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Pharyngitis Causes

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1. Sore throat (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

Recommendations 1.1 Managing acute sore throat All people with acute sore throat All people with acute sore throat 1.1.1 Be aware that: acute sore throat (including pharyngitis and tonsillitis) is self-limiting and often triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract symptoms can last for around 1 week, but most people will get better within this time without antibiotics, regardless of cause (bacteria or virus). 1.1.2 Assess and manage children under 5 who present with fever as outlined (...) . All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 24Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for acute sore throat. It aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antimicrobial resistance. Acute sore throat is often caused by a virus, lasts for about a week, and most people get better without antibiotics. Withholding antibiotics rarely leads to complications. See a 2-page visual summary

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

2. Rapid tests for group A streptococcal infections in people with a sore throat

prescribing for acute sore throat aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antimicrobial resistance. It advises that sore throat is self-limiting and so, in people who are otherwise healthy, antibiotics are usually not needed regardless of the cause (bacterial or viral). So, it is uncertain whether there is a clinical need for rapid testing for strep A infections in the people covered by this guidance. Also, the diagnostic accuracy of the tests in routine clinical practice is uncertain and likely (...) (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 472 2 The diagnostic tests The diagnostic tests Clinical need and pr Clinical need and practice actice 2.1 Sore throat is usually a self-limiting condition that lasts about a week. In most cases it is caused by a virus but, in a few people, sore throat is caused by bacterial infection, usually group A streptococcus (strep A). Sore throat usually does not need antibiotic treatment, regardless of the cause (viral or bacterial

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Diagnostics Guidance

3. Point-of-care diagnostic testing in primary care for strep A infection in sore throat

A assay (Roche). Rapid strep testing in children with recent streptococcal pharyngitis. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03055728. Status: recruiting. An NHS community pharmacy referral service (CPRS) was established as a pilot project in the North East of England. The CPRS pilot aimed to better manage illness in people contacting NHS 111 with low-acuity conditions, including sore throat, by referring them to a community pharmacy. The pilot was scheduled to run from 4 December 2017 to 31 March 2018 (...) Point-of-care diagnostic testing in primary care for strep A infection in sore throat P Point-of-care diagnostic testing in primary care oint-of-care diagnostic testing in primary care for strep A infection in sore throat for strep A infection in sore throat Medtech innovation briefing Published: 2 May 2018 nice.org.uk/guidance/mib145 pathways Summary Summary The 11 technologies technologies described in this briefing are point-of-care tests for diagnosing group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

4. Sore throat: paracetamol is the best option

) appear to be somewhat more effective than paracetamol, but they expose patients to more serious side effects. Throat infections and pharyngitis are frequent; most often they are of viral origin and non-serious. These include sore throats that make swallowing difficult, which are soothed by sucking on hard candy, with or without sugar, and having hot or iced drinks. Paracetamol is often used to relieve sore throats, especially for self-medication. According to available randomised clinical trials (...) , oral paracetamol is more effective than placebo in reducing sore throats associated with common pharyngeal infections. When sore throats are painful enough to warrant the use of an analgesic, paracetamol is the one with the fewest adverse effects in children and adults, including pregnant women, provided that overdoses are avoided. Doses should not exceed those recommended, even if efficacy is considered insufficient. Ibuprofen appears to be a little more effective than paracetamol in adults

2019 Prescrire

5. Corticosteroids for treatment of sore throat Full Text available with Trip Pro

. BMJ 2017;358:j3887. doi: Review of all available randomised trials that assessed corticosteroids as adjunct treatment versus standard care for sore throat. MAGICapp ( ) Expanded version of the results with multilayered recommendations, evidence summaries, and decision aids for use on all devices Acute sore throat is defined as pain in the throat for less than 14 days. Acute sore throat could be caused by pharyngitis, nasopharyngitis, tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, or retropharyngeal abscess (...) . Some patients with sore throat also experience headache, fever, muscle stiffness, cough, and general malaise. Acute sore throat is common, but only a minority of patients will visit their general practitioner. A survey reported that the main reasons are to establish the cause of the symptoms, obtain pain relief, and to gain information on the course of the disease. Data from Dutch and Flemish primary care databases show that, for every 1000 consecutive patients consulting a general practitioner, 50

2017 BMJ Rapid Recommendations

6. What is the clinical and cost effectiveness of rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) for Group A Streptococcal (GAS) infection in patients with acute sore throat in primary care?

and economic studies. Concepts used in all searches included: rapid (streptococcal) antigen detection tests (RADTs) for sore throat, point of care tests (POCT), rapid strep test, rapid diagnostic test, Group A Streptococcus bacterial infections, Group A Streptococcus, Strep A / Group A ß-haemolytic Streptococcus (GABH), Group A Streptococci (GAS). A full list of resources searched and terms used are available on request. Evidence note | 3 Introduction Acute sore throat (including pharyngitis (...) be associated with similar symptoms, including Group C and G beta haemolytic streptococci. An individual may be a carrier of GAS whilst presenting with a sore throat of viral origin. The most common viral agents are rhinovirus and coronavirus and adenovirus 3 . As well as causing sore throat, GAS infection can lead to suppurative complications such as quinsy, otitis media and acute sinusitis 2 . Non-suppurative complications include acute rheumatic fever potentially leading to chronic rheumatic heart

2018 Evidence Notes from Healthcare Improvement Scotland

7. An Instrument for Rating Quality of Life Related to Sore Throat in Patients Suffering from Acute Pharyngitis or Tonsillitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

An Instrument for Rating Quality of Life Related to Sore Throat in Patients Suffering from Acute Pharyngitis or Tonsillitis Quality of life in patients with acute pharyngitis or tonsillitis is significantly lower than in healthy persons, and it should be taken into account when efficacy of new therapeutic options is investigated.The aim of this study was to develop and validate a reliable instrument that can measure quality of life in adult outpatients with sore throat caused by acute (...) pharyngitis or acute tonsillitis.The study was of a cross-sectional type, and assessed reliability and validity of newly developed questionnaire for measurement of quality of life in adult outpatients with sore throat (STQoL) caused by acute pharyngitis or acute tonsillitis. It was conducted on a sample of 282 patients, with mean age 39.0 ± 14.8 years, male/female ratio 104/178 (36.9%/63.1%).Final version of the STQoL scale with 21 items showed excellent reliability, with Cronbach's alpha 0.949

2018 Materia socio-medica

8. Postoperative Sore Throat in Children: Comparison Between Two Supraglottic Devices, Ambu® AuraOnce™ Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) and I-Gel®.

supraglottic device (I-gel vs. AmbuAuraOnce LMA) is better in terms of causing less complication spells of sore throat. The use of such device will not only reduce the severity and frequency of postoperative sore throat that may affect the activities of patient after leaving hospital but also will improve satisfaction level of patient and parents. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Laryngeal Masks Pharyngitis Minors Anesthesia Device: I-Gel Device: LMA Not Applicable Detailed Description (...) Postoperative Sore Throat in Children: Comparison Between Two Supraglottic Devices, Ambu® AuraOnceâ„¢ Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) and I-Gel®. Postoperative Sore Throat in Children: Comparison Between Two Supraglottic Devices, Ambu® AuraOnce™ Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) and I-Gel®. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save

2017 Clinical Trials

9. Nonrheumatic myopericarditis post acute streptococcal pharyngitis: An uncommon cause of sore throat with ST segment elevation. (Abstract)

Nonrheumatic myopericarditis post acute streptococcal pharyngitis: An uncommon cause of sore throat with ST segment elevation. Nonrheumatic myopericarditis is an uncommon complication of acute pharyngitis caused by Group A Streptococcal infection (GAS). While the natural history of carditis complicating acute rheumatic fever is well established, the incidence, pathophysiology and clinical course of nonrheumatic myopericarditis are ill defined. Advances in rapid bedside testing for both (...) myocardial injury and GAS pharyngitis have allowed for increasing recognition of this uncommon complication in patients presenting with a sore throat with associated chest discomfort. We describe a case of a 34years old man with GAS pharyngitis complicated by acute myopericarditis who presented with chest pain, ST segment elevation on electrocardiogram, and elevated cardiac biomarkers.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2016 American Journal of Emergency Medicine

10. Sore throat - acute

Sore throat - acute Sore throat - acute - NICE CKS Share Sore throat - acute: Summary The term 'sore throat' describes the symptom of pain at the back of the mouth. Clinical descriptions of acute sore throat include: Acute pharyngitis: inflammation of the part of the throat behind the soft palate (oropharynx). Tonsillitis: inflammation of the tonsils. Acute sore throat is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Non-infectious causes are uncommon and include physical irritation from (...) gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or chronic cigarette smoke, and hayfever. Common causes of sore throat in primary care are usually not life-threatening and include common cold, influenza, streptococcal infection, and infectious mononucleosis. Less common causes include HIV, gonococcal pharyngitis, and diphtheria. Acute throat infections most commonly occur in people aged 5–24 years. Complications include otitis media (most common), peri-tonsillar abscess (quinsy), and parapharyngeal abscess. Sore

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

11. Causes of sore throat after intubation: a prospective observational study of multiple anaesthesia variables. (Abstract)

Causes of sore throat after intubation: a prospective observational study of multiple anaesthesia variables. Sore throat is common after intubation for surgery. This observational study investigated cuff pressure and a large range of clinical covariates to explore the etiology of sore throat.Approximately 24 hours after surgery six questions relating to pain, upper airway symptoms and sore throat were delivered to patients who had undergone intubation. Sore throat was correlated (...) with demographics, anesthesia variables and cuff pressure (measured for a subset of patients).Sore throat was reported by 270/518 (52%) patients with VAS Score 45.9±25.1 (range 0-100). Sore throat patients were significantly younger, had a lower ASA status, were more frequently female, had shorter surgeries and lower nitrous oxide exposure, had a higher proportion of smaller tracheal tubes (7.5 mm internal diameter vs. 8 mm), had a higher incidence of nasogastric drainage, higher propofol doses and a higher

2017 Minerva anestesiologica

12. Eosinophilic oesophagitis: an insidious but treatable cause of sore throat Full Text available with Trip Pro

Eosinophilic oesophagitis: an insidious but treatable cause of sore throat 28126881 2017 07 14 2018 11 13 1478-5242 67 655 2017 Feb The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners Br J Gen Pract Eosinophilic oesophagitis: an insidious but treatable cause of sore throat. 91-92 10.3399/bjgp17X689341 Swift Carla J CJ Department of Medicine, Lister Hospital, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, East of England Deanery. Ong John J Gastroenterology Department (...) , Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, Norfolk, East of England Deanery. eng Case Reports Journal Article England Br J Gen Pract 9005323 0960-1643 0 Proton Pump Inhibitors IM Adult Deglutition Disorders etiology pathology Endoscopy, Digestive System Eosinophilic Esophagitis complications diagnosis Gastroesophageal Reflux complications General Practice Humans Male Pharyngitis etiology pathology Proton Pump Inhibitors therapeutic use Referral and Consultation Treatment Outcome 2016 07 01 2016

2017 The British Journal of General Practice

13. Efficacy of gummy lozenges containing erysimum as ancillary treatment in children with sore throat. (Abstract)

Efficacy of gummy lozenges containing erysimum as ancillary treatment in children with sore throat. Sore throat frequently occurs in children aged between 4 and 15 years and is often associated to inflammation of the upper respiratory tract mucosa. A reliable approach to limit the damage caused by inflammation and, therefore, to alleviate associated symptoms might be the protection of the mucosa. Aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a medical device, formulated (...) at baseline and after 3 days of treatment.112 school children with sore throat symptoms were recruited for this study and 69 were assigned to the group taking the study product. At the end of the treatment a statistically higher reduction in Sore Throat Pain Intensity Score and Pharyngitis Symptom Score was observed in the group taking the medical device. Moreover, the treatment with the medical device is associated to a statistically significant higher improvement of Child's General Conditions

2019 Minerva pediatrica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

14. Preoperative ketamine nebulization attenuates the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Preoperative ketamine nebulization attenuates the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Endotracheal intubation is the prominent cause of airway mucosal injury which results in postoperative sore throat (POST), with an incidence of 21%-65%. Although this complication is minor, if left unresolved, it produces significant agony and annoyance to the patient. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of nebulized ketamine in decreasing (...) , and 24 h postoperatively (P < 0.05*). Severity of sore throat was also higher in saline group when compared to ketamine at 4 h (P = 0.030*) and 6 h (P = 0.016*) postextubation.Preoperative ketamine nebulization effectively reduced the incidence and severity of POST, with no adverse effects.

2019 Saudi journal of anaesthesia Controlled trial quality: predicted high

15. Influence of intraoperative sevoflurane or desflurane on postoperative sore throat: a prospective randomized study. (Abstract)

Influence of intraoperative sevoflurane or desflurane on postoperative sore throat: a prospective randomized study. Tracheal intubation for general anesthesia causes postoperative sore throat. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sevoflurane and desflurane on prevalence of postoperative sore throat in patients after general anesthesia.Ninety-six patients scheduled for orthopedic lower extremity surgery under general anesthesia were assigned to sevoflurane group or desflurane (...) group. In the sevoflurane group (n = 48), sevoflurane was used as a maintenance anesthetic agent. In the desflurane group (n = 48), desflurane was used. Prevalence of sore throat, number of patients with rescue analgesics, and analgesics requirements were evaluated.The overall prevalence of postoperative sore throat in the sevoflurane group was lower than that in the desflurane group [21 (44%) vs. 32 (67%), p = 0.024]. The prevalence of sore throat at postoperative 4 h in the sevoflurane group

2019 Journal of anesthesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16. Throat swabs have no influence on the management of patients with sore throats. (Abstract)

Throat swabs have no influence on the management of patients with sore throats. Throat swabs are neither specific nor sensitive for micro-bacteria causing sore throat symptoms; however, current guidelines suggest they are still useful in some cases.Retrospective and prospective analyses were conducted of throat swabs requested within the months of January 2016 and August 2016, respectively.The study comprised 247 patients. Fifty-nine (24 per cent) had a positive culture. Forty-six grew group (...) for patients with sore throats, even under current guidelines, and incur unnecessary cost. Current clinical guidelines could be reviewed to reduce the number of throat swabs being conducted unnecessarily.

2017 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

17. Do Corticosteroids Benefit Patients With Sore Throat?

) and development of a peri- tonsillar abscess (2%; 1 in the steroid group and 2 in the placebo group). Recurrence or relapse was calculated by pooled analysis of 3 trials and revealed no difference. Three studies suggested no signi?cant difference between groups in days missed from work or school. Commentary Sore throat is a common presenting complaint and includes conditions such as acute pharyngitis and tonsil- litis. Pain is thought to be caused by in?ammation of the lining of the posterior oral pharynx (...) Do Corticosteroids Benefit Patients With Sore Throat? Systematic Review Snapshot TAKE-HOME MESSAGE The use of corticosteroids decreases pain and time to symptom resolution in patients with sore throat, especially among those with severe exudative pharyngitis. Do Corticosteroids Bene?t Patients With Sore Throat? EBEM Commentators Julie L. Welch, MD Dylan D. Cooper, MD Department of Emergency Medicine Indiana University School of Medicine Indianapolis, IN Results The literature search identi?ed

2013 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

18. A Study to Determine the Efficacy and Safety of a Benzocaine Lozenge for Treatment of Sore Throat.

Sponsor: McNeil AB Collaborator: Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V., Belgium Information provided by (Responsible Party): Johnson & Johnson Consumer and Personal Products Worldwide ( McNeil AB ) Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: A multi-center, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study to determine the efficacy and safety of a benzocaine lozenge for symptomatic treatment of sore throat caused by acute upper respiratory tract infection in adults. Condition or disease (...) Intervention/treatment Phase Sore Throat Drug: Benzocaine 8 mg Drug: Placebo Phase 3 Detailed Description: This multi-center, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study consists of two parts, an initial efficacy and safety part performed at the clinic on the first treatment day and a safety follow up home-use treatment part with an intermediate site visit. Following screening and randomization, subjects suffering from throat pain caused by an acute upper respiratory tract infection

2018 Clinical Trials

19. The influence of high-dose intraoperative remifentanil on postoperative sore throat: a prospective randomized study: A CONSORT compliant article. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The influence of high-dose intraoperative remifentanil on postoperative sore throat: a prospective randomized study: A CONSORT compliant article. Endotracheal intubation for general anesthesia causes postoperative sore throat (POST). This study is designed to evaluate the effect of high-dose remifentanil on the incidence of POST in patients after general anesthesia.Ninety-two patients scheduled for orthopedic lower extremity surgery under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into 1 of 2

2018 Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

20. Primary Laryngeal Blastomycosis: Diagnostic Challenges and Advances in a Rare Cause of Laryngitis. (Abstract)

Primary Laryngeal Blastomycosis: Diagnostic Challenges and Advances in a Rare Cause of Laryngitis. Blastomyces dermatitidis is a fungal organism endemic to the central and southern United States and capable of causing numerous diseases. Primary blastomycosis of the larynx is a rare clinical entity with a limited number of reported cases in the literature. Diagnosis is challenging as a result of nonspecific physical exam findings, difficulty of histopathologic detection and culture, and need (...) for operative laryngeal biopsy for definitive identification. Molecular and serologic testing is not widely available. The authors present a case of laryngeal blastomycosis, the diagnosis of which was facilitated by in-office biopsy, and discuss diagnostic challenges.© 2019 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

2019 Laryngoscope

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