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Pharyngitis Causes

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1. Understanding group A streptococcal pharyngitis and skin infections as causes of rheumatic fever: protocol for a prospective disease incidence study. (PubMed)

Understanding group A streptococcal pharyngitis and skin infections as causes of rheumatic fever: protocol for a prospective disease incidence study. Group A Streptococcal (GAS) infections cause the autoimmune disease acute rheumatic fever (ARF), which can progress to chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Treating pharyngitis caused by GAS with antibiotics is important in preventing ARF. However, it is difficult to distinguish these infections from GAS carriers. There is growing evidence (...) for GAS skin infections as a cause of ARF. This study will identify the incidence of true GAS pharyngitis and serological responses to GAS skin infections. The effectiveness of antibiotics for these conditions will be explored, and modifiable risk factors. Serum antibody titres indicating the upper limits of normal (ULN for ASO/ADB antibodies) will be established alongside carriage rates in asymptomatic children.This is a prospective disease incidence study, with an associated case-control study

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2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

2. Acute pharyngitis

by the rapid onset of sore throat and pharyngeal inflammation (with or without exudate). Absence of cough, nasal congestion, and nasal discharge distinguishes bacterial from viral aetiologies. It can be caused by a variety of viral and bacterial pathogens, including group A Streptococcus (GAS), as well as fungal pathogens ( Candida ). Bacterial pharyngitis is more common in winter (or early spring), while enteroviral infection is more common in the summer and autumn. Generally a self-limited condition (...) Acute pharyngitis Acute pharyngitis - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Acute pharyngitis Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2018 Summary Hallmarked by acute onset of sore throat; the absence of cough, nasal congestion and discharge suggests a bacterial aetiology. Rapid antigen detection tests allow immediate point-of-care assessment of group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis. The goal

2018 BMJ Best Practice

3. A Rare Case of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage caused by Ruptured Venous Varix Due to Dural Arteriovenous Fistula at the Foramen Magnum Fed Solely by the Ascending Pharyngeal Artery (PubMed)

A Rare Case of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage caused by Ruptured Venous Varix Due to Dural Arteriovenous Fistula at the Foramen Magnum Fed Solely by the Ascending Pharyngeal Artery Dural arteriovenous fistula (D-AVF) at the foramen magnum is an extremely rare disease entity. It produces venous hypertension, and can lead to progressive cervical myelopathy thereafter. On the other hand, the venous hypertension may lead to formation of a venous varix, and it can rarely result in an abrupt onset (...) of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) when the venous varix is ruptured. The diagnosis of D-AVF at the foramen magnum as a cause of SAH may be difficult due to its low incidence. Furthermore, when the D-AVF is fed solely by the ascending pharyngeal artery (APA), it may be missed if the external carotid angiography is not performed. The outcome could be fatal if the fistula is unrecognized. Herein, we report on a rare case of SAH caused by ruptured venous varix due to D-AVF at the foramen magnum fed solely

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2018 Journal of cerebrovascular and endovascular neurosurgery

4. Whole genome shotgun sequences of Streptococcus pyogenes causing acute pharyngitis from India (PubMed)

Whole genome shotgun sequences of Streptococcus pyogenes causing acute pharyngitis from India Streptococcus pyogenes, belonging to group A streptococcus (GAS), causes over 600 million infections annually being a predominant human pathogen. Lack of genomic data on GAS from India is one limitation to understand its virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants. The genome of GAS isolates from clinical samples collected at Navi Mumbai, India was sequenced and annotated. Sequencing

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2018 Data in brief

5. Unusual Pharyngeal Pain Caused by Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Report of Three Cases (PubMed)

Unusual Pharyngeal Pain Caused by Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Report of Three Cases Most patients complaining of pharyngeal pain have an upper respiratory tract infection or other local explanation for their pain. Here we show 3 rare cases of patients visiting our Otorhinolaryngology Department who had an initial symptom of pharyngeal pain caused by acute coronary syndrome (ACS). An electrocardiogram and a cardiac biomarker test are recommended to exclude ACS with atypical presentation in cases (...) without pharyngolaryngeal findings comparable to pharyngeal pain.

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2017 Clinics and practice

6. Effect of Sleeping Position on Upper Airway Patency in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Determined by the Pharyngeal Structure Causing Collapse (PubMed)

Effect of Sleeping Position on Upper Airway Patency in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Determined by the Pharyngeal Structure Causing Collapse In some patients, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be resolved with improvement in pharyngeal patency by sleeping lateral rather than supine, possibly as gravitational effects on the tongue are relieved. Here we tested the hypothesis that the improvement in pharyngeal patency depends on the anatomical structure causing collapse, with patients with tongue (...) -related obstruction and epiglottic collapse exhibiting preferential improvements.Twenty-four OSA patients underwent upper airway endoscopy during natural sleep to determine the pharyngeal structure associated with obstruction, with simultaneous recordings of airflow and pharyngeal pressure. Patients were grouped into three categories based on supine endoscopy: Tongue-related obstruction (posteriorly located tongue, N = 10), non-tongue related obstruction (collapse due to the palate or lateral walls, N

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2017 Sleep

7. Subdural empyema caused by Peptostreptococcus sp.: a complication of acute pharyngitis (PubMed)

Subdural empyema caused by Peptostreptococcus sp.: a complication of acute pharyngitis Subdural Empyema (ESD) is the collection of purulent fluid that develops between the exterior "dura mater" layer and the middle "arachnoid mater" layer that covers the brain. ESD can be caused by a primary infection located in the paranasal sinuses. In many aerobic and/or anaerobic bacterial cases, hearing or traumatic processes serve as the causative agent. This report presents pharyngitis in a young girl (...) which later developed into a subdural empyema caused by the bacteria Peptostreptococcus sp. The report emphasizes the correct clinical valuation of pharyngitis as a risk factor for developing subdural empyema in children.

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2017 Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo

8. Pharyngeal Myiasis Caused by Sheep Botfly, Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) Larva, Tabriz, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran: a Case Report (PubMed)

Pharyngeal Myiasis Caused by Sheep Botfly, Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) Larva, Tabriz, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran: a Case Report Myiasis is caused by the larvae of flies infesting animal or human tissues and organs. This report aims to present a case of pharyngeal myiasis caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae). A 55-yr old drug addict living in the Shahindeje village of Western Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran was referred to the Emam Reza Hospital in Tabriz

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2017 Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases

9. Airflow shape is associated with the pharyngeal structure causing obstructive sleep apnea. (PubMed)

Airflow shape is associated with the pharyngeal structure causing obstructive sleep apnea. OSA results from the collapse of different pharyngeal structures (soft palate, tongue, lateral walls, and epiglottis). The structure involved in collapse has been shown to impact non-CPAP OSA treatment. Different inspiratory airflow shapes are also observed among patients with OSA. We hypothesized that inspiratory flow shape reflects the underlying pharyngeal structure involved in airway collapse.Subjects (...) with OSA were studied with a pediatric endoscope and simultaneous nasal flow and pharyngeal pressure recordings during natural sleep. The mechanism causing collapse was classified as tongue-related, isolated palatal, lateral walls, or epiglottis. Flow shape was classified according to the degree of negative effort dependence (NED), defined as the percent reduction in inspiratory flow from peak to plateau.Thirty-one subjects with OSA (mean apnea-hypopnea index score ± SD, 54 ± 27 events/h) who were 50

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2017 Chest

10. Importance of adhesins in the recurrence of pharyngeal infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. (PubMed)

Importance of adhesins in the recurrence of pharyngeal infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Pharyngo-amygdalitis is the most common infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes). Reinfection with strains of different M types commonly occurs. However, a second infection with a strain of the same M type can still occur and is referred to as recurrence. We aimed to assess whether recurrence of S. pyogenes could be associated to erythromycin resistance, biofilm formation

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2017 Journal of Medical Microbiology

11. Tiny Tips: Modified Centor Score for Streptococcal Pharyngitis

Tiny Tips: Modified Centor Score for Streptococcal Pharyngitis Tiny Tips: Modified Centor Score for Streptococcal Pharyngitis - CanadiEM Tiny Tips: Modified Centor Score for Streptococcal Pharyngitis In , , by Richard Tang January 18, 2017 Upper Respiratory Infection symptoms like cough or sore throat are still some of the top reasons for Canadian emergency department visits, and will likely be even higher in the upcoming months and in Urgent Care Centres. 1 The most common organisms (...) responsible for uncomplicated acute pharyngitis are viral agents at 50-80% and Streptococcal agents, specifically Group A Beta-Hemolytic Strep, at 5-36%. 2 It is clinically significant to differentiate between these two pathogens as patients with the latter would benefit from antibiotic therapy, and patients with the former should not have antibiotic therapy due to deriving no benefit. Modified Centor Score Symptoms or Signs Points 1. History of Fever or measured temperature >38 o C +1 2. Absence of Cough

2017 CandiEM

12. Rapid antigen detection test for group A streptococcus in children with pharyngitis. (PubMed)

Rapid antigen detection test for group A streptococcus in children with pharyngitis. Group A streptococcus (GAS) accounts for 20% to 40% of cases of pharyngitis in children; the remaining cases are caused by viruses. Compared with throat culture, rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) offer diagnosis at the point of care (within five to 10 minutes).To determine the diagnostic accuracy of RADTs for diagnosing GAS in children with pharyngitis. To assess the relative diagnostic accuracy of the two (...) major types of RADTs (enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and optical immunoassays (OIA)) by indirect and direct comparison.We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CDSR, DARE, MEDION and TRIP (January 1980 to July 2015). We also conducted related citations tracking via PubMed, handsearched reference lists of included studies and relevant review articles, and screened all articles citing included studies via Google Scholar.We included studies that compared RADT for GAS pharyngitis with throat

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2016 Cochrane

13. Pharyngitis Causes

Pharyngitis Causes Pharyngitis Causes Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Pharyngitis Causes Pharyngitis Causes Aka (...) : Pharyngitis Causes , Sore Throat Causes , Dysphagia from Oropharyngeal Cause From Related Chapters II. Causes: Bacterial (Persists slightly longer than viral) Common l Causes Pneumococcus (also ) e (also ) Other l Causes necrophorium ( ) Causes 10% of cases in young adults and adolescents Risk of (high morbidity and mortality) Consider empiric treatment in young patients with severe, prolonged cases >5 days Other Streptococcal species (Groups B, C, G) ral l processes III. Causes: Viral (Pharyngitis lasts

2018 FP Notebook

14. A three‐dimensional placoderm (stem‐group gnathostome) pharyngeal skeleton and its implications for primitive gnathostome pharyngeal architecture (PubMed)

, nearly complete pharyngeal skeleton in an Early Devonian placoderm fish, Paraplesiobatis heinrichsi Broili, from Hunsrück Slate of Germany. Using synchrotron light tomography, we resolve and reconstruct the three-dimensional gill arch architecture of Paraplesiobatis and compare it with other gnathostomes. The preserved pharyngeal skeleton comprises elements of the hyoid arch (probable ceratohyal) and a series of branchial arches. Limited resolution in the tomography scan causes some uncertainty (...) A three‐dimensional placoderm (stem‐group gnathostome) pharyngeal skeleton and its implications for primitive gnathostome pharyngeal architecture The pharyngeal skeleton is a key vertebrate anatomical system in debates on the origin of jaws and gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) feeding. Furthermore, it offers considerable potential as a source of phylogenetic data. Well-preserved examples of pharyngeal skeletons from stem-group gnathostomes remain poorly known. Here, we describe an articulated

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2017 Journal of morphology

15. Tonsillectomy for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis syndrome (PFAPA). (PubMed)

Tonsillectomy for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis syndrome (PFAPA). Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is a rare clinical syndrome of unknown cause usually identified in children. Tonsillectomy is considered a potential treatment option for this syndrome. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2010.To assess the effectiveness and safety of tonsillectomy (with or without adenoidectomy (...) stringent criteria for diagnosing PFAPA and probably also included participants with alternative types of recurrent pharyngitis. This trial compared tonsillectomy alone to no treatment and followed up patients for six months.Combining the trial results suggests that patients with PFAPA experience less fever and less severe episodes after surgery compared to those receiving no surgery. The risk ratio (RR) for immediate resolution of symptoms after surgery that persisted until the end of follow-up

2014 Cochrane

16. Pharyngeal hairy polyps: Case series and literature review. (PubMed)

Pharyngeal hairy polyps: Case series and literature review. It was aimed to report 5 cases of pharyngeal hairy polyps, and to summarize the characteristics combined with literature review.Five cases with pathological diagnosis of pharyngeal hair polyps were diagnosed and treated in our department from June, 2006 to October, 2016, and retrospective analysis of their clinical data was performed. Among the 5 cases, there were 1 male and 4 female, with the age of 2 days to 26 months old. After (...) . Symptoms disappeared completely after the surgery, and follow-up was performed for 1 year without recurrence shown.Pharyngeal hairy polyp is a rare non-malignant clinical disease, mainly caused by symptoms in respiratory tract obstruction. Complete removal of polyps along the pars basilaris is an effective treatment, with no recurrence case reported after surgery.

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2019 Medicine

17. Predominance of emm4 and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes in acute pharyngitis in a southern region of Korea. (PubMed)

Predominance of emm4 and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes in acute pharyngitis in a southern region of Korea. Streptococcus pyogenes is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis. Genotyping of emm is useful for molecular epidemiological survey of S. pyogenes. Antibiotic resistance data are needed for empirical treatments.In total, 358 children in Changwon, Korea who had pharyngitis symptoms were subjected to throat cultures to isolate S. pyogenes in 2017. emm genotyping

2019 Journal of Medical Microbiology

18. The Pushback Pharyngeal Flap: An 18-Year Experience. (PubMed)

The Pushback Pharyngeal Flap: An 18-Year Experience. The pharyngeal flap is one of the oldest and most popular techniques for correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency. The authors describe a large series using a technique that combines a pharyngeal flap with a palate pushback to avoid common causes of operative failure while restoring the velopharyngeal mechanism.A retrospective cohort study was performed of patients who underwent a pushback pharyngeal flap by a single surgeon from 2000 (...) mm. Postoperative complications included flap dehiscence (n = 1), transient dysphagia (n = 2), obstructive sleep apnea (n = 4), and a palatal fistula and/or persistent velopharyngeal insufficiency that required further surgery (n = 6). At an average of 2.5 years postoperatively, 91.7 percent of patients achieved adequate velopharyngeal function, with significant improvements in the majority of speech metrics (p < 0.001).The pushback pharyngeal flap is a safe and effective technique for treatment

2019 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

19. Pharyngeal dysfunction associated with early and late onset sleep disordered breathing in children. (PubMed)

Pharyngeal dysfunction associated with early and late onset sleep disordered breathing in children. To compare the frequency and type of diagnoses associated with pharyngeal dysfunction (PD) in children presenting with early versus late onset sleep disordered breathing (SDB).This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study. A consecutive series of children ≤3 years old who underwent management for SDB were retrospectively identified from a prospectively kept surgical database. The early onset (...) ). There was no statistically significant difference in airway lesions between groups.Early-onset SDB is associated with conditions causing PD more often than later-onset SDB. Identifying these conditions and optimizing their management may impact outcomes in treating pediatric SDB.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2019 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

20. Tobramycin - treating long-term lung infection caused by the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients aged six years and older who have cystic fibrosis

Tobramycin - treating long-term lung infection caused by the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients aged six years and older who have cystic fibrosis 30 Churchill Place ? Canary Wharf ? London E14 5EU ? United Kingdom An agency of the European Union Telephone +44 (0)20 3660 6000 Facsimile +44 (0)20 3660 5555 Send a question via our website www.ema.europa.eu/contact © European Medicines Agency, 2019. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. EMA/886328/2018 EMEA/H/C (...) /005086 Tobramycin PARI (tobramycin) An overview of Tobramycin PARI and why it is authorised in the EU What is Tobramycin PARI and what is it used for? Tobramycin PARI is an antibiotic used for treating long-term lung infection caused by the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients aged six years and older who have cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease in which thick mucus builds up in the lungs that allows bacteria to grow more easily, causing infections. P. aeruginosa

2019 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

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