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Pharmaceutical Representative

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121. Health economic evaluation of venlafaxine, duloxetine, bupropion, and mirtazapine compared to further prescribable pharmaceutical treatments

Health economic evaluation of venlafaxine, duloxetine, bupropion, and mirtazapine compared to further prescribable pharmaceutical treatments Executive Summary 1 Translation of the executive summary of the final report “Kosten-Nutzen-Bewertung von Venlafaxin, Duloxetin, Bupropion und Mirtazapin im Vergleich zu weiteren verordnungsfähigen medikamentösen Behandlungen” (Version 1.0; Status: 3 September 2013). Please note: This translation is provided as a service by IQWiG to English-language (...) readers. However, solely the German original text is absolutely authoritative and legally binding. IQWiG Reports – Commission No. G09-01 Health economic evaluation of venlafaxine, duloxetine, bupropion, and mirtazapine compared to further prescribable pharmaceutical treatments 1 Executive summary of final report G09-01 Version 1.0 Health economic evaluation of venlafaxine, duloxetine, bupropion, mirtazapine 3 Sep 2013 Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) - i - Publishing details

2013 Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG)

122. Impact of Collaborative Pharmaceutical Care on Hospital Admission Drug Prescriptions for Patients 65 Years of Age and Older

Impact of Collaborative Pharmaceutical Care on Hospital Admission Drug Prescriptions for Patients 65 Years of Age and Older Impact of Collaborative Pharmaceutical Care on Hospital Admission Drug Prescriptions for Patients 65 Years of Age and Older - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached (...) the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Impact of Collaborative Pharmaceutical Care on Hospital Admission Drug Prescriptions for Patients 65 Years of Age and Older (MEDREV) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02598115 Recruitment Status

2015 Clinical Trials

123. Improving Patient's Primary Medication Adherence: The Value of Pharmaceutical Counseling. (PubMed)

Improving Patient's Primary Medication Adherence: The Value of Pharmaceutical Counseling. Quality of transitions of care is one of the first concerns in patient safety. Redesigning the discharge process to incorporate clinical pharmacy activities could reduce the incidence of postdischarge adverse events by improving medication adherence. The present study investigated the value of pharmacist counseling sessions on primary medication adherence after hospital discharge.This study was conducted (...) in a 1844-bed hospital in France. It was divided in an observational period and an interventional period of 3 months each. In both periods, ward-based clinical pharmacists performed medication reconciliation and inpatient follow-up. In interventional period, initial counseling and discharge counseling sessions were added to pharmaceutical care. The primary medication adherence was assessed by calling community pharmacists 7 days after patient discharge.We compared the measure of adherence between

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2015 Medicine

124. Qualitative insights into promotion of pharmaceutical products in Bangladesh: how ethical are the practices? (PubMed)

of the pharmaceutical companies including the role of their medical representatives (MR).This qualitative study was conducted as part of a larger study to explore the status of governance in health sector in 2009. Data were collected from Dhaka, Chittagong and Bogra districts through in-depth interview (healthcare providers and MRs), observation (physician-MR interaction), and round table discussion (chief executives and top management of the pharmaceutical companies).Findings reveal a highly structured system (...) geared to generate prescriptions and ensure market share instituted by the pharmaceuticals. A comprehensive training curriculum for the MRs prepares the newly recruited science graduates for generating enough prescriptions by catering to the identified needs and demands of the physicians expressed or otherwise, and thus grab higher market-share for the companies they represent. Approaches such as inducements, persuasion, emotional blackmail, serving family members, etc. are used. The type, quantity

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2015 BMC medical ethics

125. Adsorption of Selected Pharmaceutical Compounds onto Activated Carbon in Dilute Aqueous Solutions Exemplified by Acetaminophen, Diclofenac, and Sulfamethoxazole (PubMed)

Adsorption of Selected Pharmaceutical Compounds onto Activated Carbon in Dilute Aqueous Solutions Exemplified by Acetaminophen, Diclofenac, and Sulfamethoxazole The adsorption of three pharmaceuticals, namely, acetaminophen, diclofenac, and sulfamethoxazole onto granular activated carbon (GAC), was investigated. To study competitive adsorption, both dynamic and steady-state adsorption experiments were conducted by careful selection of pharmaceuticals with various affinities and molecular size (...) . The effective diffusion coefficient of the adsorbate was increased with decease in particle size of GAC. The adsorption affinity represented as Langmuir was consistent with the ranking of the octanol-water partition coefficient, K(ow). The adsorption behavior in binary or tertiary systems could be described by competition adsorption. In the binary system adsorption replacement occurred, under which the adsorbate with the smaller K(ow) was replaced by the one with larger K(ow). Results also indicated

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2015 The Scientific World Journal

126. Amperometric Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Pharmaceutical Formulations by a Reduced Graphene Oxide-cobalt Hexacyanoferrate Nanocomposite (PubMed)

Amperometric Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Pharmaceutical Formulations by a Reduced Graphene Oxide-cobalt Hexacyanoferrate Nanocomposite Investigation of the redox properties of drugs and their determination are performed by electrochemical techniques. Data obtained from electrochemical techniques are often correlated with molecular structure and pharmacological activity of drugs. In this regard, different modified electrodes were applied as sensors for quantification of different drugs (...) . A nanocomposite of reduced graphene oxide-cobalt hexacyanoferrate was synthesized by a simple precipitation route. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the nanocomposite comprised nanoparticles of cobalt hexacyanoferrate attached to the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. A nanocomposite-modified carbon paste electrode was then fabricated. It represented prominent activity toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid, and the kinetics of the electrooxidation process was evaluated. Finally

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2015 Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research : IJPR

127. Studies using Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme data for pharmacoepidemiological research: a systematic review of the published literature (1987-2013). (PubMed)

Studies using Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme data for pharmacoepidemiological research: a systematic review of the published literature (1987-2013). Research using dispensing claims is used increasingly to study post-market medicines use and outcomes. The purpose of this review is to catalogue more than 25 years of published literature using Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) dispensing records.We searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE and Embase and conducted author searches (...) women.Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme claims represent a significant resource to examine Australia's billion-dollar annual investment in prescribed medicines. The body of research is growing and has increased in complexity over time. Australia has great potential to undertake world-class, whole-of-population pharmacoepidemiological studies. Recent investment in data linkage infrastructure will significantly enhance these opportunities.Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2015 Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety

128. Quality of Artemisinin-Containing Antimalarials in Tanzania's Private Sector-Results from a Nationally Representative Outlet Survey. (PubMed)

Quality of Artemisinin-Containing Antimalarials in Tanzania's Private Sector-Results from a Nationally Representative Outlet Survey. Ensuring that artemisinin-containing antimalarials (ACAs) are of good quality is a key component of effective malaria treatment. There are concerns that a high proportion of ACAs are falsified or substandard, though estimates are rarely based on representative data. During a nationally representative survey in Tanzania, ACAs were purchased from private retail drug (...) outlets, and the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was measured. All 1,737 ACAs contained the labeled artemisinin derivative, with 4.1% being outside the 85-115% artemisinin API range defined as acceptable quality. World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified drugs had 0.1 times the odds of being poor quality compared with non-prequalified ACAs for the artemisinin component. When partner components of combination therapies were also considered, 12.1% were outside the acceptable API range, and WHO

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2015 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

129. Legislative, educational, policy and other interventions targeting physicians' interaction with pharmaceutical companies: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Legislative, educational, policy and other interventions targeting physicians' interaction with pharmaceutical companies: a systematic review. Pharmaceutical company representatives likely influence the prescribing habits and professional behaviour of physicians.The objective of this study was to systematically review the effects of interventions targeting practising physicians' interactions with pharmaceutical companies.We included observational studies, non-randomised controlled trials (non (...) to be conducted. We assessed the quality of evidence by outcome using the GRADE methodology.Of 11 189 identified citations, one RCT and three observational studies met the eligibility criteria. All four studies specifically targeted one type of interaction with pharmaceutical companies, that is, interactions with drug representatives. The RCT provided moderate quality evidence of no effect of a 'collaborative approach' between the pharmaceutical industry and a health authority. The three observational studies

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2014 BMJ open

130. A ‘rule of 0.5’ for the metabolite-likeness of approved pharmaceutical drugs (PubMed)

A ‘rule of 0.5’ for the metabolite-likeness of approved pharmaceutical drugs We exploit the recent availability of a community reconstruction of the human metabolic network ('Recon2') to study how close in structural terms are marketed drugs to the nearest known metabolite(s) that Recon2 contains. While other encodings using different kinds of chemical fingerprints give greater differences, we find using the 166 Public MDL Molecular Access (MACCS) keys that 90 % of marketed drugs have (...) a Tanimoto similarity of more than 0.5 to the (structurally) 'nearest' human metabolite. This suggests a 'rule of 0.5' mnemonic for assessing the metabolite-like properties that characterise successful, marketed drugs. Multiobjective clustering leads to a similar conclusion, while artificial (synthetic) structures are seen to be less human-metabolite-like. This 'rule of 0.5' may have considerable predictive value in chemical biology and drug discovery, and may represent a powerful filter for decision

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2014 Metabolomics

131. Antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria isolated from some pharmaceutical and dairy products (PubMed)

identification Lactobacillus spp. were found to be the dominant genus (138, 76.7%) followed by Streptococcus spp. (65, 36.1%) and Lactococcus spp. (27, 15%). Some contaminant organisms such as (Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., mould and yeast) were isolated from the collected dairy samples but pharmaceutical products were free of such contaminants. Susceptibility of LAB isolates to antibiotics representing all major classes was tested by agar dilution method. Generally, LAB were highly (...) Antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria isolated from some pharmaceutical and dairy products A total of 244 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from 180 dairy and pharmaceutical products that were collected from different areas in Minia governorate, Egypt. LAB were identified phenotypically on basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Lactobacillus isolates were further confirmed using PCR-based assay. By combination of phenotypic with molecular

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2014 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

132. Uneasy subjects: Medical students' conflicts over the pharmaceutical industry. (PubMed)

Uneasy subjects: Medical students' conflicts over the pharmaceutical industry. In this article I report on an investigation of the pharmaceutical industry's influence in medical education. Findings are based on fifty semi-structured interviews with medical students in the United States and Canada conducted between 2010 and 2013. Participant responses support the survey-based literature demonstrating that there is clear and pervasive influence of the pharmaceutical industry in medical education (...) . They also challenge the theory that medical students feel entitled to industry gifts and uncritically accept industry presence. I investigate how medical students who are critical of the pharmaceutical industry negotiate its presence in the course of their medical education. Findings suggest that these participants do not simply absorb industry presence, but interpret it and respond in complex ways. Participants were uncomfortable with industry influence throughout their medical training and found

2014 Social Science & Medicine

133. Restrictions on pharmaceutical detailing reduced off-label prescribing of antidepressants and antipsychotics in children. (PubMed)

Restrictions on pharmaceutical detailing reduced off-label prescribing of antidepressants and antipsychotics in children. The treatment of pediatric depression is controversial because it includes substantial prescribing of drugs for uses that have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration ("off label") and are not evidence based. Some academic medical centers (AMCs) restrict "detailing" by pharmaceutical sales representatives, or the promoting of drugs directly to physicians via (...) of promoted drugs fell by 11 percent, consistent with the ongoing presence of off-label marketing to physicians. Prescriptions for on-label use of promoted drugs fell by 34 percent after the adoption of the policies. Conversely, prescriptions for on-label use of nonpromoted drugs rose by 14 percent, and those for off-label use of nonpromoted drugs rose by 35 percent. These results suggest that pharmaceutical sales representatives promoted drugs not approved for pediatric use and that policies

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2014 Health affairs

134. Early Benefit Assessment of Pharmaceuticals in Germany: Manufacturers' Expectations versus the Federal Joint Committee's Decisions. (PubMed)

Early Benefit Assessment of Pharmaceuticals in Germany: Manufacturers' Expectations versus the Federal Joint Committee's Decisions. Since 2011, when the German Pharmaceutical Market Restructuring Act (AMNOG) came into effect, newly licensed pharmaceuticals must demonstrate an added benefit over a comparator treatment to be reimbursed at a value greater than the reference price. Evidence submitted by manufacturers is assessed by the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG (...) ) and subsequently appraised by the German Federal Joint Committee (FJC) as part of so-called early benefit assessments (EBA). This study aims to explain the decisions made, clarify the roles of the parties (manufacturers, IQWiG, FJC) involved, and guide manufacturers in developing future submissions by analyzing 42 EBAs concluded since January 2011.We developed a variable list representing the essential components of the EBA: the rating decisions of manufacturers, IQWiG, and the FJC regarding each

2014 Medical Decision Making

135. Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts. (PubMed)

Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts. Abstract Aluminum (Al) is a ubiquitous substance encountered both naturally (as the third most abundant element) and intentionally (used in water, foods, pharmaceuticals, and vaccines); it is also present in ambient and occupational airborne particulates. Existing data underscore the importance (...) of Al physical and chemical forms in relation to its uptake, accumulation, and systemic bioavailability. The present review represents a systematic examination of the peer-reviewed literature on the adverse health effects of Al materials published since a previous critical evaluation compiled by Krewski et al. (2007) . Challenges encountered in carrying out the present review reflected the experimental use of different physical and chemical Al forms, different routes of administration, and different

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2014 Critical reviews in toxicology

136. Association of medical students' reports of interactions with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries and medical school policies and characteristics: a cross-sectional study. (PubMed)

Association of medical students' reports of interactions with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries and medical school policies and characteristics: a cross-sectional study. Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student (...) behaviors.Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy

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2014 PLoS medicine

137. Pharmaceutical policies: effects of cap and co-payment on rational drug use. (PubMed)

Pharmaceutical policies: effects of cap and co-payment on rational drug use. Growing expenditures on prescription drugs represent a major challenge to many health systems. Cap and co-payment (direct cost-share) policies are intended as an incentive to deter unnecessary or marginal utilisation, and to reduce third-party payer expenditures by shifting parts of the financial burden from the insurer to patients, thus increasing their financial responsibility for prescription drugs. Direct patient

2008 Cochrane

138. Amoxicillin separation from pharmaceutical wastewater by high permeability polysulfone nanofiltration membrane (PubMed)

Amoxicillin separation from pharmaceutical wastewater by high permeability polysulfone nanofiltration membrane In this study, high permeability flat sheet polysulfone nanofiltration membranes were prepared for amoxicillin (AMX) recovery from pharmaceutical wastewater. Membrane fabrication includes two steps: raw ultrafiltration membrane synthesis by phase inversion method and nanaofiltration membrane synthesis by surface photopolymerization. Raw ultrafiltration membranes were synthesized using (...) and irradiation time on membrane structure and AMX recovery performance was represented in this study.

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2013 Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering

139. Consumer-perceived risks and choices about pharmaceuticals in the environment: a cross-sectional study (PubMed)

medicine and for agricultural purposes.A representative sample of the U.S. population (N = 640) was surveyed. Respondents completed a hypothetical choice task that involved tradeoffs between human and environmental health. In addition, it was examined how much people would support an environment policy related to drug regulation.For agricultural pharmaceuticals, respondents reported a high level of satisfaction for a policy requiring farms to limit their use of antibiotics. In the domain (...) Consumer-perceived risks and choices about pharmaceuticals in the environment: a cross-sectional study There is increasing concern that pollution from pharmaceuticals used in human medicine and agriculture can be a threat to the environment. Little is known, however, if people are aware that pharmaceuticals may have a detrimental influence on the environment. The present study examines people's risk perception and choices in regard to environmental risks of pharmaceuticals used in human

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2013 Environmental Health

140. Health Canada and the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Preliminary Analysis of the Historical Relationship (PubMed)

Health Canada and the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Preliminary Analysis of the Historical Relationship In the past two decades, Health Canada has been accused of favouring the pharmaceutical industry over the public in areas of pharmaceutical policy. This orientation has been tied to the introduction of user fees by the industry in 1994 that help finance key aspects of drug regulation. This paper provides a preliminary examination of the history of the relationship starting in 1939 until the mid (...) -1980s in an attempt to discern whether 1994 really represented a key turning point. Clientele pluralism, a theory that explains the relationship between the state and interest groups, is used to explain the nature of the events described. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

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2013 Healthcare Policy

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