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Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor

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6001. Phosphodiesterase-4 blunts inotropism and arrhythmias but not sinoatrial tachycardia of (−)-adrenaline mediated through mouse cardiac β1-adrenoceptors Full Text available with Trip Pro

Phosphodiesterase-4 blunts inotropism and arrhythmias but not sinoatrial tachycardia of (−)-adrenaline mediated through mouse cardiac β1-adrenoceptors beta(1) and beta(2)-adrenoceptors coexist in murine heart but beta(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated effects have not been detected in atrial and ventricular tissues, possibly due to marked phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. We investigated the influence of the PDE3 inhibitor cilostamide and PDE4 inhibitor rolipram on the effects of (-)-adrenaline

2007 British journal of pharmacology

6002. Anandamide Biosynthesis Catalyzed by the Phosphodiesterase GDE1 and Detection of Glycerophospho-N-acyl Ethanolamine Precursors in Mouse Brain Full Text available with Trip Pro

the double-O-deacylation of N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) by alpha/beta-hydrolase 4 (ABDH4 or Abh4) to form glycerophospho (GP)-NAEs, followed by conversion of these intermediates to NAEs by an unidentified phosphodiesterase. Here, we report the detection and measurement of GP-NAEs, including the anandamide precursor glycerophospho-N-arachidonoylethanolamine (GP-NArE), as endogenous constituents of mouse brain tissue. Inhibition of the phosphodiesterase-mediated degradation of GP-NAEs ex vivo (...) Anandamide Biosynthesis Catalyzed by the Phosphodiesterase GDE1 and Detection of Glycerophospho-N-acyl Ethanolamine Precursors in Mouse Brain Anandamide (AEA) is an endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors and a well characterized mediator of many physiological processes including inflammation, pain, and appetite. The biosynthetic pathway(s) for anandamide and its N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) congeners remain enigmatic. Previously, we proposed an enzymatic route for producing NAEs that involves

2008 The Journal of biological chemistry

6003. Phosphodiesterase 4D Deficiency in the Ryanodine-Receptor Complex Promotes Heart Failure and Arrhythmias Full Text available with Trip Pro

Phosphodiesterase 4D Deficiency in the Ryanodine-Receptor Complex Promotes Heart Failure and Arrhythmias Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate the local concentration of 3',5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) within cells. cAMP activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In patients, PDE inhibitors have been linked to heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias, although the mechanisms are not understood. We show that PDE4D gene inactivation in mice results in a progressive cardiomyopathy (...) , accelerated heart failure after myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrhythmias. The phosphodiesterase 4D3 (PDE4D3) was found in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2)/calcium-release-channel complex (required for excitation-contraction [EC] coupling in heart muscle). PDE4D3 levels in the RyR2 complex were reduced in failing human hearts, contributing to PKA-hyperphosphorylated, "leaky" RyR2 channels that promote cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias. Cardiac arrhythmias and dysfunction associated with PDE4

2005 Cell

6004. PfPDE1, a novel cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum Full Text available with Trip Pro

PfPDE1, a novel cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum This is the first report of molecular characterization of a novel cyclic nucleotide PDE (phosphodiesterase), isolated from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and designated PfPDE1. PfPDE1 cDNA encodes an 884-amino-acid protein, including six putative transmembrane domains in the N-terminus followed by a catalytic domain. The PfPDE1 gene is a single-copy gene consisting of two (...) exons and a 170 bp intron. PfPDE1 transcripts were abundant in the ring form of the asexual blood stages of the parasite. The C-terminal catalytic domain of PfPDE1, produced in Escherichia coli, specifically hydrolysed cGMP with a K(m) value of 0.65 microM. Among the PDE inhibitors tested, a PDE5 inhibitor, zaprinast, was the most effective, having an IC50 value of 3.8 microM. The non-specific PDE inhibitors IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine), theophylline and the antimalarial chloroquine had IC50

2005 Biochemical Journal

6005. Fading of 5-HT4 receptor-mediated inotropic responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine is caused by phosphodiesterase activity in porcine atrium Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fading of 5-HT4 receptor-mediated inotropic responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine is caused by phosphodiesterase activity in porcine atrium Inotropic responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in human and porcine atrium can fade, suggesting 5-HT(4) receptor desensitization. De Maeyer et al., however, show in this issue that inhibition of phosphodiesterases with isobutyl-methyl-xanthine prevents fading of 5-HT(4) receptor-mediated responses to 5-HT and the partial agonist prucalopride in porcine atrium.

2005 British journal of pharmacology

6006. Phosphodiesterase PDE3 blunts the positive inotropic and cyclic AMP enhancing effects of CGP12177 but not of noradrenaline in rat ventricle Full Text available with Trip Pro

Phosphodiesterase PDE3 blunts the positive inotropic and cyclic AMP enhancing effects of CGP12177 but not of noradrenaline in rat ventricle 1.--The cardiostimulant effects of CGP12177, mediated through a beta(1)-adrenoceptor site with low affinity for (-)-propranolol, are potentiated by the nonselective PDE inhibitor IBMX but the role of PDE isoenzymes is unknown. We studied the effects of the PDE3-selective inhibitor cilostamide (300 nM) and PDE4-selective inhibitor rolipram (1 microM

2005 British journal of pharmacology

6007. Phosphodiesterase type 4 expression and anti-proliferative effects in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

to investigate the involvement of the main cAMP-specific enzymes, phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), responsible for cAMP hydrolysis.Distal human PASMCs were derived from pulmonary arteries by explant culture (n = 14, passage 3-12). Responses to platelet-derived growth factor-BB (5-10 ng/ml), serum, PGI2 analogues (cicaprost, iloprost) and PDE4 inhibitors (roflumilast, rolipram, cilomilast) were determined by measuring cAMP phosphodiesterase activity, intracellular cAMP levels, DNA synthesis, apoptosis (...) Phosphodiesterase type 4 expression and anti-proliferative effects in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a proliferative vascular disease, characterized by aberrant regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis in distal pulmonary arteries. Prostacyclin (PGI2) analogues have anti-proliferative effects on distal human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), which are dependent on intracellular cAMP stimulation. We therefore sought

2006 Respiratory research

6008. CELLULAR AND SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION OF PDE10A, A STRIATUM-ENRICHED PHOSPHODIESTERASE Full Text available with Trip Pro

CELLULAR AND SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION OF PDE10A, A STRIATUM-ENRICHED PHOSPHODIESTERASE PDE10A is a recently identified phosphodiesterase that is highly expressed by the GABAergic medium spiny projection neurons of the mammalian striatum. Inhibition of PDE10A results in striatal activation and behavioral suppression, suggesting that PDE10A inhibitors represent a novel class of antipsychotic agents. In the present studies we further elucidate the localization of this enzyme in striatum of rat

2006 Neuroscience

6009. Enantiomer discrimination illustrated by high resolution crystal structures of type 4 phosphodiesterase Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enantiomer discrimination illustrated by high resolution crystal structures of type 4 phosphodiesterase Type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4) inhibitors are emerging as new treatments for a number of disorders including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here we report the biochemical characterization on the second generation inhibitor (+)-1 (L-, IC50=0.4 nM) and its enantiomer (-)-1 (L-, IC50=43 nM) and their cocrystal structures with PDE4D at 2.0 A resolution. Despite the 107-fold (...) affinity difference, both enantiomers interact with the same sets of residues in the rigid active site. The weaker (-)-1 adopts an unfavorable conformation to preserve the pivotal interactions between the Mg-bound waters and the N-oxide of pyridine. These structures support a model in which inhibitors are anchored by the invariant glutamine at one end and the metal-pocket residues at another end. This model provides explanations for most of the observed structure-activity relationship and the metal ion

2006 Journal of medicinal chemistry

6010. Profiling of functional phosphodiesterase in mesangial cells using a CRE-SEAP-based reporting system Full Text available with Trip Pro

and PDE5 enhanced activation of CRE. Inhibition of PDE1 or PDE6 did not affect the CRE activation. 4. Among different combinations tested, only inhibitors of PDE3 and PDE4 cooperatively increased the level of intracellular cAMP, activity of protein kinase A, activation of CRE, and CRE-regulated protein, connexin43. 5. Concomitant inhibition of PDE3 and PDE4 attenuated mitogen-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and cell proliferation. Under serum deprivation, combinational (...) Profiling of functional phosphodiesterase in mesangial cells using a CRE-SEAP-based reporting system 1. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are critically implicated in the regulation of mesangial cell function, but profile of functional PDEs in mesangial cells is still unclear. In this study, we investigated roles of individual PDEs in the regulation of mesangial cell behavior by the cAMP pathway. 2. Reporter mesangial cells that express secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) under the control of the cAMP

2006 British journal of pharmacology

6011. The Structure of the GAF A Domain from Phosphodiesterase 6C Reveals Determinants of cGMP Binding, a Conserved Binding Surface, and a Large cGMP-dependent Conformational Change Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Structure of the GAF A Domain from Phosphodiesterase 6C Reveals Determinants of cGMP Binding, a Conserved Binding Surface, and a Large cGMP-dependent Conformational Change The photoreceptor phosphodiesterase (PDE6) regulates the intracellular levels of the second messenger cGMP in the outer segments of cone and rod photoreceptor cells. PDE6 contains two regulatory GAF domains, of which one (GAF A) binds cGMP and regulates the activity of the PDE6 holoenzyme. To increase our understanding (...) on GAF A indicates a potential binding site for the inhibitory subunit Pgamma. NMR studies reveal that the apo-PDE6C GAF A domain is structured but adopts a significantly altered structural state indicating a large conformational change with rearrangement of secondary structure elements upon cGMP binding. The presented crystal structure will help to define the cGMP-dependent regulation mechanism of the PDE6 holoenzyme and its inhibition through Pgamma binding.

2008 The Journal of biological chemistry

6012. Fast Adaptation in Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons Does Not Require the Activity of Phosphodiesterase Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fast Adaptation in Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons Does Not Require the Activity of Phosphodiesterase Vertebrate olfactory sensory neurons rapidly adapt to repetitive odorant stimuli. Previous studies have shown that the principal molecular mechanisms for odorant adaptation take place after the odorant-induced production of cAMP, and that one important mechanism is the negative feedback modulation by Ca2+-calmodulin (Ca2+-CaM) of the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel. However (...) , the physiological role of the Ca2+-dependent activity of phosphodiesterase (PDE) in adaptation has not been investigated yet. We used the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique to record currents in mouse olfactory sensory neurons elicited by photorelease of 8-Br-cAMP, an analogue of cAMP commonly used as a hydrolysis-resistant compound and known to be a potent agonist of the olfactory CNG channel. We measured currents in response to repetitive photoreleases of cAMP or of 8-Br-cAMP and we observed similar

2006 The Journal of general physiology

6013. Expression, intracellular distribution and basis for lack of catalytic activity of the PDE4A7 isoform encoded by the human PDE4A cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase gene. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Expression, intracellular distribution and basis for lack of catalytic activity of the PDE4A7 isoform encoded by the human PDE4A cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase gene. PDE4A7 is an isoform encoded by the human PDE4A cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase gene that fails to hydrolyse cAMP and whose transcripts are widely expressed. Removal of either the N- or C-terminal unique portions of PDE4A7 did not reconstitute catalytic activity, showing that they did not exert a chronic inhibitory effect (...) . A chimera (Hyb2), formed by swapping the unique N-terminal portion of PDE4A7 with that of the active PDE4A4C form, was not catalytically active. However, one formed (Hyb1) by swapping the unique C-terminal portion of PDE4A7 with that common to all active PDE4 isoforms was catalytically active. Compared with the active PDE4A4B isoform, Hyb1 exhibited a similar K(m) value for cAMP and IC50 value for rolipram inhibition, but was less sensitive to inhibition by Ro-20-1724 and denbufylline, and considerably

2004 Biochemical Journal

6014. Splice variants of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE4D are differentially expressed and regulated in rat tissue Full Text available with Trip Pro

Splice variants of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE4D are differentially expressed and regulated in rat tissue Cyclic nucleotide PDE4 (phosphodiesterase 4) inhibitors are being developed as potent anti-inflammatory drugs for use in chronic lung diseases, but the complexity of the PDE4 family has hampered this process. The four genes comprising the PDE4 family, PDE4A, PDE4B, PDE4C and PDE4D, are all expressed as multiple splice variants. The most widely used criterion to identify PDE4 (...) of cAMP signalling produces phosphorylation and activation of variants other than PDE4D3, and expression of PDE4D mRNA does not always correlate with the pattern of protein expression. As PDE4 inhibitors have different affinities for distinct PDE4D splicing variants, our results indicate that a better definition of the pattern of PDE4 expression is required for target validation.

2005 Biochemical Journal

6015. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3A–deficient mice as a model of female infertility Full Text available with Trip Pro

vesicle stage and, therefore, could not be fertilized. Pde3a(-/-) oocytes lacked cAMP-specific PDE activity, contained increased cAMP levels, and failed to undergo spontaneous maturation in vitro (up to 48 hours). Meiotic maturation in Pde3a(-/-) oocytes was restored by inhibiting protein kinase A (PKA) with adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-cAMPS) or by injection of protein kinase inhibitor peptide (PKI) or mRNA coding for phosphatase CDC25, which confirms that increased cAMP (...) Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3A–deficient mice as a model of female infertility Since cAMP blocks meiotic maturation of mammalian and amphibian oocytes in vitro and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) is primarily responsible for oocyte cAMP hydrolysis, we generated PDE3A-deficient mice by homologous recombination. The Pde3a(-/-) females were viable and ovulated a normal number of oocytes but were completely infertile, because ovulated oocytes were arrested at the germinal

2004 Journal of Clinical Investigation

6016. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in Drosophila melanogaster Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in Drosophila melanogaster Cyclic nucleotide PDEs (phosphodiesterases) are important enzymes that regulate intracellular levels of cAMP and cGMP. In the present study, we identify and characterize novel PDEs in the genetic model, Drosophila melanogaster. The Drosophila genome encodes five novel PDE genes in addition to dunce. Predicted PDE sequences of Drosophila show highly conserved critical domains when compared with human PDEs. Thus PDE-encoding genes (...) the immunoprecipitation studies of adult Drosophila lysates. Biochemical characterization of immunoprecipitated endogenous PDEs showed that PDE1 is a dual-specificity PDE (Michaelis constant Km for cGMP: 15.3+/-1 microM; Km cAMP: 20.5+/-1.5 microM), PDE6 is a cGMP-specific PDE (Km cGMP: 37+/-13 microM) and PDE11 is a dual-specificity PDE (Km cGMP: 6+/-2 microM; Km cAMP: 18.5+/-5.5 microM). Drosophila PDE1, PDE6 and PDE11 display sensitivity to vertebrate PDE inhibitors, zaprinast (IC50 was 71+/-39 microM for PDE1

2005 Biochemical Journal

6017. Angiotensin II increases phosphodiesterase 5A expression in vascular smooth muscle cells: A mechanism by which angiotensin II antagonizes cGMP signaling Full Text available with Trip Pro

receptor. Ang II-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) was essential for Ang II-induced PDE5A upregulation. Pretreatment of VSMC with Ang II inhibited C-type NP (CNP) stimulated cGMP signaling, such as cGMP dependent protein kinase (PKG)-mediated phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated-phosphoprotein (VASP). Ang II-mediated inhibition of PKG was blocked when PDE5 activity was decreased by selective PDE5 inhibitors, suggesting that upregulation of PDE5A expression (...) Angiotensin II increases phosphodiesterase 5A expression in vascular smooth muscle cells: A mechanism by which angiotensin II antagonizes cGMP signaling Angiotensin II (Ang II) and nitric oxide (NO)/natriuretic peptide (NP) signaling pathways mutually regulate each other. Imbalance of Ang II and NO/NP has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many vascular diseases. cGMP functions as a key mediator in the interaction between Ang II and NO/NP. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A

2004 Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology

6018. Phosphodiesterase-4 influences the PKA phosphorylation status and membrane translocation of G-protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in HEK-293β2 cells and cardiac myocytes Full Text available with Trip Pro

the FLAG-tagged beta2AR-GFP (green fluorescent protein)] cells with the beta-adrenoceptor agonist, isoprenaline, causes GRK2 to become phosphorylated by PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This action is facilitated when cAMP-specific PDE4 (phosphodiesterase-4) activity is selectively inactivated, either chemically with rolipram or by siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated knockdown of PDE4B and PDE4D. PDE4-selective inhibition by rolipram facilitates the isoprenaline-induced membrane translocation (...) Phosphodiesterase-4 influences the PKA phosphorylation status and membrane translocation of G-protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in HEK-293β2 cells and cardiac myocytes Membrane-recruitment of GRK2 (G-protein receptor kinase 2) provides a fundamental step in the desensitization process controlling GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors), such as the beta2AR (beta2-adrenergic receptor). In the present paper, we show that challenge of HEK-293beta2 [human embryonic kidney cells stably overexpressing

2006 Biochemical Journal

6019. Alterations in regulation of energy homeostasis in cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3B–null mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Alterations in regulation of energy homeostasis in cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3B–null mice Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) has been suggested to be critical for mediating insulin/IGF-1 inhibition of cAMP signaling in adipocytes, liver, and pancreatic beta cells. In Pde3b-KO adipocytes we found decreased adipocyte size, unchanged insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B and activation of glucose uptake, enhanced catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis (...) and insulin-stimulated lipogenesis, and blocked insulin inhibition of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis. Glucose, alone or in combination with glucagon-like peptide-1, increased insulin secretion more in isolated pancreatic KO islets, although islet size and morphology and immunoreactive insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged. The beta(3)-adrenergic agonist CL 316,243 (CL) increased lipolysis and serum insulin more in KO mice, but blood glucose reduction was less in CL-treated KO mice. Insulin

2006 Journal of Clinical Investigation

6020. Phosphodiesterase 3A binds to 14-3-3 proteins in response to PMA-induced phosphorylation of Ser428 Full Text available with Trip Pro

kinase 2)/p38 and PKC (protein kinase C) were all activated by PMA in HeLa cells, the PMA-induced binding of PDE3A to 14-3-3 proteins was inhibited by the non-specific PKC inhibitors Ro 318220 and H-7, but not by PD 184352, which inhibits MAPK activation, nor by SB 203580 and BIRB0796, which inhibit SAPK2 activation. Binding of PDE3A to 14-3-3 proteins was also blocked by the DNA replication inhibitors aphidicolin and mimosine, but the PDE3A-14-3-3 interaction was not cell-cycle-regulated. PDE3A (...) Phosphodiesterase 3A binds to 14-3-3 proteins in response to PMA-induced phosphorylation of Ser428 PDE3A (phosphodiesterase 3A) was identified as a phosphoprotein that co-immunoprecipitates with endogenous 14-3-3 proteins from HeLa cell extracts, and binds directly to 14-3-3 proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Among cellular stimuli tested, PMA promoted maximal binding of PDE3A to 14-3-3 proteins. While p42/p44 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), SAPK2 (stress-activated protein

2005 Biochemical Journal

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