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Pharyngitis Causes

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41. Effect of cold-water cooling of tonsillar fossa and pharyngeal mucosa on post-tonsillectomy pain. (PubMed)

Effect of cold-water cooling of tonsillar fossa and pharyngeal mucosa on post-tonsillectomy pain. Post-tonsillectomy pain is a notable concern and thermal injury produced by electric surgical devices is considered a main cause. Intraoperative cooling of the tonsillar fossa and pharyngeal mucosa with cold water has effectively reduced postoperative pain, but no studies have fully evaluated the effects of this technique with a proper study design. We assessed mucosal cooling in two groups (...) of patients undergoing the same surgical technique by a single surgeon, with one group receiving cold-water cooling and the other group as a control.Forty patients who underwent monopolar electrocautery tonsillectomy were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 20 for each group). Group 1 received cooling of the tonsillar fossa and pharyngeal mucosa with 4 °C saline just after removal of each tonsil whereas Group 2 did not receive cooling. Postoperative pain was recorded on operation day and 1, 2, 4, 7

2017 American Journal of Otolaryngology

42. Aetiology of febrile pharyngitis in children: potential of myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) as a biomarker of viral infection. (PubMed)

Aetiology of febrile pharyngitis in children: potential of myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) as a biomarker of viral infection. Besides group A streptococcus (GAS), microbial causes of pharyngitis in children are not well known. We aimed to document the viral and bacterial aetiology of pharyngitis and to assess the pathogenic role of viruses by determining the myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) in the blood as a marker of interferon response.In this prospective observational study, throat (...) swabs and blood samples were collected from children (age 1-16 years) presenting to the emergency department with febrile pharyngitis. Microbial cause was sought by bacterial culture, polymerase chain reaction, and serology. Blood MxA level was determined.A potential pathogen was detected in 88% of 83 patients: GAS alone in 10%, GAS and viruses in 13%, group C or G streptococci alone in 2% and together with viruses in 3%, and viruses alone in 59% of cases. Enteroviruses, rhinoviruses

2017 Journal of Infection

43. Severe anemia due to pharyngeal leech infestation; a case report from Ethiopia. (PubMed)

Severe anemia due to pharyngeal leech infestation; a case report from Ethiopia. Leeches are rare blood-sucking endoparasites. Swimming in streams and ponds as well as drinking contaminated water are the major ways to acquire leeches.A 6 year old boy who came with a history of hematemesis, frequent spitting of blood stained saliva, fatigue and anorexia to a rural hospital in Ethiopia. This was a rare case of severe anemia caused by a single leech infestation of laryngopharynx that required blood

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2017 BMC Surgery

44. Upper esophageal sphincter augmentation reduces pharyngeal reflux in nasogastric tube-fed patients. (PubMed)

Upper esophageal sphincter augmentation reduces pharyngeal reflux in nasogastric tube-fed patients. Aspiration of gastric refluxate is one of the most commonly observed complications among long-term nasogastric tube (NGT) fed patients. The upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure barrier is the main defense mechanism against pharyngeal reflux of gastric contents. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the UES assist device (UES-AD) in preventing gastric reflux through (...) the UES in long-term NGT-fed patients.Self-Controlled Case series.We studied 10 patients (mean age = 90.6 ± 3.4 years, four females) with dysphagia caused by stroke or dementia who were fed for 0.5 to 5 years (median = 3 years) by NGT. External pressures of 20 to 30 mm Hg were applied by using a handmade UES-AD, which was started 2 hours after the beginning of NGT infusion and was alternated between periods of 2 hours on and 2 hours off, for a total of 12 hours. Placement of the impedance sensors

2017 Laryngoscope

45. Acute Pharyngitis Associated with Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subspecies equisimilis in Children. (PubMed)

Acute Pharyngitis Associated with Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subspecies equisimilis in Children. The importance of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) in causing sporadic pharyngitis in children remains controversial. The aims of this study were (1) to report the incidence and (2) to compare the epidemiologic and clinical features of patients with SDSE to those with Streptococcus pyogenes (SP).A prospective study was conducted on acute pharyngitis associated with SDSE (...) (8.3 years) was older than those with SP (6.6 years; P < 0.01). There was minimal seasonal variation in the isolation rates of SDSE. The febrile patients' rates, gender distribution, cervical lymph node adenopathy rates, hospitalization rates, eradication and failure rates and the nonsuppurative sequelae between patients with SDSE and SP were similar. All SDSE isolates possessed important virulence genes. The emm genotyping of SDSE showed high strain diversity.The incidence of acute pharyngitis

2017 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

46. Laser-assisted management of a symptomatic anterior pharyngeal diverticulum. (PubMed)

Laser-assisted management of a symptomatic anterior pharyngeal diverticulum. Dysphagia is a relatively common symptom following laryngectomy. An anterior pharyngeal diverticulum is a rare cause of post-laryngectomy dysphagia. However, it is often an incidental finding on rigid telescopic examination.This article describes two patients with a symptomatic anterior pharyngeal diverticulum. They were treated by transoral micro-endoscopic potassium titanyl phosphate 532 nm laser assisted resection (...) . Both patients could take feeds orally after the procedure without any difficulty. One patient died one and a half years after the procedure because of secondary lung cancer. The other patient died after three years as a result of regional recurrence. The patients were able to swallow during their survival period post treatment.Laser-assisted micro-endoscopic resection is a relatively safe, quick and effective procedure for the management of anterior pharyngeal diverticulum.

2017 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

47. Normal saline solution nasal-pharyngeal irrigation improves chronic cough associated with allergic rhinitis. (PubMed)

Normal saline solution nasal-pharyngeal irrigation improves chronic cough associated with allergic rhinitis. Upper airway inflammation is one of the most commonly identified causes of chronic cough, although the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study compared normal saline solution nasal-pharyngeal irrigation (NSNPI) and fluticasone propionate nasal spray (FPNS) treatment for chronic cough associated with allergic rhinitis (AR).Patients with suspected AR to house-dust mite were enrolled

2017 American journal of rhinology & allergy

48. Genome Analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes Associated with Pharyngitis and Skin Infections. (PubMed)

Genome Analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes Associated with Pharyngitis and Skin Infections. Streptococcus pyogenes is a very important human pathogen, commonly associated with skin or throat infections but can also cause life-threatening situations including sepsis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing fasciitis. Various studies involving typing and molecular characterization of S. pyogenes have been published to date; however next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies provide (...) a comprehensive collection of an organism's genetic variation. In this study, the genomes of nine S. pyogenes isolates associated with pharyngitis and skin infection were sequenced and studied for the presence of virulence genes, resistance elements, prophages, genomic recombination, and other genomic features. Additionally, a comparative phylogenetic analysis of the isolates with global clones highlighted their possible evolutionary lineage and their site of infection. The genomes were found to also house

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2016 PLoS ONE

49. Adverse Health Effects of Betel Quid and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers (PubMed)

Adverse Health Effects of Betel Quid and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers Global reports estimate 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers. BQ chewing has been demonstrated not only to be a risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) but also to cause other cancers and adverse health effects. Herein, we summarized the international comparison data to aid in the understanding of the close relationship between the prevalence of BQ (...) chewing, the occurrence of oral and pharyngeal cancers, and adverse health effects. Potential biomarkers of BQ carcinogens, such as areca nut, alkaloids, and 3-methylnitrosaminopropionitrile (MNPN), are closely associated with human health toxicology. Molecular mechanisms or pathways involving autophagy, hypoxia, COX-2, NF-κB activity, and stemness are known to be induced by BQ ingredients and are very closely related to the carcinogenesis of cancers of oral and pharynx. BQ abuse-related monoamine

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2017 BioMed research international

50. Prevalence of Fusobacterium necrophorum in Children Presenting with Pharyngitis (PubMed)

Prevalence of Fusobacterium necrophorum in Children Presenting with Pharyngitis Fusobacterium necrophorum, an obligate anaerobic bacterium, was recently reported to be an important cause of bacterial pharyngitis with a prevalence as high as that of group A Streptococcus (GAS) in adolescents and young adults. Importantly, F. necrophorum is the primary causative agent of the life-threatening Lemierre's syndrome, and screening of pharyngeal samples may be warranted for its early detection (...) and prevention. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalences of F. necrophorum and groups A and C/G streptococci as agents of bacterial pharyngitis in children. Pharyngeal samples (n = 300) were collected from pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department with signs and symptoms of pharyngitis. Overall, 10 (3.3%), 79 (26.3%), and 4 (1.3%) patients were PCR positive for F. necrophorum, GAS, and group C/G streptococci, respectively. The prevalence of F. necrophorum was significantly

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2017 Journal of clinical microbiology

51. Atypical Pharyngeal Pouch Arising Bilaterally between the Hyoid Bone and Thyroid Cartilage (PubMed)

Atypical Pharyngeal Pouch Arising Bilaterally between the Hyoid Bone and Thyroid Cartilage Introduction. Pharyngoesophageal diverticuli are a common cause of dysphagia; they are associated with various morbidities and a decreased quality of life. There are several different types of the diverticuli, and they are divided based on the anatomical location of origin relative to the cricopharyngeal muscle; these include Zenker's, Killian-Jamieson's, and Laimer's diverticula. The authors present (...) approach was utilised to successfully repair the diverticuli. Subsequent cricopharyngeal spasm was treated with botulinum toxin, and the patient recovered with no ongoing symptoms. The barium swallow study is a commonly utilised initial investigation as it is easy to perform and safe and has good diagnostic value. Definitive management usually involves either endoscopic or open surgery. This case depicts a unique case of a pharyngeal diverticulum arising between the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage.

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2017 Case reports in otolaryngology

52. Evaluation of Rational Drug Use for Acute Pharyngitis Associated with the Incidence and Prevalence of the Disease at Two Community Health Centers in Indonesia (PubMed)

Evaluation of Rational Drug Use for Acute Pharyngitis Associated with the Incidence and Prevalence of the Disease at Two Community Health Centers in Indonesia According to Indonesia's Result of Basic Health Research of 2013, prevalence of acute respiratory infection in 2007 and 2013 were not significantly different (25.5% and 25.0%, respectively). Identifying the cause of acute pharyngitis is a key point in determining the optimal treatment. The main purpose is to evaluate the rational use (...) of drugs and its irrational impact as well as the correlation of the drug use with the incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis. This study was a descriptive and observational study, carried out retrospectively and concurrently at two community health centers located in Bandung and Cimahi, Indonesia. There was overprescription of antibiotics in 80.01% of prescription cases, with a total of 8.98% being non-treatment option, and 62.43% being irrational use of corticosteroids. The incidence

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2017 Scientia pharmaceutica

53. Dysphagia in Perry Syndrome: Pharyngeal Pressure in Two Cases (PubMed)

Dysphagia in Perry Syndrome: Pharyngeal Pressure in Two Cases To investigate the impact of dysphagia in Perry syndrome (PS), an autosomal dominant parkinsonism caused by mutation of DCTN1, which is associated with hypoventilation, depression, and weight loss.We used tongue pressure measurements and manofluorography to investigate swallowing function in 2 patients with PS. Case 1, a 60-year-old male showing parkinsonism, and case 2, a 49-year-old male admitted with pneumonia, were diagnosed (...) as having PS based on the DCTN1 gene analysis. Case 1 showed a pharyngeal retention of the bolus on videofluorography (VF) and a few swallows were required for its passage into the esophagus. However, tongue pressure and manometry were within the normal range. This patient could eat a normal diet under supervision. Case 2 required artificial ventilation and tube feeding on admission. The VF image showed a slow transfer of the bolus, delayed swallow reflex, and pharyngeal retention of the bolus

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2017 Case reports in neurology

54. TGF-β Signaling Is Necessary and Sufficient for Pharyngeal Arch Artery Angioblast Formation (PubMed)

TGF-β Signaling Is Necessary and Sufficient for Pharyngeal Arch Artery Angioblast Formation The pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs) are transient embryonic blood vessels that mature into critical segments of the aortic arch and its branches. Although defects in PAA development cause life-threating congenital cardiovascular defects, the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate PAA morphogenesis remain unclear. Through small-molecule screening in zebrafish, we identified TGF-β signaling

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2017 Cell reports

55. Related factors of outcomes of pharyngeal foreign bodies in children (PubMed)

Related factors of outcomes of pharyngeal foreign bodies in children This study aimed to identify factors related to outcomes of the pharyngeal foreign bodies in children and to improve the management protocol of this disease.The medical records of 131 children with pharyngeal foreign bodies hospitalized in the hospital were retrospectively reviewed.Significant differences were observed between the two groups (dislodgement and removal group) with respect to location of pharyngeal foreign bodies (...) and age, while sex, time of pharyngeal foreign bodies, and nature of pharyngeal foreign bodies had no significant differences. Moreover, results suggested that location of pharyngeal foreign bodies and nature of pharyngeal foreign bodies were risk factors correlated with complications.Pharyngeal foreign body in children has a high rate of dislodgement (>50%). Foreign bodies in the oropharynx were more likely to dislodge compared with the foreign bodies in the laryngopharynx. Younger children were more

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2017 SAGE open medicine

56. Immunohistochemical biomarkers and volumetric parameters for predicting radiotherapy-based outcomes in patients with p16-negative pharyngeal cancer (PubMed)

Immunohistochemical biomarkers and volumetric parameters for predicting radiotherapy-based outcomes in patients with p16-negative pharyngeal cancer This study determined the prognostic effects of immunohistochemical biomarkers and volumetric parameters predicting radiotherapy-based treatment in patients with p16-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx or hypopharynx.VEGF immunoreactivity > 2 and GLUT1 overexpression were prognostic factors for lower cause-specific survival. Moreover (...) , both factors were associated with lower disease-free survival. The predictors of lower primary relapse-free survival were VEGF immunoreactivity > 2 and CT-based gross tumor volume > 16 mL.Immunohistochemical biomarkers in pretreatment biopsy specimens from 60 patients with p16-negative cancer were analyzed using tissue microarrays. Computed tomography (CT)-based and biological tumor volumes were retrieved through fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT. Correlations of cause-specific

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2017 Oncotarget

57. A positive rapid strep test in a young adult with acute pharyngitis: Be careful what you wish for! (PubMed)

A positive rapid strep test in a young adult with acute pharyngitis: Be careful what you wish for! In young adults with acute pharyngitis, the main differential diagnosis is between GAS pharyngitis, EBV infectious mononucleosis, or other causes of viral pharyngitis. A positive RST does not differentiate GAS colonization from infection as is well illustrated by this case. Laboratory test results must be interpreted in the appropriate clinical context to be diagnostically meaningful. The RST only (...) detects group A streptococci, but does not, of itself, implicate a causative role in the patient's pharyngitis. Without clinical correlation based on the clinical findings of GAS pharyngitis a positive RST may mislead the unwary physician to unnecessarily treat colonization rather than infection. I report an interesting case of a young adult who presented to the ED with no fever and acute pharyngitis. His RST was positive, and he was treated with procaine penicillin and released. Three days later he

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2017 IDCases

58. Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 are essential for murine neural crest proliferation, pharyngeal arch development and craniofacial morphogenesis (PubMed)

within neural crest cells remain unknown.The neural crest and its derivatives express both Hdac1 and Hdac2 during early murine development. Ablation of Hdac1 and Hdac2 within murine neural crest progenitor cells cause severe hemorrhage, atrophic pharyngeal arches, defective head morphogenesis, and complete embryonic lethality. Embryos lacking Hdac1 and Hdac2 in the neural crest exhibit decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in both the neural tube and the first pharyngeal arch (...) Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 are essential for murine neural crest proliferation, pharyngeal arch development and craniofacial morphogenesis Craniofacial anomalies involve defective pharyngeal arch development and neural crest function. Copy number variation at 1p35, containing histone deacetylase 1 (Hdac1), or 6q21-22, containing Hdac2, are implicated in patients with craniofacial defects, suggesting an important role in guiding neural crest development. However, the roles of Hdac1 and Hdac2

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2017 Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists

59. Forward movement of posterior pharyngeal wall on phonation. (PubMed)

and/or pharyngeal superficial muscles. On the other hand, it was revealed that generalized forward movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall was caused by contraction of the longus capitis muscle. The longus capitis muscle is well known as a flexor muscle of the head. The findings of the present study are significant and useful in speech rehabilitation for patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency. (...) Forward movement of posterior pharyngeal wall on phonation. Forward movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall on phonation is divided into 2 types. One is movement of Passavant's ridge, which is a crescent-shaped or shelf-like posterior pharyngeal structure, and the other is generalized forward movement, which is not sharply outlined, of the posterior pharyngeal wall. Although nasopharyngoscopic and multiview videofluoroscopic findings on their movement show that they are markedly different

2017 American Journal of Otolaryngology

60. Causes and consequences of anterior pharyngeal pouch after total laryngectomy. (PubMed)

Causes and consequences of anterior pharyngeal pouch after total laryngectomy. To assess the frequency of anterior pharyngeal pouch formation after total laryngectomy, and to discuss the causes and consequences of anterior pharyngeal pouch formation.A prospective, observational study of 43 patients undergoing total laryngectomy.Data collected included laryngeal defect closure type, tumour staging and demographic information. A barium swallow was performed on day 7-14 after surgery to assess (...) study. Its causes are multi-factorial. Absence of an anterior pharyngeal pouch appears to confer protection against pharyngo-cutaneous fistula formation, hastening commencement of adjuvant therapy and an oral diet.

2014 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

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