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41. Regulating pharmaceutical companies’ financial largesse (PubMed)

Regulating pharmaceutical companies’ financial largesse Nissanholtz-Gannot and Yenkellevich (NGY) explore the impact of a 2010 amendment to the Israeli National Health Insurance Law that requires annual reporting of payments from pharmaceutical companies (PCs) to doctors and healthcare organizations. The amendment was adopted to ensure transparency and to facilitate appropriate regulation of interest conflicts. To learn whether the amendment was having the desired effects, NGY interviewed (...) multiple representatives of an assortment of stakeholders. They found broad agreement among the respondents that financial relationships between PCs and physicians should be transparent. But they also discovered that ignorance of the 2010 amendment was widespread, especially among physicians, and that knowledgeable respondents thought loopholes rendered the law ineffective. Lastly, NGY found that the improvement in the transparency culture has more to do with pressure put by international and non

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2018 Israel journal of health policy research

42. Classes, Databases, and Prediction Methods of Pharmaceutically and Commercially Important Cystine-Stabilized Peptides (PubMed)

Classes, Databases, and Prediction Methods of Pharmaceutically and Commercially Important Cystine-Stabilized Peptides Cystine-stabilized peptides represent a large family of peptides characterized by high structural stability and bactericidal, fungicidal, or insecticidal properties. Found throughout a wide range of taxa, this broad and functionally important family can be subclassified into distinct groups dependent upon their number and type of cystine bonding patters, tertiary structures (...) , and/or their species of origin. Furthermore, the annotation of proteins related to the cystine-stabilized family are under-represented in the literature due to their difficulty of isolation and identification. As a result, there are several recent attempts to collate them into data resources and build analytic tools for their dynamic prediction. Ultimately, the identification and delivery of new members of this family will lead to their growing inclusion into the repertoire of commercial viable alternatives

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2018 Toxins

43. A Method for Developing Rapid Screening Values for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) in Water and Results of Initial Application for 119 APIs (PubMed)

A Method for Developing Rapid Screening Values for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) in Water and Results of Initial Application for 119 APIs Americans fill upward of four billion prescriptions for pharmaceuticals each year, and many of those pharmaceuticals eventually make their way into the environment. Hundreds of different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are detected in ambient waters and source water used for drinking water in the U.S. Very few of these drugs have health (...) and novel uncertainty and adjustment factors specific to the information available for APIs. This framework, along with an estimated lowest therapeutic dose (LTD), was used to derive screening reference dose (sRfD) values. Water screening values (WSV) were then derived using the sRfD, a relative source contribution factor (RSC), and a water intake rate for infants to represent a highly exposed population. MDH used this new method to derive water screening values for 119 APIs that are commonly prescribed

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2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

44. Pharmaceutical Dispersion Techniques for Dissolution and Bioavailability Enhancement of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs (PubMed)

Pharmaceutical Dispersion Techniques for Dissolution and Bioavailability Enhancement of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs Over the past decades, a large number of drugs as well as drug candidates with poor dissolution characteristics have been witnessed, which invokes great interest in enabling formulation of these active ingredients. Poorly water-soluble drugs, especially biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) II ones, are preferably designed as oral dosage forms if the dissolution limit can (...) be broken through. Minimizing a drug’s size is an effective means to increase its dissolution and hence the bioavailability, which can be achieved by specialized dispersion techniques. This article reviews the most commonly used dispersion techniques for pharmaceutical processing that can practically enhance the dissolution and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Major interests focus on solid dispersion, lipid-based dispersion (nanoencapsulation), and liquisolid dispersion (drug

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2018 Pharmaceutics

45. Individualized Pharmaceutical-care in Outpatients With Cancer Pain

of life at 1 month ] Comparison of quality of life of cancer pain patients with or without pharmaceutical care. Quality of life is assessed using EuroQol- 5 Dimension (EQ-5D). It is a questionnaire to measure quality of life. It contains 5 domains: Mobility; Self-care; Usual activity; Pain; Anxiety/depression. It also contains a visual analogue scale. Weights are used to score the responses to the 5 domains, with scores ranging from 0 to 1 (where a score of 1 represents a perfect state (...) Individualized Pharmaceutical-care in Outpatients With Cancer Pain Individualized Pharmaceutical-care in Outpatients With Cancer Pain - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Individualized

2018 Clinical Trials

46. A diverse suite of pharmaceuticals contaminates stream and riparian food webs (PubMed)

A diverse suite of pharmaceuticals contaminates stream and riparian food webs A multitude of biologically active pharmaceuticals contaminate surface waters globally, yet their presence in aquatic food webs remain largely unknown. Here, we show that over 60 pharmaceutical compounds can be detected in aquatic invertebrates and riparian spiders in six streams near Melbourne, Australia. Similar concentrations in aquatic invertebrate larvae and riparian predators suggest direct trophic transfer via (...) emerging adult insects to riparian predators that consume them. As representative vertebrate predators feeding on aquatic invertebrates, platypus and brown trout could consume some drug classes such as antidepressants at as much as one-half of a recommended therapeutic dose for humans based on their estimated prey consumption rates, yet the consequences for fish and wildlife of this chronic exposure are unknown. Overall, this work highlights the potential exposure of aquatic and riparian biota

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2018 Nature communications

47. Resemblance of the human liver sinusoid in a fluidic device with biomedical and pharmaceutical applications (PubMed)

Resemblance of the human liver sinusoid in a fluidic device with biomedical and pharmaceutical applications Maintenance of the complex phenotype of primary hepatocytes in vitro represents a limitation for developing liver support systems and reliable tools for biomedical research and drug screening. We herein aimed at developing a biosystem able to preserve human and rodent hepatocytes phenotype in vitro based on the main characteristics of the liver sinusoid: unique cellular architecture (...) . In conclusion, this study describes a new bioengineered device that mimics the human sinusoid in vitro, representing a novel method to study liver diseases and toxicology.© 2018 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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2018 Biotechnology and bioengineering

48. Pharmaceutical Impact of Houttuynia Cordata and Metformin Combination on High-Fat-Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders: Link to Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Endotoxemia (PubMed)

Pharmaceutical Impact of Houttuynia Cordata and Metformin Combination on High-Fat-Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders: Link to Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Endotoxemia Purpose: Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutic agents in western and oriental medicinal fields, respectively. The present study examined the therapeutic effects of houttuynia cordata extract (HCE) and metformin in combination in a dysmetabolic mouse model. Methods: Metabolic disorders

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2018 Frontiers in endocrinology

49. Pharmacological Properties, Molecular Mechanisms, and Pharmaceutical Development of Asiatic Acid: A Pentacyclic Triterpenoid of Therapeutic Promise (PubMed)

Pharmacological Properties, Molecular Mechanisms, and Pharmaceutical Development of Asiatic Acid: A Pentacyclic Triterpenoid of Therapeutic Promise Asiatic acid (AA) is a naturally occurring aglycone of ursane type pentacyclic triterpenoids. It is abundantly present in many edible and medicinal plants including Centella asiatica that is a reputed herb in many traditional medicine formulations for wound healing and neuropsychiatric diseases. AA possesses numerous pharmacological activities (...) such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory and regulates apoptosis that attributes its therapeutic effects in numerous diseases. AA showed potent antihypertensive, nootropic, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities in preclinical studies. In various in vitro and in vivo studies, AA found to affect many enzymes, receptors, growth factors, transcription factors, apoptotic proteins, and cell signaling cascades. This review aims to represent the available reports on therapeutic

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2018 Frontiers in pharmacology

50. Operationalization and validation of a novel method to calculate adherence to polypharmacy with refill data from the Australian pharmaceutical benefits scheme (PBS) database (PubMed)

Operationalization and validation of a novel method to calculate adherence to polypharmacy with refill data from the Australian pharmaceutical benefits scheme (PBS) database Electronic health care data contain rich information on medicine use from which adherence can be estimated. Various measures developed with medication claims data called for transparency of the equations used, predominantly because they may overestimate adherence, and even more when used with multiple medications. We aimed (...) to operationalize a novel calculation of adherence with polypharmacy, the daily polypharmacy possession ratio (DPPR), and validate it against the common measure of adherence, the medication possession ratio (MPR) and a modified version (MPRm).We used linked health data from the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme and Western Australian hospital morbidity dataset and mortality register. We identified a strict study cohort from 16,185 patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized for myocardial infarction in 2003

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2018 Clinical epidemiology

51. Genetic Parameter Estimates for Metabolizing Two Common Pharmaceuticals in Swine (PubMed)

Genetic Parameter Estimates for Metabolizing Two Common Pharmaceuticals in Swine In livestock, the regulation of drugs used to treat livestock has received increased attention and it is currently unknown how much of the phenotypic variation in drug metabolism is due to the genetics of an animal. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the amount of phenotypic variation in fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine drug metabolism due to genetics. The population consisted of crossbred (...) female and castrated male nursery pigs (n = 198) that were sired by boars represented by four breeds. The animals were spread across nine batches. Drugs were administered intravenously and blood collected a minimum of 10 times over a 48 h period. Genetic parameters for the parent drug and metabolite concentration within each drug were estimated based on pharmacokinetics (PK) parameters or concentrations across time utilizing a random regression model. The PK parameters were estimated using a non

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2018 Frontiers in genetics

52. Cell-free synthetic biology for in vitro biosynthesis of pharmaceutical natural products (PubMed)

Cell-free synthetic biology for in vitro biosynthesis of pharmaceutical natural products Natural products with significant biological activities continuously act as rich sources for drug discovery and development. To harness the potential of these valuable compounds, robust methods need to be developed for their rapid and sustainable production. Cell-free biosynthesis of pharmaceutical natural products by in vitro reconstruction of the entire biosynthetic pathways represents one such solution

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2018 Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology

53. Higher pharmaceutical public expenditure after direct price control: improved access or induced demand? The Colombian case (PubMed)

Higher pharmaceutical public expenditure after direct price control: improved access or induced demand? The Colombian case High pharmaceutical expenditure is one of the main concerns for policymakers worldwide. In Colombia, a middle-income country, outpatient prescription represents over 10% of total health expenditure in the mandatory benefits package (POS), and close to 90% in the complementary government fund (No POS). In order to control expenditure, since 2011, the Ministry of Health (...) introduced price caps on inpatient drugs reimbursements by active ingredient. By 2013, more than 400 different products, covering 80% of public pharmaceutical expenditure were controlled. This paper investigates the effects of the Colombian policy efforts to control expenditure by controlling prices.Using SISMED data, the official database for prices and quantities sold in the domestic market, we estimate a Laspeyres price index for 90 relevant markets in the period 2011-2015, and, then, we estimate real

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2018 Cost effectiveness and resource allocation : C/E

54. Enhanced Cytotoxic Activity of Mitochondrial Mechanical Effectors in Human Lung Carcinoma H520 Cells: Pharmaceutical Implications for Cancer Therapy (PubMed)

Enhanced Cytotoxic Activity of Mitochondrial Mechanical Effectors in Human Lung Carcinoma H520 Cells: Pharmaceutical Implications for Cancer Therapy Cancer cell mitochondria represent an attractive target for oncological treatment as they have unique hallmarks that differ from their healthy counterparts, as the presence of a stronger membrane potential that can be exploited to specifically accumulate cytotoxic cationic molecules. Here, we explore the selective cytotoxic effect of 10-N-nonyl

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2018 Frontiers in oncology

55. Pharmaceutical company spending on research and development and promotion in Canada, 2013-2016: a cohort analysis (PubMed)

Pharmaceutical company spending on research and development and promotion in Canada, 2013-2016: a cohort analysis Competing claims are made about the amount of money that pharmaceutical companies spend on research and development (R&D) versus promotion. This study investigates this question in the Canadian context.Two methods for determining industry-wide figures for spending on promotion were employed. First, total industry spending on detailing and journal advertising for 2013-2016 (...) of the 50 most promoted drugs, mean R&D spending ranged from 3.7% of sales to 4.1% compared to mean promotion spending that went from 1.7 to 1.9%. The ratio of spending on R&D to promotion varied from 2.11 to 2.32. Eight to 10 companies per year spent more on promotion than on R&D.Depending on the method used to determine promotion spending, industry-wide the ratio of R&D spending to promotion ranges from 1.45 to 2.18 (sales representatives and journal advertising only) or from 0.88 to 1.32 (total

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2018 Journal of pharmaceutical policy and practice

56. A novel approach of using educational pharmaceutical pictogram for improving inhaler techniques in patients with asthma. (PubMed)

to have improved inhaler techniques as compared to those in the control group respectively.Educational pharmaceutical pictograms represent an inexpensive and feasible intervention that can positively affect the proper use of inhalers in asthmatic patients.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (...) A novel approach of using educational pharmaceutical pictogram for improving inhaler techniques in patients with asthma. Proper inhaler technique is essential to maximize the benefit of medications and improve asthma outcomes.To evaluate newly developed pictogram-incorporated medals and their utility on improving the inhaler techniques in asthmatic patients.A prospective, an open label, randomized controlled clinical study was conducted in Jordan from November 2016 to November 2017

2018 Respiratory medicine

57. Antiretroviral Therapy Treatment in Australia - Comparing the Australian HIV Observational Database Using a National Representative Database of Prescription Data. (PubMed)

HIV Observational Database [AHOD]) and a 10% longitudinal sample from Australia's subsidized prescription medication scheme (Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme [PBS]) to assess the use of cohorts for providing representative data for surveillance and monitoring purposes.Basic demographics and treatment information from July 1, 2013, to March 31, 2016, were divided into half-yearly periods to compare HIV trends between AHOD (n = 2,488) and PBS (n = 18,409) patients.In both data sets, most patients were (...) Antiretroviral Therapy Treatment in Australia - Comparing the Australian HIV Observational Database Using a National Representative Database of Prescription Data. Cohort studies are often used as a national surveillance tool to monitor trends in HIV treatment and morbidity outcomes. However, there are limited studies validating the accuracy of using cohorts as a representation of the overall HIV-positive population. We compared data from a large Australian HIV-positive cohort study (Australian

2018 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

58. Are Physicians Influenced By Pharmaceutical Gifts?

and consumed panang curry provided by a pharmaceutical representative who was promoting the blood thinner Pradaxa. He enthusiastically extolled the virtues of Pradaxa throughout the lunch and made some excellent points supporting the use of the drug. Shortly thereafter, when I was considering which of the newer blood thinners to prescribe for a patient , Pradaxa was foremost in my mind. The scientific data that Boehringer Ingelheim wanted me to be aware of entered the crowded marketplace of ideas in my (...) . Thus, my lunch/breakfast typically consists of Trader’s Point full fat plain yogurt with lots of blueberries and raspberries, and perhaps some ground up flaxseed and/or almonds (although today I’ll be bringing in leftover-meatloaf and roasted root vegetables.) It’s not as tantalizing as the curry, but it leaves my crowded brain free to ponder the multitude of unbiased data from scientific papers, rather than the talking points a pharmaceutical representative would prefer I ponder. The end result, I

2017 The Skeptical Cardiologist

59. Tom Jefferson: Adapting pharmaceutical regulation to more transparency

Tom Jefferson: Adapting pharmaceutical regulation to more transparency Tom Jefferson: Adapting pharmaceutical regulation to more transparency - The BMJ ---> On the 8 December the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the EU Commission hosted a workshop to discuss Adaptive Pathways, formerly known as Adaptive Licensing. The 180 physical and 155 remote attendees included regulators, representatives of patients’ organisations, payers, academics, industry, and health technology assessment bodies (...) on EMA’s website). A pharmaceutical industry view of the initiative is . In preparation for the meeting, attendees were sent a brief report of the which was heavily restricted in detail by the need for commercial confidentiality, which had been guaranteed to sponsors of drugs or biologics taking part in the pilot study. The discussion was wide. It ranged from the definition of unmet medical need to the need to manage uncertainty when licensing new drugs or biologics, to the appropriateness and value

2016 The BMJ Blog

60. Higher Priced Older Pharmaceuticals: How Should We Respond? (PubMed)

proceedings and a few updates are presented here to summarize what pulmonologists; a sarcoidosis expert; a retired executive of a medical society, an executive of a pharmaceutical company and of a pharmacy; and an ethicist advise that we do about the problem. Because the comments presented at the session and in this manuscript represent the opinions of each author, this commentary in essence is a compilation of nine editorials. It does not represent a comprehensive discussion of the field of pricing (...) Higher Priced Older Pharmaceuticals: How Should We Respond? We and our patients have been aware of the high cost of medications in the United States for decades; however, we are now witnessing a relatively new phenomenon: exponential price increases for some older pharmaceuticals that have been available for years. To assist practitioners in how to respond to the issue of higher priced pharmaceuticals, an interprofessional session was developed and held at CHEST 2016 in Los Angeles. The session

2017 Chest

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