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Pharmaceutical Representative

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7461. A population-based study of the prevalence and influence of gifts to radiation oncologists from pharmaceutical companies and medical equipment manufacturers. (PubMed)

A population-based study of the prevalence and influence of gifts to radiation oncologists from pharmaceutical companies and medical equipment manufacturers. Hospital-based physicians are responsible for the purchase of expensive equipment. Little is known about the influence of gift giving on their behavior. We wanted to ascertain the prevalence of gift giving from the pharmaceutical industry and medical equipment manufacturers to radiation oncologists and determine whether or not the size (...) likely to agree with statements such as "clinical information provided to radiation oncologists by companies provides a useful continuing medical education service."To our knowledge, this study represents the first large-scale population based study of a hospital-based specialty and gift giving. This study demonstrates that: (1) Gift giving in radiation oncology is endemic. (2) Although each physician is likely to consider himself or herself immune from being influenced by gift giving, he or she

2004 Biology and Physics

7462. Physicians and the pharmaceutical industry: is a gift ever just a gift? (PubMed)

Physicians and the pharmaceutical industry: is a gift ever just a gift? Controversy exists over the fact that physicians have regular contact with the pharmaceutical industry and its sales representatives, who spend a large sum of money each year promoting to them by way of gifts, free meals, travel subsidies, sponsored teachings, and symposia.To identify the extent of and attitudes toward the relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry and its representatives and its impact (...) to be of higher methodological quality.Physician interactions with pharmaceutical representatives were generally endorsed, began in medical school, and continued at a rate of about 4 times per month. Meetings with pharmaceutical representatives were associated with requests by physicians for adding the drugs to the hospital formulary and changes in prescribing practice. Drug company-sponsored continuing medical education (CME) preferentially highlighted the sponsor's drug(s) compared with other CME programs

2000 JAMA

7463. Relationships between authors of clinical practice guidelines and the pharmaceutical industry. (PubMed)

of interactions between authors of CPGs and the pharmaceutical industry.Cross-sectional survey of 192 authors of 44 CPGs endorsed by North American and European societies on common adult diseases published between 1991 and July 1999. One hundred authors (52%) provided usable responses representing 37 of 44 different CPGs that we identified.Nature and extent of interactions of authors with drug manufacturers; disclosure of relationships in published guidelines; prior discussion among authors regarding (...) Relationships between authors of clinical practice guidelines and the pharmaceutical industry. Increasing contact has been reported between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry, although no data exist in the literature regarding potential financial conflicts of interest for authors of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). These interactions may be particularly relevant since CPGs are designed to influence the practice of a large number of physicians.To quantify the extent and nature

2002 JAMA

7464. The pharmaceutical industry as an informant. (PubMed)

The pharmaceutical industry as an informant. The pharmaceutical industry spends more time and resources on generation, collation, and dissemination of medical information than it does on production of medicines. This information is essential as a resource for development of medicines, but is also needed to satisfy licensing requirements, protect patents, promote sales, and advise patients, prescribers, and dispensers. Such information is of great commercial value, and most of it is confidential (...) , protected by regulations about intellectual property rights. Through their generation and dissemination of information, transnational companies can greatly influence clinical practice. Sometimes, their commercially determined goals represent genuine advances in health-care provision, but most often they are implicated in excessive and costly production of information that is largely kept secret, often duplicated, and can risk undermining the best interests of patients and society.

2002 Lancet

7465. Accountability of the pharmaceutical industry. (PubMed)

with clinical investigations, and efforts to mould medical thinking and priorities as a means to enlarge the market. In such respects, the pharmaceutical industry must now be called to order. The industry has shown itself to be sufficiently resilient to adapt to change if society insists on it. However, to influence multinational corporations effectively, the efforts of governments will have to be complemented by others, notably the many voluntary organisations that have shown they can effectively represent (...) Accountability of the pharmaceutical industry. The pharmaceutical industry is accountable on the one hand to its shareholders and on the other to the community at large. These two obligations can, in principle, be met. However, the industry has developed practices that do not consider society, including excessive or inappropriate pricing of drugs, an indifference to the needs and limitations of the developing world, an imbalance between true innovation and promotional activity, interference

2002 Lancet

7466. Reasons for not seeing drug representatives : Lightening workload, cutting costs, and improving quality  (PubMed)

Reasons for not seeing drug representatives : Lightening workload, cutting costs, and improving quality  10398608 1999 08 26 2018 11 13 0959-8138 319 7202 1999 Jul 10 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Reasons for not seeing drug representatives. 69-70 Griffith D D eng Comment Editorial England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 0 Pharmaceutical Preparations AIM E IM BMJ. 1998 Aug 1;317(7154):291-2 9685268 BMJ. 1999 Oct 9;319(7215):1002 10514174 BMJ. 1999 Oct 9;319(7215):1002 10576839 BMJ. 1999 Oct 9;319 (...) (7215):1003 10576841 BMJ. 1999 Oct 9;319(7215):1002-3 10576840 Information Dissemination Marketing of Health Services Pharmaceutical Preparations Professional Practice Workload 62151 Health Care and Public Health Professional Patient Relationship KIE BoB Subject Heading: health care/economics KIE BoB Subject Heading: patient care/drugs Editorial Full author name: Griffith, David 1999 7 10 1999 7 10 0 1 1999 7 10 0 0 ppublish 10398608 PMC1116222 BMJ. 1998 Apr 18;316(7139):1180-1 9552990 Drug Ther

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1999 BMJ : British Medical Journal

7467. Bioluminescence for USP sterility testing of pharmaceutical suspension products. (PubMed)

Bioluminescence for USP sterility testing of pharmaceutical suspension products. Bioluminescence measurement significantly improved the accuracy, sensitivity, precision, and reliability of the current visual endpoint determination for the USP sterility test and eliminated the day 7 transfer/dilution step required for testing suspension products. Thirteen strains of bacteria and fungi (representing potential contaminants in sterile products), three pharmaceutical suspension products, and four

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1986 Applied and environmental microbiology

7468. Promotion by the British pharmaceutical industry, 1983-8: a critical analysis of self regulation. (PubMed)

Promotion by the British pharmaceutical industry, 1983-8: a critical analysis of self regulation. Since 1958 the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry (ABPI) has attempted to regulate the promotion of prescription medicines through its code of practice. This regulation is described and analysed for the six years 1983-8 using the reports on 302 complaints considered by its code of practice committee and annual reports. The complaints came mainly from doctors (143, 48%) and competing (...) promotion, have abrogated their responsibility to the ABPI, but the evidence suggests that the code has failed to deter promotional excesses. The ABPI's wish to secure compliance with the code seems weaker than its wish to pre-empt outside criticism and action: its self regulation seems to be a service to itself rather than to the public. It is suggested that the code of practice committee should become publicly accountable, that the majority of its members should represent the health professions

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1990 BMJ : British Medical Journal

7469. Continuing education for general practice and the role of the pharmaceutical industry. (PubMed)

Continuing education for general practice and the role of the pharmaceutical industry. A survey of the involvement in and attitudes towards continuing medical education of 101 general practitioners achieved a 95% response rate. Ninety per cent of the 96 doctors worked in practices which held meetings the content of which was organized by representatives of pharmaceutical companies but only 46% worked in practices which organized their own educational meetings. Seventy six per cent attended (...) in the practice and those held elsewhere was the aspect most liked by over half of the respondents (59% and 53% respectively). Only 16% of all respondents thought that visits by representatives from pharmaceutical companies were educationally valuable and 37% thought that educational events organized by these companies were of value. Surprisingly 60% of those who worked in practices which held meetings organized by drug company representatives thought them to be of little or no educational value

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1990 The British Journal of General Practice

7470. Price indexes for pharmaceuticals used by the elderly (PubMed)

Price indexes for pharmaceuticals used by the elderly The analysis presented in this report was undertaken to identify those drug entities that account for a significant proportion of the retail expenditures for prescription drugs used by the elderly. Commercial data bases were used to develop fixed weight Laspeyres price indexes based specifically on drugs used in the elderly population. The indexes provide the capability to analyze price trends for drug groupings that are not possible (...) with the producer price index (PPI) or the Consumer Price Index (CPI). From 1981 through 1988, the average annual rate of increase in manufacturers' prices was 9.1 percent, and retail prices increased at an average annual rate of 6.6 percent. The indexes represent potentially powerful tools in analyzing drug price trends, an important component of drug program expenditure forecasting and management.

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1992 Health Care Financing Review

7471. Interactions with the pharmaceutical industry: experiences and attitudes of psychiatry residents, interns and clerks. (PubMed)

Interactions with the pharmaceutical industry: experiences and attitudes of psychiatry residents, interns and clerks. To examine the type and number of interactions of psychiatry residents, interns and clerks with sales representatives of pharmaceutical companies and the attitudes of physicians-in-training toward these interactions.Survey conducted with the use of a self-report questionnaire.Seven teaching hospitals affiliated with the Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto.All 105 (...) interactions with pharmaceutical representatives.Median number of personal meetings reported was 1 (range 0 to 35), of drug lunches attended was 10 (range 0 to 70), of promotional items received was 2 (range 0 to 75) and of drug samples received was 1 (range 0 to 20). Trainees' median estimate of the value of gifts received was $20 (range $0 to $800 Fewer than one third felt that pharmaceutical representatives were a source of accurate information about drugs; however, 71% (52/73) disagreed

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1995 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

7472. Interactions with the pharmaceutical industry: a survey of family medicine residents in Ontario. (PubMed)

%) of the residents who responded stated that they had read the CMA policy statement on appropriate interactions between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry. A total of 124 (54.9%) stated that they would attend a private dinner paid for by a pharmaceutical representative; the proportion was not significantly reduced among those who had read the CMA guidelines, which prohibit the acceptance of personal gifts. In all, 186 (82.3%) reported that they would like the opportunity to interact with pharmaceutical (...) representatives in an educational setting, even though several programs now discourage these interactions. Approximately three quarters (172/226 [76.1%]) of the residents indicated that they plan to see pharmaceutical representatives in their future practice. Residents at Centre 2 were significantly more critical of the pharmaceutical industry than those from the other centres. Overall, being aware of, and familiar with, departmental policy or CMA policy on interactions with the pharmaceutical industry did

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1996 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

7473. Regulating pharmaceutical advertising: What will work? (PubMed)

Regulating pharmaceutical advertising: What will work? As Dr. Joel Lexchin makes painfully obvious in this issue (see pages 351 to 356), regulatory processes governing pharmaceutical advertising in Canada and elsewhere are seriously compromised. However, the remedial measures Lexchin proposes are not sufficient. Financial sanctions against improper advertising are likely to be regarded by manufacturers as the cost of doing business, and any regulatory body that includes drug industry (...) representatives or individuals receiving financial support from the drug industry cannot be genuinely independent. Moreover, manufacturers are now using promotional strategies that are particularly difficult to regulate. These include providing drugs at lower than the usual cost to ensure their inclusion in managed-care formularies, and using direct-to-consumer advertising to take advantage of the public's lack of sophistication in interpreting scientific evidence. Our best hope of counteracting the power

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1997 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

7474. Understanding why GPs see pharmaceutical representatives: a qualitative interview study. (PubMed)

Understanding why GPs see pharmaceutical representatives: a qualitative interview study. Doctors are aware of the commercial bias in pharmaceutical representative information; nevertheless, such information is known to change doctors' prescribing, and augment irrational prescribing and prescribing costs.To explore GPs, reasons for receiving visits from pharmaceutical representatives.Qualitative study with semi-structured interviews.One hundred and seven general practitioners (GPs) in practices (...) from two health authorities in the North West of England.The main outcome measures of the study were: reasons for receiving/not receiving representative visits; advantages/disadvantages in receiving visits; and quality of representative-supplied information. Most GPs routinely see pharmaceutical representatives, because they bring new drug information speedily; they are convenient and accessible; and can be consulted with a saving of time and effort. Many GPs asserted they had the skills

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2003 The British Journal of General Practice

7475. Response to “Interactions Between Pharmaceutical Representatives and Doctors in Training: A Thematic Review” (PubMed)

Response to “Interactions Between Pharmaceutical Representatives and Doctors in Training: A Thematic Review” 16423138 2006 08 01 2018 11 13 1525-1497 21 1 2006 Jan Journal of general internal medicine J Gen Intern Med Response to "Interactions between pharmaceutical representatives and doctors in training: a thematic review". 103; author reply 103 Wen Leana S LS McCoy Christopher C eng Comment Letter United States J Gen Intern Med 8605834 0884-8734 IM J Gen Intern Med. 2005 Aug;20(8):777-86

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2006 Journal of General Internal Medicine

7476. Attitudes and behaviors of psychiatry residents toward pharmaceutical representatives before and after an educational intervention. (PubMed)

Attitudes and behaviors of psychiatry residents toward pharmaceutical representatives before and after an educational intervention. The authors sought to determine the effect of an educational seminar on interactions with pharmaceutical representatives on residents' attitudes and behavior.A controlled trial of an educational intervention was conducted. Residents at a university-affiliated residency program (N=32) were divided into two groups: one group (N=18) received a 1-hour educational (...) intervention, while the other group (N=14) served as a control. Both groups completed a 33-item survey before the intervention and 2 months after the intervention.Residents interacted substantially with pharmaceutical representatives. The majority of residents found the interactions and gifts useful and believed their prescribing practices were not influenced. Compared to the comparison group, the intervention group significantly decreased the reported number of office supplies and noneducational gifts

2005 Academic psychiatry : the journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry

7477. Interactions between pharmaceutical representatives and doctors in training. A thematic review. (PubMed)

Interactions between pharmaceutical representatives and doctors in training. A thematic review. Medical school and residency are formative years in establishing patterns of prescribing. We aimed to review the literature regarding the extent of pharmaceutical industry contact with trainees, attitudes about these interactions, and effects on trainee prescribing behavior, with an emphasis on points of potential intervention and policy formation.We searched MEDLINE from 1966 until May 2004 (...) for English language articles. All original articles were included if the abstract reported content relevant to medical training and the pharmaceutical industry. Editorials, guidelines, and policy recommendations were excluded.Contact with pharmaceutical representatives was common among residents. The majority of trainees felt that the interactions were appropriate. A minority felt that their own prescribing could be influenced by contact or gifts, but were more likely to believe that others' prescribing

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2005 Journal of General Internal Medicine

7478. Differences in prescribing between GPs: impact of the cooperation with pharmacists and impact of visits from pharmaceutical industry representatives. (PubMed)

Differences in prescribing between GPs: impact of the cooperation with pharmacists and impact of visits from pharmaceutical industry representatives. Community pharmacists, pharmaceutical industry and differences in prescribing between GPs.To explore the role of the pharmacists and pharmaceutical industry representatives.A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of 1434 GPs in The Netherlands in 2001. Prescribing indicators based on general practice guidelines were used to assess the quality (...) of prescribing. Three constructs, based on survey questions, were used as possible determinants for the quality of prescribing: cooperation with the pharmacist; quality of the Pharmacotherapeutic audit meeting (PTAM); and the GP's attitude towards the pharmacist's role. Data were collected about the frequency of visits by pharmaceutical industry representatives. Responses from 324 solo GPs were analysed using multiple linear regression.Response rate: 71%. For the 324 solo GPs the average score for the 20

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2005 Family Practice

7479. General practitioners and pharmaceutical sales representatives: quality improvement research. (PubMed)

General practitioners and pharmaceutical sales representatives: quality improvement research. Interaction between pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) and general practitioners (GPs) may have an adverse impact on GP prescribing and therefore may be ethically questionable. This study aimed to evaluate the interactions between PSRs and GPs in an Australian general practice, and develop and evaluate a policy to guide the interaction.Doctors' prescribing, diaries, practice promotional

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2007 Quality and Safety in Health Care

7480. “Disinformation” from pharmaceutical company representatives (PubMed)

“Disinformation” from pharmaceutical company representatives 2390749 1990 10 04 2008 11 20 0820-3946 143 5 1990 Sep 01 CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne CMAJ "Disinformation" from pharmaceutical company representatives. 370 eng Comment Letter Canada CMAJ 9711805 0820-3946 AIM IM CMAJ. 1990 Jun 1;142(11):1177-8 2344567 Canada Drug Compounding economics Drug Industry Therapeutic Equivalency 1990 9 1 1990 9 1 0 1 1990 9 1 0 0 ppublish

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1990 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

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