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61. Performance-Based Risk-Sharing Arrangements for Pharmaceutical Products in the United States: A Systematic Review. (PubMed)

Performance-Based Risk-Sharing Arrangements for Pharmaceutical Products in the United States: A Systematic Review. Value for money is a growing necessity in today's U.S. health care system in which drug spending is expected to increase by an average rate of 6.7% yearly through 2025. In response to uncertainty about real-world clinical and economic outcomes for many drugs, health insurers and pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) have implemented various contracts and arrangements with drug (...) for 12 (46%) PBRSAs; claims data would have been an appropriate source for 11 (42%) PBRSAs; and EMR and claims data would have been appropriate sources for 2 (8%) PBRSAs; no description of the outcome measures was available for 1 (4%) PBRSA.The number of publicly disclosed U.S.-specific PBRSAs for drugs has increased over the years. This review's findings confirm the interest of stakeholders in such arrangements and their confidence in the use of the selected outcome measures. Each PBRSA represents

2017 Journal of managed care & specialty pharmacy

62. Extent of physician-pharmaceutical industry interactions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. (PubMed)

representatives visited at least 90% of physicians. Printed material, stationery items and drug samples were the most frequently received gifts. Two of the studies assessing direct payment found percentages of 16 and 5%, respectively. Findings of qualitative studies were consistent with those of quantitative studies. In addition, they revealed an increasing tendency for pharmaceutical companies to provide expensive personal gifts, sponsor social events and offer cash as inducements to physicians based (...) Extent of physician-pharmaceutical industry interactions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Pharmaceutical companies spend large amounts of money promoting their products to physicians. There is evidence that physicians' interactions with pharmaceutical companies negatively affect their prescribing patterns. The objective of this study was to systematically review the extent of the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical companies in low- and middle-income

2017 European journal of public health

63. Association between physicians' interaction with pharmaceutical companies and their clinical practices: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Association between physicians' interaction with pharmaceutical companies and their clinical practices: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmaceutical company representatives likely influence the prescribing habits and professional behaviors of physicians. The objective of this study was to systematically review the association between physicians' interactions with pharmaceutical companies and their clinical practices.We used the standard systematic review methodology. Observational (...) and experimental study designs examining any type of targeted interaction between practicing physicians and pharmaceutical companies were eligible. The search strategy included a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to July 2016. Two reviewers selected studies, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias in duplicate and independently. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach.Twenty articles reporting on 19 studies met our inclusion criteria. All of these studies were conducted in high

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2017 PloS one

64. Pharmaceutical transparency in Canada: Tired of talk

Pharmaceutical transparency in Canada: Tired of talk Pharmaceutical transparency in Canada: Tired of talk - The BMJ ---> Health Canada has been talking about improving the transparency of information around pharmaceutical drugs . And for years the drug regulator that talk with commitment and action. The lack of transparency around pharmaceutical drugs continues to undermine patient safety and public health. Unless a drug’s full safety and effectiveness profile is transparent, physicians (...) investigations, and academic researchers calling for greater transparency, Health Canada has offered up several supposed transparency initiatives. But each has . In late 2014 Canada’s parliament finally made a commitment to improving transparency around pharmaceutical interventions by enacting Inspired by the death of former MP Terence Young’s daughter, Vanessa, the law gives the minister of health and in turn Health Canada several new and important powers in the name of patient safety. This law has great

2016 The BMJ Blog

65. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Non-Pharmaceutical Ischemic Stroke Therapy in Aged Subjects (PubMed)

and disability. Obesity could represent a state of chronic inflammation that can be prevented to some extent by non-pharmaceutical interventions such as calorie restriction and hypothermia. Indeed, recent results suggest that H₂S-induced hypothermia in aged, overweight rats could have a higher probability of success in treating stroke as compared to other monotherapies, by reducing post-stroke brain inflammation. Likewise, it was recently reported that weight reduction prior to stroke, in aged, overweight (...) Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Non-Pharmaceutical Ischemic Stroke Therapy in Aged Subjects The incidence of ischemic stroke in humans increases exponentially above 70 years both in men and women. Comorbidities like diabetes, arterial hypertension or co-morbidity factors such as hypercholesterolemia, obesity and body fat distribution as well as fat-rich diet and physical inactivity are common in elderly persons and are associated with higher risk of stroke, increased mortality

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2017 International journal of molecular sciences

66. Historical Contribution of Pharmaceutics to Botany and Pharmacognosy Development (PubMed)

, as well as early development of independent pharmaceutical activity; To present the historical influence of pharmacists on the development of botany and pharmacognosy and to present the historical influence of the first written herbarium and incunabula on the development of pharmacognosy.The article has a descriptive character, and represents a systematic review of the literature dealing with this topic.The roots of pharmacy started to the very beginning of human civilization, when people collected (...) Historical Contribution of Pharmaceutics to Botany and Pharmacognosy Development Pharmacy and medicine belong to the oldest human activities, so the development of these sciences is closely related to the socio-economic, cultural and religious opportunities of the nations within which they have been developing.To present the historical influence of pharmacy on the development of the human being from its very beginning; To present the historical link between pharmaceutical and medical activity

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2017 Materia socio-medica

67. Hyperbaric Oxygen Compared to Pharmaceutical Therapies for Fibromyalgia Syndrome

Hyperbaric Oxygen Compared to Pharmaceutical Therapies for Fibromyalgia Syndrome Hyperbaric Oxygen Compared to Pharmaceutical Therapies for Fibromyalgia Syndrome - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding (...) more. Hyperbaric Oxygen Compared to Pharmaceutical Therapies for Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMSRCT) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03325959 Recruitment Status : Not yet recruiting First Posted : October 30

2017 Clinical Trials

68. Will the Pharmaceutical Industry Learn from Past Mistakes?

Will the Pharmaceutical Industry Learn from Past Mistakes? Will the Pharmaceutical Industry Learn from Past Mistakes? | RAND Objective Analysis. Effective Solutions. Site-wide navigation Trending Topics Featured Research Activities Spotlight Commentary: Commentary: By Research Area Drawing upon decades of experience, RAND provides research services, systematic analysis, and innovative thinking to a global clientele that includes government agencies, foundations, and private-sector firms. Who We (...) , public condemnation and government scrutiny, the pharmaceutical industry faces a public relations problem that, left untreated, could bring new regulations or sanctions either from governments or the courts. At the same time, though, the recent scandals over price gouging could offer an opportunity for responsible, research-based companies to distance themselves from the profiteers. The industry has come under fire at a time of unprecedented innovation. As a physician who trained in the 1990s, I am

2016 The RAND blog

69. The Influence of Emerging Markets on the Pharmaceutical Industry (PubMed)

The Influence of Emerging Markets on the Pharmaceutical Industry Emerging markets represent an exceptional opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry. Although a precise definition is not yet available, economists define emerging markets as developing prosperous countries in which investment is expected to result in higher income despite high risks. Qualifying a market as emerging is not merely based on the economic status of the country, but also on several criteria that render the definition (...) applicable to each country. Jim O'Neil, retired chairman of asset management at Goldman Sachs, identified leading economies of emerging markets: Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) and later Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and then Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, and Turkey (MIST), which followed years later as the second tier of nations. Sales of the pharmaceutical markets in BRICS and MIST countries doubled in 5 years, reaching a market share of approximately 20%. The shift

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2017 Current therapeutic research, clinical and experimental

70. Pharmaceutical Perspectives of Spices and Condiments as Alternative Antimicrobial Remedy (PubMed)

Pharmaceutical Perspectives of Spices and Condiments as Alternative Antimicrobial Remedy Medicinal values of spices and condiments are being revived by biologists through in vitro and in vivo trials providing evidence for its antimicrobial activities. The essential oils and extracts of spices like black pepper, cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg contain active compounds like piperine, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, and lignans. Similarly, condiments like coriander, black cumin, turmeric, garlic, and ginger (...) are recognized for constituents like linalool, thymoquinones, curcumin, allicin, and geranial respectively. These act as natural preventive components of several diseases and represent as antioxidants in body cells. Scientists have to investigate the biochemical nature, mode of action, and minimum concentration of administrating active ingredients effectively. This review reports findings of recent research carried out across South Asia and Middle East countries where spices and condiments form chief

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2017 Journal of evidence-based complementary & alternative medicine

71. Postgraduate Courses in Pharmaceutical Medicine in Italy (PubMed)

in pharma companies or in contract research organizations: several Italian universities are offering high quality courses, and in the last 10 years, more than 1,200 professionals received a postgraduate education in pharmaceutical medicine. This result places Italy on top of countries concerned about the professional education of people involved in drug development and will represent an asset for a larger involvement of Italian clinical sites in the global process of clinical research. (...) Postgraduate Courses in Pharmaceutical Medicine in Italy Italy has a significant tradition of excellence in the area of clinical trials (CTRs): important achievements in the clinical development of rifampicin and adriamycin, the two most famous drugs discovered in the research laboratories of two Italian pharmaceutical companies, paved the way to the establishment of a culture of clinical development, mainly in the areas of antimicrobials and oncology. Despite the fact that now the Italian

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2017 Frontiers in medicine

72. Association Between Modifiable Risk Factors and Pharmaceutical Expenditures Among Adults With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the United States: 2012–2013 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (PubMed)

and pharmaceutical expenditures among adults with ASCVD using the 2012 and 2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. A 2-part model was used while accounting for the survey's complex design to obtain nationally representative results. All costs were adjusted to 2013 US dollars using the gross domestic product deflator. The annual total pharmaceutical expenditure among those with ASCVD was $71.6 billion, 33% of which was for medications for cardiovascular disease and 14% medications for diabetes mellitus (...) Association Between Modifiable Risk Factors and Pharmaceutical Expenditures Among Adults With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the United States: 2012–2013 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) causes most deaths in the United States and accounts for the highest healthcare spending. The association between the modifiable risk factors (MRFs) of ASCVD and pharmaceutical expenditures are largely unknown.We examined the association between MRFs

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2017 Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease

73. The Pharmaceutical Device Prisma® Skin Promotes in Vitro Angiogenesis through Endothelial to Mesenchymal Transition during Skin Wound Healing (PubMed)

The Pharmaceutical Device Prisma® Skin Promotes in Vitro Angiogenesis through Endothelial to Mesenchymal Transition during Skin Wound Healing Glycosaminoglycans are polysaccharides of the extracellular matrix supporting skin wound closure. Mesoglycan is a mixture of glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin-, dermatan-, heparan-sulfate and heparin and is the main component of Prisma® Skin, a pharmaceutical device developed by Mediolanum Farmaceutici S.p.a. Here, we show the in vitro effects (...) of this device in the new vessels formation by endothelial cells, since angiogenesis represents a key moment in wound healing. We found a strong increase of migration and invasion rates of these cells treated with mesoglycan and Prisma® Skin which mediate the activation of the pathway triggered by CD44 receptor. Furthermore, endothelial cells form longer capillary-like structures with a great number of branches, in the presence of the same treatments. Thus, the device, thanks to the mesoglycan, leads

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2017 International journal of molecular sciences

74. Determining potential adverse effects in marine fish exposed to pharmaceuticals and personal care products with the fish plasma model and whole-body tissue concentrations (PubMed)

Determining potential adverse effects in marine fish exposed to pharmaceuticals and personal care products with the fish plasma model and whole-body tissue concentrations The Fish Plasma Model (FPM) was applied to water exposure and tissue concentrations in fish collected from two wastewater treatment plant impacted estuarine sites. In this study we compared predicted fish plasma concentrations to Cmax values for humans, which represents the maximum plasma concentration for the minimum (...) therapeutic dose. The results of this study show that predictions of plasma concentrations for a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from effluent concentrations resulted in 37 compounds (54%) exceeding the response ratio (RR = Fish [Plasma]/1%Cmaxtotal) of 1 compared to 3 compounds (14%) detected with values generated with estuarine receiving water concentrations. When plasma concentrations were modeled from observed whole-body tissue residues, 16 compounds out of 24 detected

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2017 Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)

75. Unwarranted claims of drug efficacy in pharmaceutical sales visits: are drugs approved on the basis of surrogate outcomes promoted appropriately? (PubMed)

Unwarranted claims of drug efficacy in pharmaceutical sales visits: are drugs approved on the basis of surrogate outcomes promoted appropriately? This study compares physicians' recall of the claims of benefits on cardiovascular disease and diabetes made by pharmaceutical sales representatives for drugs approved on the basis of a surrogate outcome, i.e., an off-label claim, compared with those approved on the basis of a serious morbidity or mortality (clinical) outcome.Physicians in primary (...) care practices in Montreal, Vancouver, Sacramento and Toulouse, who saw sales representatives as part of their usual practice and served a non-referral population, were contacted in blocks of 25 from a randomized list of all physicians practising in the relevant metropolitan area. We compared how frequently physicians reported that sales reps made claims of serious morbidity or mortality (clinically meaningful) benefits for drugs approved on the basis of surrogate outcomes vs. drugs approved

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2017 British journal of clinical pharmacology

76. Overview on the Biochemical Potential of Filamentous Fungi to Degrade Pharmaceutical Compounds (PubMed)

Overview on the Biochemical Potential of Filamentous Fungi to Degrade Pharmaceutical Compounds Pharmaceuticals represent an immense business with increased demand due to intensive livestock raising and an aging human population, which guarantee the quality of human life and well-being. However, the development of removal technologies for these compounds is not keeping pace with the swift increase in their use. Pharmaceuticals constitute a potential risk group of multiclass chemicals (...) many structures of pharmaceutical compounds, including anti-inflammatories, β-blockers, and antibiotics. This is possible due to different mechanisms in combination with the extracellular and intracellular enzymes, which have broad of biotechnological applications. Thus, fungi and their enzymes could represent a promising tool to deal with this environmental problem. Here, we review the studies performed on pharmaceutical compounds biodegradation by the great diversity of these eukaryotes. We

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2017 Frontiers in microbiology

77. Characterization of the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian primary health care (PubMed)

in a representative sample of cities, stratified by Brazilian regions. We interviewed municipal secretaries of health, responsible for pharmaceutical services, and pharmacists responsible for the dispensing of medicines. The variables selected from the interviews were grouped into five dimensions that defined three stages of pharmaceutical services institutionalization: incipient (0%-34.0%), partial (35.0%-69.0%), and advanced (70.0%-100%), estimated based on the interviewees' answers. Frequencies were estimated (...) Characterization of the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian primary health care To characterize the current stage of the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities.This study is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), a cross-sectional, exploratory, and evaluative study composed by an information survey

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2017 Revista de saúde pública

78. Conceptions on pharmaceutical services in Brazilian primary health care (PubMed)

Conceptions on pharmaceutical services in Brazilian primary health care To identify and discuss the conceptions of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian Primary Health Care, according to different subjects.This study is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015), which is composed of an information survey in a representative (...) sample of cities, stratified according to Brazilian regions, and a subsample of primary health care services. Municipal secretaries of health, those responsible for pharmaceutical services, and those responsible for medicine delivery in pharmacies/dispensing units of the selected services were interviewed. The questionnaires included one question about the understanding of the interviewee regarding pharmaceutical services. The content analysis technique was used to apprehend, in the statements

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2017 Revista de saúde pública

79. Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical services in Brazilian primary health care (PubMed)

Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical services in Brazilian primary health care To evaluate patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical services in Brazilian primary health care.This is a cross-sectional, exploratory, and evaluative study on a representative sample from the five Brazilian geopolitical regions resulting from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational (...) -62.3). The "opportunity/convenience" aspect had the lowest satisfaction percentage (49.5%; 95%CI 46.4-52.6) and "interpersonal aspects," the highest percentage (90.5%; 95%CI 88.9-91.8), significantly higher than other aspects. Sex, age group, limitations due to disease, and self-perception of health remained associated in the final multiple logistic model regarding general satisfaction.Most of the interviewed users were satisfied with pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities

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2017 Revista de saúde pública

80. Financing of Pharmaceutical Services in the municipal management of the Brazilian Unified Health System (PubMed)

Financing of Pharmaceutical Services in the municipal management of the Brazilian Unified Health System To discuss factors related to the financing of the Basic Component of Pharmaceutical Services within the municipal management of the Brazilian Unified Health System.The Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos no Brasil - Serviços (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services) is a cross-sectional (...) , exploratory, and evaluative study that performed an information survey in a representative sample, stratified by Brazilian regions It considered different study populations in the sampling plan, which represent primary health care services in the cities. Data were collected in 2015 by two methods: in person, by applying direct observation scripts and interviews with users, physicians, and professionals responsible for the dispensing of medicines in primary care services; by telephone interviews

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2017 Revista de saúde pública

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