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21. A guide to understanding antimicrobial drug dosing in critically ill patients on renal replacement therapy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A guide to understanding antimicrobial drug dosing in critically ill patients on renal replacement therapy. A careful management of antimicrobials is essential in the critically ill with acute kidney injury, especially if renal replacement therapy is required. Acute kidney injury may lead per se to clinically significant modifications of drugs pharmacokinetic parameters and the need for renal replacement therapy represents a further variable that should be considered to avoid inappropriate (...) antimicrobial therapy. The most important pharmacokinetic parameters, useful to determine the significance of extracorporeal removal of a given drug, are molecular weight, protein binding and distribution volume. In many cases, the extracorporeal removal of antimicrobials can be relevant, with a consistent risk of underdosing-related treatment failure and/or potential onset of bacterial resistance. It should also be taken into account that renal replacement therapies are often not standardized in critically

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

22. Emergence of drug resistance in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study under potent antiretroviral therapy is observed in socially disadvantaged patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to improve patient care, prevent emergence of drug resistance, and treatment failure.We performed a case-control study to identify risk factors for ADR in all patients starting their first cART in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) since 1996. The SHCS is highly representative and includes over 75% of patients receiving ART in Switzerland. To this end, we implemented a systematic medical chart review to obtain more detailed information on additional parameters, which are not routinely collected (...) Emergence of drug resistance in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study under potent antiretroviral therapy is observed in socially disadvantaged patients. The rate of acquired HIV-1 drug resistance (ADR) has fallen dramatically since introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Switzerland. However, clinical experience indicates that there are still patients at risk of newly acquiring drug resistance despite having access to cART. Here, we characterized risk factors for ADR, in order

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

23. Computer-aided drug repurposing for cancer therapy: Approaches and opportunities to challenge anticancer targets. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Computer-aided drug repurposing for cancer therapy: Approaches and opportunities to challenge anticancer targets. Despite huge efforts made in academic and pharmaceutical worldwide research, current anticancer therapies achieve effective treatment in a limited number of neoplasia cases only. Oncology terms such as big killers - to identify tumours with yet a high mortality rate - or undruggable cancer targets, and chemoresistance, represent the current therapeutic debacle of cancer treatments (...) . In addition, metastases, tumour microenvironments, tumour heterogeneity, metabolic adaptations, and immunotherapy resistance are essential features controlling tumour response to therapies, but still, lack effective therapeutics or modulators. In this scenario, where the pharmaceutical productivity and drug efficacy in oncology seem to have reached a plateau, the so-called drug repurposing - i.e. the use of old drugs, already in clinical use, for a different therapeutic indication - is an appealing

2019 Seminars in cancer biology

24. Split-dose or hybrid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and N-acetylcysteine therapy for prevention of post-retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Split-dose or hybrid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and N-acetylcysteine therapy for prevention of post-retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. Despite significant technical and training improvements, the incidence of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) has not significantly dropped. Although many studies have evaluated the efficacy of various agents, e.g. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, octreotide, antioxidants, administered via (...) both prior to and after completion of the ERCP. The second group was administered only the 50 mg indomethacin per-rectum both prior to and after the ERCP. The third group was administered per-rectum 100 mg indomethacin only after the ERCP, representing the control group given the guideline-recommended regimen. The primary end-point was PEP prevention.Among the total 211 patients evaluated during the study, 186 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and completed the protocol. The percentages of patients

2019 World journal of clinical cases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

25. Drug therapy for symptoms associated with anxiety in adult palliative care patients. (Abstract)

Drug therapy for symptoms associated with anxiety in adult palliative care patients. This is an update of the review published on 'Drug therapy for anxiety in adult palliative care patients' in Issue 1, 2004 of The Cochrane Library. Anxiety is common in palliative care patients. It can be a natural response to impending death, but it may represent a clinically significant issue in its own right. It may also result from pain, or other untreated or poorly managed symptoms. When anxiety is severe (...) or distressing drug therapy may be considered in addition to supportive care.This review aimed to identify and evaluate randomised controlled trials examining the effectiveness of drug therapy for symptoms of anxiety in adult palliative care patients.We searched the following sources: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to 2012), EMBASE (1980 to 2012), CINAHL (1982 to 2012), PsycLit (1974 to 2000) and PsycInfo (1990 to 2012) for literature pertaining to this topic published in any

2012 Cochrane

26. Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for Young People in Treatment for Non?Opioid Drug Use: A Systematic Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for Young People in Treatment for Non?Opioid Drug Use: A Systematic Review Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for Young People in Treatment for Non‐Opioid Drug Use: A Systematic Review - Lindstrøm - 2013 - Campbell Systematic Reviews - Wiley Online Library By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our . Search within Search term Search term SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Open Access Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT (...) this review and refer to an addiction stage of non‐medical drug usage; this definition implies that the term ‘use’ refers to the consumption of drugs beyond experimentation and into addiction. of the kind that persists beyond the experimentation phase is a severe problem worldwide (United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC), 2010), and the use of non‐opioid drugs such as cannabis, amphetamines and cocaine is strongly associated with a broad range of health and social problems, including delinquency

2013 Campbell Collaboration

27. ElectroMotive drug administration (EMDA) of Mitomycin C as first-line salvage therapy in high risk "BCG failure" non muscle invasive bladder cancer: 3 years follow-up outcomes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

ElectroMotive drug administration (EMDA) of Mitomycin C as first-line salvage therapy in high risk "BCG failure" non muscle invasive bladder cancer: 3 years follow-up outcomes. In case of high grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HG-NMIBC), intravesical BCG represents the first-line treatment; despite the "gold" standard therapy, up to 50% of patients relapse, needing radical cystectomy. Hence, alternative therapeutic strategies have been developed. The aim of the study was to evaluate (...) severe adverse systemic event of hypersensitivity to the MMC in 3 patients (11.5%), and local side effects in 6 patients (26.1%).In the field of alternative strategies to radical cystectomy, the EMDA®-MMC could be considered safe and effective in high-risk NMIBC unresponsive to BCG, as a "bladder sparing" therapy in selected patients. Multicenter studies with a larger number of patients and a longer follow-up might confirm our preliminary results.EudraCT2017-002585-43. 17 June 2017 (retrospectively

2018 BMC Cancer

28. A perspective on nonadherence to drug therapy: psychological barriers and strategies to overcome nonadherence Full Text available with Trip Pro

A perspective on nonadherence to drug therapy: psychological barriers and strategies to overcome nonadherence Medication adherence represents an inefficiency and ongoing challenge within medical care. The problem has been long-recognized - indeed, the research literature contains thousands of articles on the topic. Nonetheless, because of the complex nature of the problem, it still cannot be considered to be solved. Reasons for nonadherence are myriad but psychological barriers to adherence (...) are most difficult to mitigate and, thus, are the focus of this paper. The present narrative review sketches a summary of theoretical models commonly utilized to understand and help address medication nonadherence; uses a patient-centered care approach to contextualize the problem of nonadherence to drug therapies; and then outlines a set of best-practice recommendations based on the extant data and framed from the perspective of the Information-Motivation-Strategy model.

2018 Patient preference and adherence

29. Pharmacomicrobiomics: exploiting the drug-microbiota interactions in anticancer therapies Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pharmacomicrobiomics: exploiting the drug-microbiota interactions in anticancer therapies Cancer is a major health burden worldwide, and despite continuous advances in medical therapies, resistance to standard drugs and adverse effects still represent an important cause of therapeutic failure. There is a growing evidence that gut bacteria can affect the response to chemo- and immunotherapeutic drugs by modulating either efficacy or toxicity. Moreover, intratumor bacteria have been shown

2018 Microbiome

30. Autologous adoptive T-cell therapy for recurrent or drug-resistant cytomegalovirus complications in solid organ transplant patients: A single-arm open-label phase I clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Autologous adoptive T-cell therapy for recurrent or drug-resistant cytomegalovirus complications in solid organ transplant patients: A single-arm open-label phase I clinical trial. Opportunistic infections including cytomegalovirus (CMV) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The recurrent and protracted use of antiviral drugs with eventual emergence of drug resistance represents a significant constraint to therapy. Although adoptive T-cell (...) therapy has been successfully used in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, its extension to the SOT setting poses a considerable challenge because of the inhibitory effects of immunosuppressive drugs on the virus-specific T-cell response in vivo and the perceived risk of graft rejection.In this prospective study, 22 SOT recipients (13 renal and 8 lung and 1 heart transplants) with recurrent or ganciclovir-resistant CMV infection were recruited, and 13 of them were treated with in vitro

2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

31. Rationale and design of the comparison between a P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy versus dual antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing implantation of coronary drug-eluting stents (SMART-CHOICE): A prospective multicenter randomized trial. (Abstract)

Rationale and design of the comparison between a P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy versus dual antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing implantation of coronary drug-eluting stents (SMART-CHOICE): A prospective multicenter randomized trial. Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor reduces thrombotic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but these benefits come at the expense of increased risk of bleeding when compared with aspirin (...) monotherapy. It is unclear whether P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy might maintain anti-ischemic efficacy while reducing the bleeding risk compared with DAPT after implantation of the current generation of drug-eluting stents (DES).The SMART-CHOICE trial is a prospective, open-label, multi-center, and randomized study designed to test the non-inferiority of P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy compared with aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor after mandatory 3-month DAPT in patients undergoing PCI with current-generation

2018 American Heart Journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

32. Information about management of chronic drug therapies prescribed at hospital discharge: does it affect patients' knowledge and self-confidence? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Information about management of chronic drug therapies prescribed at hospital discharge: does it affect patients' knowledge and self-confidence? Hospital stay represents the opportunity for a change of therapy, about which patients may not know indications, contraindications, and mode of administration, which may lead to dosing errors, drug interactions, side effects, etc. It is therefore vital to communicate appropriate information to the discharged patient with a new prescription drug (...) . The purpose of the study was to evaluate: 1) how communication about new chronic therapies is managed at hospital discharge and what kind of information is provided to patients; 2) to what extent patients are aware and confident in the management of these medications; 3) whether the way communication is provided affects patients' awareness and self-confidence in the management of these therapies.Participants were adult patients who were prescribed at least one new chronic medication at hospital discharge

2018 BMC health services research

33. State of the Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug Resistance: Surveillance and Regional Gaps. (Abstract)

State of the Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug Resistance: Surveillance and Regional Gaps. This article is the second of a two-part review aiming to identify gaps in the knowledge and management of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance (HIVDR) from global and regional perspectives. Here, we examine the policy and programmatic gaps in HIVDR surveillance, the affected populations and settings, and implications for clinical practice. The expert authorship (...) the regional variability in HIV epidemics, clinical practice, and resources. The need for representative surveillance was identified as a key gap that has the potential to inform management policies. Monitoring must keep up with the evolution of transmission routes to adapt appropriately, and this will be further impacted by migration from areas with increasing levels of resistance. Analysis of the latest clinical data, regional practice, policy, and guidelines has identified a number of gaps in HIVDR

2018 AIDS reviews

34. State of the Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug Resistance: Science and Technology Knowledge Gap. (Abstract)

State of the Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug Resistance: Science and Technology Knowledge Gap. Resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) threatens the efficacy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment. We present a review of knowledge gaps in the science and technologies of acquired HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) in an effort to facilitate research, scientific exchange, and progress in clinical management. The expert authorship of this review convened (...) and, in particular, integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) in the context of HIVDR. Limited experience with INSTI represents an important knowledge gap in HIV resistance science. Utilizing such knowledge in a clinical setting relies on accurate testing and analysis of resistance-associated mutations. As next-generation sequencing becomes more widely available, a gap in the interpretation of data is the lack of a defined, clinically relevant threshold of minority variants. Further research will provide

2018 AIDS reviews

35. Effect of Preventional Drug Therapy on Pain Regulation Mechanisms Among SCI

will be received at the end of the study, or if the subjects for any reason participate in the research Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: The Effect of Preventional Drug Therapy on Pain Regulation Mechanisms Among Spinal Cord Injury Patients Who Have Yet to Develop Central Pain Actual Study Start Date : August 23, 2018 Estimated Primary Completion Date : November 2019 Estimated Study Completion Date : November 2019 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: available (...) Effect of Preventional Drug Therapy on Pain Regulation Mechanisms Among SCI Effect of Preventional Drug Therapy on Pain Regulation Mechanisms Among SCI - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Effect

2018 Clinical Trials

36. Comparing biologicals and small molecule drug therapies for chronic respiratory diseases. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and effective therapies for such respiratory diseases is an arduous and expensive process. Antibody-based (biological) therapies are successful in treating certain respiratory conditions not controlled by standard therapies such as severe allergic and refractory eosinophilic severe asthma, while in other inflammatory respiratory diseases, such as COPD, biologicals are having a more limited impact. Small molecule drug (SMD)-based therapies represent an active field in pharmaceutical research and development (...) Comparing biologicals and small molecule drug therapies for chronic respiratory diseases. Chronic airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), together with their comorbidities, bear a significant burden on public health. Increased appreciation of molecular networks underlying inflammatory airway disease needs to be translated into new therapies for distinct phenotypes not controlled by current treatment regimens. On the other hand, development of new safe

2018 Allergy

37. Pharmacogenomic Testing to Optimize Antidepressant Drug Therapy

to make recommendations. Other: Pharmacogenomic Testing pharmacogenomic drug response test provides personalized insights on a patient's predicted response to medications based on metabolism Other Names: Pillcheck Geneyouin Placebo Comparator: Control Pharmacist optimizing antidepressant therapy based on standard of care Other: Pharmacist Standard of Care Pharmacist providing standard of care as per usual practice Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Treatment Satisfaction with Medicines (...) of uncertainty over the value of personalized medicine, recent studies show promising approaches for incorporating pharmacogenetics (PGx) data into routine patient care in order to reduce medication issues due to genetic factors. Over the last decades, clinical PGx research has made significant progress in defining which genetic variations are important for influencing inter-patient variability in drug response. Evidence-based consensus therapeutic guidelines for multiple drug-gene pairs are available

2018 Clinical Trials

38. Utility of Glioblastoma Patient-Derived Orthotopic Xenografts in Drug Discovery and Personalized Therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

of genomic with drug sensitivity data on a personalized basis and currently represent the ultimate approach for preclinical drug development and biomarker discovery. The proper use of these patient-derived cancer models might soon influence clinical outcomes and allow the implementation of tailored personalized therapy. When assessing drug efficacy for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), currently, the most reliable models are generated through direct injection of patient-derived cells (...) Utility of Glioblastoma Patient-Derived Orthotopic Xenografts in Drug Discovery and Personalized Therapy Despite substantial effort and resources dedicated to drug discovery and development, new anticancer agents often fail in clinical trials. Among many reasons, the lack of reliable predictive preclinical cancer models is a fundamental one. For decades, immortalized cancer cell cultures have been used to lay the groundwork for cancer biology and the quest for therapeutic responses. However

2018 Frontiers in oncology

39. Laser (Selective Retina Therapy) and Drug Combined Intervention in Clinically Significant Diabetic Macular Edema

Laser (Selective Retina Therapy) and Drug Combined Intervention in Clinically Significant Diabetic Macular Edema Laser (Selective Retina Therapy) and Drug Combined Intervention in Clinically Significant Diabetic Macular Edema - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved (...) studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Laser (Selective Retina Therapy) and Drug Combined Intervention in Clinically Significant Diabetic Macular Edema The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03759860 Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting First Posted

2018 Clinical Trials

40. Enhancing Plasticity of the Central Nervous System: Drugs, Stem Cell Therapy, and Neuro-Implants Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enhancing Plasticity of the Central Nervous System: Drugs, Stem Cell Therapy, and Neuro-Implants Stroke represents the first cause of adult acquired disability. Spontaneous recovery, dependent on endogenous neurogenesis, allows for limited recovery in 50% of patients who remain functionally dependent despite physiotherapy. Here, we propose a review of novel drug therapies with strong potential in the clinic. We will also discuss new avenues of stem cell therapy in patients with a cerebral (...) lesion. A promising future for the development of efficient drugs to enhance functional recovery after stroke seems evident. These drugs will have to prove their efficacy also in severely affected patients. The efficacy of stem cell engraftment has been demonstrated but will have to prove its potential in restoring tissue function for the massive brain lesions that are most debilitating. New answers may lay in biomaterials, a steadily growing field. Biomaterials should ideally resemble lesioned brain

2017 Neural plasticity

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