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141. Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance amongst newly diagnosed HIV-infected infants age 4-8 weeks, enrolled in three nationally representative PMTCT effectiveness surveys, South Africa: 2010, 2011-12 and 2012-13. Full Text available with Trip Pro

on infant HIV drug resistance. This paper tracks the prevalence of HIV drug resistance patterns amongst HIV infected infants from three nationally representative studies that assessed the effectiveness of national programs to prevent MTCT (PMTCT). The first study was conducted in 2010 (under the dual therapy PMTCT policy), the second from 2011 to 12 (PMTCT Option A policy) and the third from 2012 to 13 (PMTCT Option A policy). From 2010 to 2013, infant non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (...) Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance amongst newly diagnosed HIV-infected infants age 4-8 weeks, enrolled in three nationally representative PMTCT effectiveness surveys, South Africa: 2010, 2011-12 and 2012-13. South Africa (SA) has expanded efforts to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) to less than 2% at six weeks after birth and to less than 5% at 18 months postpartum by 2016. Despite improved antiretroviral regimens and coverage between 2001 and 2016, there is little data

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

142. PSMA expression in the Hi-Myc model; extended utility of a representative model of prostate adenocarcinoma for biological insight and as a drug discovery tool. Full Text available with Trip Pro

PSMA expression in the Hi-Myc model; extended utility of a representative model of prostate adenocarcinoma for biological insight and as a drug discovery tool. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), also known as glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), is highly overexpressed in primary and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). This has led to the development of radiopharmaceuticals for targeted imaging and therapy under current clinical evaluation. Despite this progress, the exact biological

2019 Prostate

143. Differences in Narrative Language in Evaluations of Medical Students by Gender and Under-represented Minority Status. (Abstract)

Differences in Narrative Language in Evaluations of Medical Students by Gender and Under-represented Minority Status. In varied educational settings, narrative evaluations have revealed systematic and deleterious differences in language describing women and those underrepresented in their fields. In medicine, limited qualitative studies show differences in narrative language by gender and under-represented minority (URM) status.To identify and enumerate text descriptors in a database of medical (...) student evaluations using natural language processing, and identify differences by gender and URM status in descriptions.An observational study of core clerkship evaluations of third-year medical students, including data on student gender, URM status, clerkship grade, and specialty.A total of 87,922 clerkship evaluations from core clinical rotations at two medical schools in different geographic areas.We employed natural language processing to identify differences in the text of evaluations for women

2019 Journal of General Internal Medicine

144. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among older adults who reported medical cost as a barrier to seeking health care: findings from a nationally representative sample. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of depressive symptoms among older adults who reported medical cost as a barrier to seeking health care: findings from a nationally representative sample. Older adults aged 65 and over will make up more than 20% of U.S. residents by 2030, and in 2050, this population will reach 83.7 million. Depression among older adults is a major public health concern projected to be the second leading cause of disease burden. Despite having Medicare, and other employer supplements, the burden (...) of out of pocket healthcare expenses may be an important predictor of depression. The current study aims to investigate whether delay in seeing a doctor when needed but could not because of medical cost is significantly associated with symptoms of current depression in older adults.Cross-sectional data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BFRSS) from 12 states and Puerto Rico were used for this study (n = 24,018).The prevalence of symptoms of current depression among older adults

2019 BMC Geriatrics

145. National medical expenditures by smoking status in American adults: an application of Manning's two-stage model to nationally representative data. Full Text available with Trip Pro

National medical expenditures by smoking status in American adults: an application of Manning's two-stage model to nationally representative data. To assess the medical expenditures of American adults by their smoking status-Current, Former or Never smokers. We update these expenditures through 2015 controlling for personal characteristics and medical history and assess the impact of years-since-quitting and decade of life.Weighted sample of American adults, 2011-2015. The linked National (...) Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) are annual weighted representations of approximately 250 million adults. Sampling of NHIS is multistage with data collected throughout the year.Using data from NHIS and MEPS, we collected demographic data, self-reported medical history and current smoking status. Smoking status was designated as Never, Current and Former, along with years-since-quitting. Total medical expenditures were collected from MEPS for 2011-2015. We

2019 BMJ open

146. Survival rates following medical intensive care unit admission from 2003 to 2013: An observational study based on a representative population-based sample cohort of Korean patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Survival rates following medical intensive care unit admission from 2003 to 2013: An observational study based on a representative population-based sample cohort of Korean patients. The decision as to whether patients should be admitted to a medical intensive care unit (ICU), in the absence of information concerning survival rates or prognostic factors in survival, is often challenging. We analyzed survival trends in relation to hospital discharge and examined patient and hospital

2019 Medicine

147. Cost-Related Medication Nonadherence Among Older Adults: Findings From a Nationally Representative Sample. (Abstract)

adults, representative of 2.7 million older adults nationally, reported cost-related medication nonadherence. Among those with cost-related medication nonadherence, 44.2% asked a physician for lower-cost medications, 11.5% used alternative therapies, and 5.3% bought prescription drugs outside the United States to save money. Correlates independently associated with a higher likelihood of cost-related medication nonadherence included: younger age, female sex, lower socioeconomic levels (eg, low income (...) Cost-Related Medication Nonadherence Among Older Adults: Findings From a Nationally Representative Sample. To estimate the rate of and risk factors associated with cost-related medication nonadherence among older adults.Cross-sectional analysis of the 2017 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).Nationally representative health interview survey in the United States.Survey respondents, aged 65 years or older (n = 5701 unweighted) in the 2017 wave of the NHIS.Self-reported, cost-related

2019 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

148. Improving Adherence to Therapy and Clinical Outcomes While Containing Costs: Opportunities From the Greater Use of Generic Medications: Best Practice Advice From the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Diabetes Care 2009 32 647 9 Briesacher BA , Andrade SE , Fouayzi H , Chan KA . Medication adherence and use of generic drug therapies. Am J Manag Care 2009 15 450 6 Shrank WH , Hoang T , Ettner SL , Glassman PA , Nair K , DeLapp D . et al The implications of choice: prescribing generic or preferred pharmaceuticals improves medication adherence for chronic conditions. Arch Intern Med 2006 166 332 7 Taira DA , Wong KS , Frech-Tamas F , Chung RS . Copayment level and compliance with antihypertensive (...) Improving Adherence to Therapy and Clinical Outcomes While Containing Costs: Opportunities From the Greater Use of Generic Medications: Best Practice Advice From the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians Opportunities From the Greater Use of Generic Medications | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians '); } '); })(); Sign in below to access your subscription for full content INDIVIDUAL SIGN IN | You will be directed to acponline.org

2015 American College of Physicians

149. Mapping pharmacy deserts and determining accessibility to community pharmacy services for elderly enrolled in a State Pharmaceutical Assistance Program. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mapping pharmacy deserts and determining accessibility to community pharmacy services for elderly enrolled in a State Pharmaceutical Assistance Program. Limited studies have investigated geographic accessibility to a nearby community pharmacy for elderly which is an essential determinant of the access to medications and pharmacy services. This research identified pharmacy deserts and investigated availability of different types of community pharmacies and their services for elderly enrolled (...) in a State Pharmaceutical Assistance Program (SPAP).The state of Pennsylvania in the US was used as a case to demonstrate the geographic accessibility to community pharmacy and services for elderly enrolled in SPAP. The locations of community pharmacies and households of elderly enrolled in SPAP were derived from Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly programs' database. The street addresses were geocoded and the distance to a nearby community pharmacy was calculated for study sample using

2018 PLoS ONE

150. The role of the State Security Service (Stasi) in the context of international clinical trials conducted by western pharmaceutical companies in Eastern Germany (1961-1990). Full Text available with Trip Pro

, the primary aim of the trials was the procurement of foreign currency. The Stasi feared that the pharmaceutical companies could have a significant influence on GDR Health System. Stasi spies were holding positions in the responsible medical committees, universities, and hospitals. Constant surveillance by the Stasi served the purpose of monitoring any contact between people from the West and the East. Unknowingly, representatives of Western companies were surveilled by the Stasi. The studied documents (...) The role of the State Security Service (Stasi) in the context of international clinical trials conducted by western pharmaceutical companies in Eastern Germany (1961-1990). After the building of the Berlin Wall in the 1960s, a number of international pharmaceutical manufacturers from the West had their drugs tested in Eastern Germany (GDR). So far, the extensive collection of documents on the subject stored in the archives of the GDR State Security Service (Stasi, MfS) has not been

2018 PLoS ONE

151. Medical dissolution therapy for the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. (Abstract)

Medical dissolution therapy for the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Uric acid (UA) nephrolithiasis represents 10% of kidney stones in the US with low urine pH and high saturation of UA as the main risk factors for stone development. Dissolution therapy for UA kidney stones via urinary alkalization has been described as a treatment option. We present our experience in treating UA nephrolithiasis with medical dissolution therapy.A retrospective review was performed of UA stone patients (...) referred for surgery but treated with dissolution therapy between July 2007 and July 2016. Patients were identified using ICD-9 codes. Patients were treated with potassium citrate alone or in combination with allopurinol. Serial imaging and urine pH were obtained at follow-up. Demographics, aggregate stone size, time to stone clearance, urine pH (office dip), and complications were recorded.Twenty-four patients (14 men and 10 women) were identified that started medical dissolution therapy for UA

2019 World journal of urology

152. Validating the use of registries and claims data to support randomized trials: Rationale and design of the Extending Trial-Based Evaluations of Medical Therapies Using Novel Sources of Data (EXTEND) Study. (Abstract)

Validating the use of registries and claims data to support randomized trials: Rationale and design of the Extending Trial-Based Evaluations of Medical Therapies Using Novel Sources of Data (EXTEND) Study. Randomized controlled trials are the "gold standard" for comparing the safety and efficacy of therapies but may be limited due to high costs, lack of feasibility, and difficulty enrolling "real-world" patient populations. The Extending Trial-Based Evaluations of Medical Therapies Using Novel (...) Sources of Data (EXTEND) Study seeks to evaluate whether data collected within procedural registries and claims databases can reproduce trial results by substituting surrogate non-trial-based variables for exposures and outcomes.Patient-level data from 2 clinical trial programs-the Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Study and the United States CoreValve Studies-will be linked to a combination of national registry, administrative claims, and health system data. The concordance between baseline and outcomes data

2019 American Heart Journal

153. Intrapartum care for women with existing medical conditions or obstetric complications and their babies

medical conditions or obstetric complications and their babies (NG121) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Last updated April 2019 Page 24 of 961.6.11 Be aware that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can add to the risk of bleeding. 1.6.12 Before discharge from hospital, inform women with bleeding disorders of the risk of secondary bleeding postpartum and how to access care. T o find out why the committee (...) Intrapartum care for women with existing medical conditions or obstetric complications and their babies Intr Intrapartum care for women with apartum care for women with e existing medical conditions or obstetric xisting medical conditions or obstetric complications and their babies complications and their babies NICE guideline Published: 6 March 2019 www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng121 © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

154. Fact Sheet: Non-pharmaceutical measures to prevent the transmission of influenza

to follow. • Multiple non-pharmaceutical measures can be used together with pharmaceutical measures to increase effectiveness and further reduce disease transmission. • They offer protection for those unable to access or receive vaccines or antiviral medication. Barriers to compliance Hand hygiene is highly and universally recommended as an effective measure that is relatively easy to comply with. However, compliance is variable due to inadequate or unavailable hand- washing facilities or poor hygiene (...) Fact Sheet: Non-pharmaceutical measures to prevent the transmission of influenza NCCEH Fact Sheet: Non-pharmaceutical measures to prevent the transmission of in? uenza This fact sheet is for public health professionals. It provides a brief overview on speci? c non-pharmaceutical measures to be used in community settings. Such measures can prevent the spread of in? uenza by interrupting the transfer of viruses from objects or people through the use of personal protective equipment or changes

2015 National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health

155. "Partnerships" with pharmaceutical companies: treat with scepticism

" with pharmaceutical companies: treat with scepticism The various stakeholders in the health sector do not all have the same goals and interests. It is better for each one to advocate a clear position rather than to enter into risky partnerships. In the UK, in 2011, different stakeholders tried to join forces with the stated aim of promoting best practice, particularly when it came to relations between healthcare professionals and manufacturers of medicinal products, and clinical trial transparency. Medical (...) journals, healthcare professionals’ organisations, the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry (ABPI) and English, Scottish and Welsh government representatives endorsed two sets of guidelines on the subject. Some outside observers were struck by how biased these guidelines are in favour of pharmaceutical companies, echoing their usual arguments, including: “medical sales representatives can be a useful resource for healthcare professionals”; “information about industry-sponsored trials

2014 Prescrire

156. EMA's new policy on access to clinical data: About to privatise pharmaceutical knowledge? The proof will be in the pudding

trial data with more user-friendly amendments" Press release 12 June 2014: 1 page. 12- Lemmens T "EMA's Proposed Data Release Policy: Promoting Transparency or Expanding Pharma Control over Data?" Plos Blog 30 May 2014: 3 pages. 13- Willmott G "Reaction to European Medicine Agency's transparency policy" 13 June 2013: 1 page. 14- Lemmens T "Access to pharmaceutical data, not data secrecy, is an Essential Component of Human Rights" 8 April 2014: 3 pages. 15-World Medical Association "Declaration (...) to pressures from pharmaceutical companies and the European Commission. Press release The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has made known that its controversial policy on access to clinical data is to be adopted by mid-July 2014. In the aftermath of a public outcry that criticised the reversal of the draft policy proposal, the agency now claims that it will implement a more "user-friendly" system for researchers. Yet, serious concerns remain as other restrictive measures and legal loopholes are left

2014 Prescrire

157. Health economic evaluation of venlafaxine, duloxetine, bupropion, and mirtazapine compared to further prescribable pharmaceutical treatments

“all connections to interest groups and contract organizations, particularly in the pharmaceutical and medical devices industries, including details on the type and amount of any remuneration received.” The Institute received the completed form “Disclosure of conflicts of interest” from each external expert. The information provided was reviewed by a Committee of the Institute specifically established to assess conflicts of interests. The information on conflicts of interest provided (...) and Technology (UMIT), Hall in Tyrol, Austria ? Eva Esteban, Private University of Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT), Hall in Tyrol, Austria ? Barbara Fröschl, Gesundheit Österreich GmbH, Vienna, Austria ? Gerald Gartlehner, Department for Evidence-based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, Danube University Krems, Austria ? Thomas Grobe, Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health System Research (ISEG), Hanover, Germany ? Josef Marksteiner, Department of Psychiatry

2013 Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG)

158. An old medicine as a new drug to prevent mitochondrial complex I from producing oxygen radicals. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An old medicine as a new drug to prevent mitochondrial complex I from producing oxygen radicals. Here, we demonstrate that OP2113 (5-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione, CAS 532-11-6), synthesized and used as a drug since 1696, does not act as an unspecific antioxidant molecule (i.e., as a radical scavenger) but unexpectedly decreases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS/H2O2) production by acting as a specific inhibitor of ROS production at the IQ site of complex I (...) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Studies performed on isolated rat heart mitochondria also showed that OP2113 does not affect oxidative phosphorylation driven by complex I or complex II substrates. We assessed the effect of OP2113 on an infarct model of ex vivo rat heart in which mitochondrial ROS production is highly involved and showed that OP2113 protects heart tissue as well as the recovery of heart contractile activity.This work represents the first demonstration of a drug authorized for use in humans

2019 PLoS ONE

159. Medical therapies to reduce chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular risk: anti-hypertensive/anti-proteinuric agents

Medical therapies to reduce chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular risk: anti-hypertensive/anti-proteinuric agents ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Early Chronic Kidney Disease July 2012 Page 1 of 24 Medical therapies to reduce chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular risk: anti- hypertensive agents Date written: July 2012 Author: Richard Phoon, David Johnson GUIDELINES Non-diabetic Kidney (...) intervention with appropriate medical therapies is essential to address this public health burden and may reduce the progression of CKD and CV risk by up to 50%. [25] The objective of this guideline is to review currently available evidence in this regard and provide appropriate clinical recommendations. Recommendations in other guidelines, and the evidence underpinning these recommendations, have also been reviewed. The effect of specific anti-hypertensive agents on CKD progression has been discussed

2013 KHA-CARI Guidelines

160. Medical therapies to reduce chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular risk: uric acid-lowering agents

was $647 million. [23] A recent analysis of the health economic impact of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in Australia estimated that, at the end of 2007, hospital dialysis cost around $189 million per year. [24] Taken together, CKD is a significant contributor of morbidity and mortality, and represents a major expense to the health care system. Early intervention with appropriate medical therapies is essential to address this public health burden and may reduce the progression of CKD and CV risk by up (...) Medical therapies to reduce chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular risk: uric acid-lowering agents ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Early Chronic Kidney Disease December 2011 Page 1 of 9 Medical therapies to reduce chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular risk: uric acid-lowering agents Date written: July 2012 Author: Richard Phoon, David Johnson GUIDELINES a. We suggest that use of uric acid

2013 KHA-CARI Guidelines

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