains prominence at the age of 3 months, is absent. The physiological changes in RBCs result in a disease with the following cardinal signs: Hemolytic anemia Painful vaso-occlusive crisis Multiple organ damage from microinfarcts, including heart, skeleton, spleen, and central nervous system Silent cerebral infarcts are associated with cognitive impairment in SCD

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

8. Sickle Cell Anemia (Overview)

of fibrinogen, fibronectin, and D-dimer are elevated in these patients. Plasma clotting factors likely participate in the microthrombi in the pre-arterioles. Development of clinical disease Although hematologic changes indicative of SCD are evident as early as the age of 10 weeks, symptoms usually do not develop until the age of 6-12 months because of high levels of circulating fetal hemoglobin. After infancy, erythrocytes of patients with sickle cell anemia contain approximately 90% hemoglobin S (HbS), 2 (...) -10% hemoglobin F (HbF), and a normal amount of minor fraction of adult hemoglobin (HbA2). Adult hemoglobin (HbA), which usually gains prominence at the age of 3 months, is absent. The physiological changes in RBCs result in a disease with the following cardinal signs: Hemolytic anemia Painful vaso-occlusive crisis Multiple organ damage from microinfarcts, including heart, skeleton, spleen, and central nervous system Silent cerebral infarcts are associated with cognitive impairment in SCD

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

9. Anemia, Acute (Overview)

, 2017 Author: Susumu Inoue, MD; Chief Editor: Robert J Arceci, MD, PhD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Pediatric Acute Anemia Overview Practice Essentials Pediatric anemia refers to a hemoglobin or hematocrit level lower than the age-adjusted reference range for healthy children. Physiologically, anemia is a condition in which reduced hematocrit or hemoglobin levels lead to diminished oxygen-carrying capacity that does not optimally meet the metabolic demands of the body. (See (...) , myelofibrosis, or leukemia, or may suggest a rapid destruction or trapping of all blood elements, such as hypersplenism, localized coagulopathy in a large hemangioma, or hemophagoctic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). (See Etiology.) The main physiologic role of red blood cells (RBCs) is to deliver oxygen to the tissues. Certain physiologic adjustments can occur in an individual with anemia to compensate for the lack of oxygen delivery. These include (1) increased cardiac

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

10. Anemia, Sickle Cell (Overview)

of fibrinogen, fibronectin, and D-dimer are elevated in these patients. Plasma clotting factors likely participate in the microthrombi in the pre-arterioles. Development of clinical disease Although hematologic changes indicative of SCD are evident as early as the age of 10 weeks, symptoms usually do not develop until the age of 6-12 months because of high levels of circulating fetal hemoglobin. After infancy, erythrocytes of patients with sickle cell anemia contain approximately 90% hemoglobin S (HbS), 2 (...) -10% hemoglobin F (HbF), and a normal amount of minor fraction of adult hemoglobin (HbA2). Adult hemoglobin (HbA), which usually gains prominence at the age of 3 months, is absent. The physiological changes in RBCs result in a disease with the following cardinal signs: Hemolytic anemia Painful vaso-occlusive crisis Multiple organ damage from microinfarcts, including heart, skeleton, spleen, and central nervous system Silent cerebral infarcts are associated with cognitive impairment in SCD

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

11. Sickle Cell Anemia (Diagnosis)

of fibrinogen, fibronectin, and D-dimer are elevated in these patients. Plasma clotting factors likely participate in the microthrombi in the pre-arterioles. Development of clinical disease Although hematologic changes indicative of SCD are evident as early as the age of 10 weeks, symptoms usually do not develop until the age of 6-12 months because of high levels of circulating fetal hemoglobin. After infancy, erythrocytes of patients with sickle cell anemia contain approximately 90% hemoglobin S (HbS), 2 (...) -10% hemoglobin F (HbF), and a normal amount of minor fraction of adult hemoglobin (HbA2). Adult hemoglobin (HbA), which usually gains prominence at the age of 3 months, is absent. The physiological changes in RBCs result in a disease with the following cardinal signs: Hemolytic anemia Painful vaso-occlusive crisis Multiple organ damage from microinfarcts, including heart, skeleton, spleen, and central nervous system Silent cerebral infarcts are associated with cognitive impairment in SCD

2014 eMedicine.com

12. Anemia, Acute (Diagnosis)

, 2017 Author: Susumu Inoue, MD; Chief Editor: Robert J Arceci, MD, PhD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Pediatric Acute Anemia Overview Practice Essentials Pediatric anemia refers to a hemoglobin or hematocrit level lower than the age-adjusted reference range for healthy children. Physiologically, anemia is a condition in which reduced hematocrit or hemoglobin levels lead to diminished oxygen-carrying capacity that does not optimally meet the metabolic demands of the body. (See (...) , myelofibrosis, or leukemia, or may suggest a rapid destruction or trapping of all blood elements, such as hypersplenism, localized coagulopathy in a large hemangioma, or hemophagoctic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). (See Etiology.) The main physiologic role of red blood cells (RBCs) is to deliver oxygen to the tissues. Certain physiologic adjustments can occur in an individual with anemia to compensate for the lack of oxygen delivery. These include (1) increased cardiac

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

13. Anemia, Sickle Cell (Diagnosis)

of fibrinogen, fibronectin, and D-dimer are elevated in these patients. Plasma clotting factors likely participate in the microthrombi in the pre-arterioles. Development of clinical disease Although hematologic changes indicative of SCD are evident as early as the age of 10 weeks, symptoms usually do not develop until the age of 6-12 months because of high levels of circulating fetal hemoglobin. After infancy, erythrocytes of patients with sickle cell anemia contain approximately 90% hemoglobin S (HbS), 2 (...) -10% hemoglobin F (HbF), and a normal amount of minor fraction of adult hemoglobin (HbA2). Adult hemoglobin (HbA), which usually gains prominence at the age of 3 months, is absent. The physiological changes in RBCs result in a disease with the following cardinal signs: Hemolytic anemia Painful vaso-occlusive crisis Multiple organ damage from microinfarcts, including heart, skeleton, spleen, and central nervous system Silent cerebral infarcts are associated with cognitive impairment in SCD

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

14. Effect of Iron-fortified TPN on Preterm Infants Anemia

% to 85% of preterm infants develop evidence of anemia during infancy,77% VLBW(very low birth weight) infants developed anemia during the hospital stay. The effects of iron deficiency are pervasive and involve multiple organ systems. Poor physical growth, gastrointestinal disturbances, thyroid dysfunction, altered immunity and temperature instability has been attributed to iron deficiency in very low birth weight infants. So it is important to provide iron for preterm infants. As enteral nutrition (...) MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Anemia Premature Birth Hematologic Diseases Obstetric Labor, Premature Obstetric Labor Complications Pregnancy Complications Iron Trace Elements Micronutrients Nutrients Growth Substances Physiological Effects of Drugs

2013 Clinical Trials

15. Blood formation in infancy. (PubMed)

Blood formation in infancy. 526023 1980 03 24 2018 11 13 1468-2044 54 11 1979 Nov Archives of disease in childhood Arch. Dis. Child. Blood formation in infancy. 831-4 Chessells J M JM eng Journal Article England Arch Dis Child 0372434 0003-9888 0 Hemoglobins 11096-26-7 Erythropoietin AIM IM Adult Anemia, Neonatal blood Bone Marrow physiology Erythrocyte Aging Erythrocyte Count Erythropoiesis Erythropoietin blood Female Hematopoiesis Hemoglobins metabolism Humans Infant Infant, Newborn Infant

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1979 Archives of Disease in Childhood

16. Iron nutriture from infancy to adolescence. (PubMed)

Iron nutriture from infancy to adolescence. 5461721 1970 05 13 2018 11 13 0002-9572 60 4 1970 Apr American journal of public health and the nation's health Am J Public Health Nations Health Iron nutriture from infancy to adolescence. 666-78 Beal V A VA Meyers A J AJ eng Journal Article United States Am J Public Health Nations Health 1254075 0002-9572 0 Dietary Proteins 0 Food Additives E1UOL152H7 Iron AIM IM Adolescent Anemia, Hypochromic prevention & control Child Child Nutritional (...) Physiological Phenomena Child, Preschool Diet standards Dietary Proteins Female Food Additives Hematocrit Hemoglobinometry Humans Infant Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena Infant, Newborn Iron metabolism Male Menarche Menstruation Nutrition Surveys Nutritional Physiological Phenomena Nutritional Requirements Sex Factors 1970 4 1 1970 4 1 0 1 1970 4 1 0 0 ppublish 5461721 PMC1348858 Pediatrics. 1962 Oct;30:518-39 13969917 Ann Intern Med. 1960 Feb;52:378-94 13800263 Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1966;45

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1970 American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health

17. Iron deficiency in infancy. Recommendations from the Nutrition Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society. (PubMed)

Iron deficiency in infancy. Recommendations from the Nutrition Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society. 5057962 1972 04 12 2013 11 21 0008-4409 106 3 1972 Feb 05 Canadian Medical Association journal Can Med Assoc J Iron deficiency in infancy. Recommendations from the Nutrition Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society. 259-61 eng Journal Article Canada Can Med Assoc J 0414110 0008-4409 E1UOL152H7 Iron AIM IM Anemia, Hypochromic drug therapy Diet Therapy Humans Infant Nutritional Physiological

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1972 Canadian Medical Association Journal

18. The Anemia Control Program: High or Low Iron Supplementation

by: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of this clinical trial was to determine if high-iron or low-iron formula, containing an average of 12.7 mg/L or 2.3 mg/L respectively, had differing effects on iron status in infancy and on development longitudinally. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Iron Deficiency Anemia Cognitive Development Motor Development Dietary Supplement (...) : Low-iron formula Dietary Supplement: High-iron formula Not Applicable Detailed Description: For a detailed description of the clinical trial setting and procedures in infancy, please refer to the following: Walter T, Pino P, Pizarro F and Lozoff B. Prevention of iron-deficiency anemia: Comparison of high- and low-iron formulas in term healthy infants after six months of life. J Pedr 1998:132:635-40. Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial

2010 Clinical Trials

19. Review of effective strategies to promote breastfeeding

These acknowledge the potential contribution of the practice as an intervention to support breastfeeding, but discourage ‘internet-based’ milk sharing, and provide information to assist the hygienic handling and storage of milk. ANBS-E Strategies 4 –7: BFHI and quality standards in healthcare systems Biologically and physiologically, mothers and newborns are primed to breastfeed, but a variety of barriers create difficulties for innate behaviours in contemporary healthcare systems. The UNICEF/WHO Baby Friendly (...) is that a literature search can only reveal research that has been conducted. In practice, this can mean that conducted research focuses on small improvements in practices that interfere with the natural and physiological behaviour of breastfeeding. The research that is not done, on what makes the home, community or healthcare environment naturally friendly to breastfeeding, is less included. It is important to recognise that it may that the answers about what is needed for all mothers and children to optimally

2018 Sax Institute Evidence Check

20. Management of Stroke in Neonates and Children

and anemia. Antiplatelet therapy such as aspirin and anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or unfractionated heparin (UFH) is rarely indicated because of the low risk of recurrent stroke after neonatal AIS; however, it must be considered in those exceptional neonates with high risk of recurrent AIS resulting from documented thrombophilia or complex congenital heart disease (not including patent foramen ovale [PFO]). , Hyperacute stroke therapies (thrombolytics and mechanical (...) , the correction of dehydration and anemia, and the treatment of underlying infections. Institutional practices for anticoagulation for perinatal CSVT are highly variable in the absence of definitive studies demonstrating safety and clinical benefit. However, anticoagulation is routinely used at some institutions and appears to be generally well tolerated, even in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage. Jordan et al analyzed factors that affected the use of anticoagulation in 84 neonates with isolated CSVT

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2019 American Heart Association

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