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Phonetic Alphabet

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21. Jeffrey Aronson: When I use a word . . . The X factor

Jeffrey Aronson: When I use a word . . . The X factor Jeffrey Aronson: When I use a word . . . The X factor - The BMJ ---> There are symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that do not represent the sounds of letters they look like. Among these is the grapheme /x/, which does not represent any of the sounds of the letter ex, but instead represents the sound of a voiceless velar fricative, as in an obsolete English word for sherry, Xeres (hheres), properly Xeres sack (sherris sack

2015 The BMJ Blog

22. When doctors betray their profession

seen suggestions that it takes children learning to read and write in English up to 3 or 4 times or as long as someone learning to read and write in Finnish or Spanish and some other languages, probably Russian come to think of it, that are written phonetically and with consistent rules. In English one just has to memorize thousands of spellings and pronounciations “ Write, write, rite, right and cough vs enough or said vs bed. I wonder if Chinese is easier to read and write. to post comments (...) By jrkrideau (not verified) on 24 Jul 2015 to post comments By shay (not verified) on 24 Jul 2015 to post comments By Denice Walter (not verified) on 24 Jul 2015 to post comments By Eric Lund (not verified) on 24 Jul 2015 to post comments By Vicki (not verified) on 24 Jul 2015 to post comments By shay (not verified) on 24 Jul 2015 to post comments By Chris (not verified) on 24 Jul 2015 to post comments By DLC (not verified) on 24 Jul 2015 ) that suggests alphabetic and logographic writing systems may use

2015 Respectful Insolence

24. Learning Disorder: Reading (Overview)

, and memory do not cause dyslexia. Phonetic processing Communication of thought is the goal of all language skills. Psychological, educational, and brain research over the past 20 years has consistently shown that dyslexia is a deficit of language processing. Dyslexia involves deficient decoding of individual linguistic units, called phonemes, which are the smallest detectable sound in a spoken word. Poor abilities in any part of this process (eg, segmenting/blending, speed, memory) adversely affects (...) of reading involves the perception of alphabetic script coded as phonemes (ie, each symbol represents a phoneme). A person must recognize the visual sequence of letters in a specific order and correlate with the proper phonology. An individual must be able to simultaneously segment the letters into sounds and then blend those sounds into words. This process of associating a grapheme with its phoneme must occur fast enough for reading fluency, and the reader must also remember and retain the words read

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

25. Influence of timing of hard palate repair in a two-stage procedure on early speech development in danish children with cleft palate. (Abstract)

palate unrepaired, LateHPU) by random assignment. Thirty-five control children were matched for gender and age.All children were video recorded during a play interaction with a parent at 18 months of age. These recordings were transcribed according to the International Phonetic Alphabet. At 36 months a single word naming test was administered.At 18 months the LateHPU group produced fewer labial stops and more velar stops than the EarlyHPR group. Unlike the EarlyHPR group, the LateHPU group produced

2012 The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association

26. Aphasia

if they try to replace the words they cannot find with sounds. Substitutions commonly involve picking another (actual) word starting with the same sound (e.g., clocktower - colander), picking another semantically related to the first (e.g., letter - scroll), or picking one phonetically similar to the intended one (e.g., lane - late). Deaf aphasia [ ] There have been many instances showing that there is a form of aphasia among deaf individuals. Sign languages are, after all, forms of language that have (...) is ideal for all involved, because while it will no doubt assist in their recovery, it will also make it easier for members of the family to learn how best to communicate with them. When a person's speech is insufficient, different kinds of could be considered such as alphabet boards, pictorial communication books, specialized software for computers or apps for tablets or smartphones. Intensity of treatment [ ] The intensity of aphasia therapy is determined by the length of each session, total hours

2012 Wikipedia

27. The reality of phonological forms: a reply to Port Full Text available with Trip Pro

; 3) the remarkable effectiveness of alphabetic writing systems and the tight coupling among skilled readers of orthographic and phonological language forms; 4) the finding that, by late infancy, children have discovered phonological constancies despite phonetic variation.

2010 Language sciences (Oxford, England)

28. Neural representations and mechanisms for the performance of simple speech sequences Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neural representations and mechanisms for the performance of simple speech sequences Speakers plan the phonological content of their utterances before their release as speech motor acts. Using a finite alphabet of learned phonemes and a relatively small number of syllable structures, speakers are able to rapidly plan and produce arbitrary syllable sequences that fall within the rules of their language. The class of computational models of sequence planning and performance termed competitive (...) and subcortical structures, including the left inferior frontal sulcus, the medial premotor cortex, the basal ganglia, and the thalamus. The new model, called gradient order DIVA, thus fills a void in current speech research by providing formal mechanistic hypotheses about both phonological and phonetic processes that are grounded by neuroanatomy and physiology. This framework also generates predictions that can be tested in future neuroimaging and clinical case studies.

2010 Journal of cognitive neuroscience

29. The proper name as starting point for basic reading skills Full Text available with Trip Pro

The proper name as starting point for basic reading skills Does alphabetic-phonetic writing start with the proper name and how does the name affect reading and writing skills? Sixty 4- to 5(1/2)-year-old children from middle SES families with Dutch as their first language wrote their proper name and named letters. For each child we created unique sets of words with and without the child's first letter of the name to test spelling skills and phonemic sensitivity. Name writing correlated (...) with children's knowledge of the first letter of the name and phonemic sensitivity for the sound of the first letter of the name. Hierarchical regression analysis makes plausible that both knowledge of the first letter's name and phonemic sensitivity for this letter explain why name writing results in phonetic spelling with the name letter. Practical implications of the findings are discussed.

2009 Reading and Writing

30. The prelexical development in children implanted by 16 months compared with normal hearing children. (Abstract)

a span of 1 year. In the cochlear implant group, the recording started 4-5 days postoperatively (first implant); in the normal hearing group it began between the ages of 4 and 5 months. The video and audio recordings were analysed using EUDICO Linguistic Annotator version 2.4 (Nijmegen, The Netherlands) and International Phonetic Alphabet transcription.Both groups showed individual patterns of babbling acquisition, though the groups' patterns of acquisition were similar when analysed for consonant

2009 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

31. Cognitive Enhancement in Bipolar Disorder

was reported. Values indicate the change from baseline to week 8, with positive values reflecting higher scores at week 8 and negative values reflecting lower scores at week 8. Change From Baseline to Week 8 in Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) Letter Fluency [ Time Frame: Change from Baseline to Week 8 ] The examinee is required to say as many words as they can think of in one minute that begin with a given letter of the alphabet. The task contains three trials. Measures phonetic verbal

2008 Clinical Trials

32. The importance of high-frequency audibility in the speech and language development of children with hearing loss. Full Text available with Trip Pro

identification of hearing loss) and at 2- and 6-month intervals thereafter. Broad transcription of child vocalizations, babble, and words was conducted using the International Phonetic Alphabet. A phoneme was judged acquired if it was produced 3 times in a 30-minute session.Preliminary data are presented from the 20 normal-hearing children, 3 children from the early-ID group, and 2 children from the late-ID group.Compared with the normal-hearing group, the 3 children from the early-ID group showed marked

2004 Archives of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery

33. AKA unknown male Foxtrot 23/4: alias assignment for unidentified emergency room patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

AKA unknown male Foxtrot 23/4: alias assignment for unidentified emergency room patients. To introduce a unique system of alias assignment for patients whose identity is initially unknown at time of admission to the emergency unit; to prevent confusion and cases of mistaken identity.At the triage area the "unknown" patient is given a "forename" using the phonetic alphabet according to the stage of the current name cycle. The sex of the patient is included as well as the unknown status

1999 Journal of accident & emergency medicine

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