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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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141. HMG-CoA synthase isoenzymes 1 and 2 localize to satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia and are differentially regulated by peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

HMG-CoA synthase isoenzymes 1 and 2 localize to satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia and are differentially regulated by peripheral nerve injury In dorsal root ganglia (DRG), satellite glial cells (SGCs) tightly ensheathe the somata of primary sensory neurons to form functional sensory units. SGCs are identified by their flattened and irregular morphology and expression of a variety of specific marker proteins. In this report, we present evidence that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (...) nerve injury may reflect a potential role of abnormal sterol metabolism of SGCs in the nerve injured-induced neuropathic pain.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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2016 Brain research

142. Peripheral nerve injury induces adult brain neurogenesis and remodelling (PubMed)

Peripheral nerve injury induces adult brain neurogenesis and remodelling Unilateral peripheral nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) has been widely used as a research model of human neuropathic pain. Recently, CCI has been shown to induce spinal cord adult neurogenesis, which may contribute to the chronic increase in nociceptive sensitivity. Here, we show that CCI also induces rapid and profound asymmetrical anatomical rearrangements in the adult rodent cerebellum and pons. This remodelling (...) neuronal differentiation, demonstrating its dependence on adult neurogenesis. Grey matter and white matter structural changes in human brain, as a result of pain, injury or learned behaviours have been previously detected using non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. Because neurogenesis-mediated structural plasticity is thought to be restricted to the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, such anatomical rearrangements in other parts of the brain have been thought to result from neuronal plasticity

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2016 Journal of cellular and molecular medicine

143. Vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 levels after peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 levels after peripheral nerve injury The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 were altered after crush-induced peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomized into one control (n = 8) and six study groups (1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3, and 7 days after experimental nerve injury; n = 12 for each group). Crush-induced peripheral nerve injury was performed (...) on the sciatic nerves of rats in six study groups. Tissue samples from the sites of peripheral nerve injury were obtained at 1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after experimental nerve injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve were significantly greater at 1 and 12 hours after experimental nerve injury, while they were significantly lower at 7 days than in control group. Tissue level of vitamin B12

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2016 Neural Regeneration Research

144. Peripheral nerve injury induces loss of nociceptive neuron-specific Gαi-interacting protein in neuropathic pain rat (PubMed)

Peripheral nerve injury induces loss of nociceptive neuron-specific Gαi-interacting protein in neuropathic pain rat Gαi-interacting protein (GINIP) is expressed specifically in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and functions in modulation of peripheral gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor (GBR). Genetic deletion of GINIP leads to impaired responsiveness to GBR agonist-mediated analgesia in rodent. It is, however, not defined whether nerve injury changes GINIP expression.Immunolabeling (...) , including Trpv1, NaV1.7, CaV2.2α1b, CaV3.2α1b, TrkA, and Trek2. Peripheral nerve injury by L5 spinal nerve ligation significantly decreased the proportion of GINIP immunoreactivity-positive neurons from 40 ± 8.4% to 0.8 ± 0.1% (p < 0.01, mean ± SD, four weeks after spinal nerve ligation) and the total GINIP protein to 1.3% ± 0.04% of its basal level (p < 0.01, n = 6 animals in each group, two weeks after spinal nerve ligation) in the ipsilateral L5 DRGs.Our results show that GINIP is predominantly

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2016 Molecular pain

145. Calcitonin gene-related peptide contributes to peripheral nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity through CCL5 and p38 pathways (PubMed)

Calcitonin gene-related peptide contributes to peripheral nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity through CCL5 and p38 pathways The role of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) in neuropathic pain was investigated in a mouse model of neuropathic pain, spinal nerve L5 transection (L5Tx). Intrathecal injection (i.t.) of CGRP8-37, a CGRP antagonist, significantly reduced L5Tx-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and lumbar spinal cord CCL5 expression. i.t. injection of a CCL5

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2016 Journal of Neuroimmunology

146. Interleukin-1β overproduction is a common cause for neuropathic pain, memory deficit, and depression following peripheral nerve injury in rodents (PubMed)

Interleukin-1β overproduction is a common cause for neuropathic pain, memory deficit, and depression following peripheral nerve injury in rodents Chronic pain is often accompanied by short-term memory deficit and depression. Currently, it is believed that short-term memory deficit and depression are consequences of chronic pain. Here, we test the hypothesis that the symptoms might be caused by overproduction of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the injured nerve independent of neuropathic pain (...) spared nerve injury and intravenous injection of rrIL-1β and the effect of spared nerve injury was substantially reversed by peri-sciatic administration of anti-IL-1β.Neuropathic pain was not necessary for the development of cognitive and emotional disorders, while the overproduction of IL-1β in the injured sciatic nerve following peripheral nerve injury may be a common mechanism underlying the generation of neuropathic pain, memory deficit, and depression.© The Author(s) 2016.

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2016 Molecular pain

147. Tor1a+/- mice develop dystonia-like movements via a striatal dopaminergic dysregulation triggered by peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Tor1a+/- mice develop dystonia-like movements via a striatal dopaminergic dysregulation triggered by peripheral nerve injury Isolated generalized dystonia is a central motor network disorder characterized by twisted movements or postures. The most frequent genetic cause is a GAG deletion in the Tor1a (DYT1) gene encoding torsinA with a reduced penetrance of 30-40 % suggesting additional genetic or environmental modifiers. Development of dystonia-like movements after a standardized peripheral (...) analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. After nerve crush injury, we found abnormal posturing in the lesioned hindlimb of both mutant and wt mice indicating the profound influence of the nerve lesion (15x vs. 12x relative to control) resembling human peripheral pseudodystonia. In mutant mice the phenotypic abnormalities were increased by about 40 % (p < 0.05). This was accompanied by complex alterations of striatal dopamine homeostasis. Pharmacological blockade of dopamine synthesis reduced

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2016 Acta neuropathologica communications

148. Involvement of Brain-Enriched Guanylate Kinase-Associated Protein (BEGAIN) in Chronic Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury (PubMed)

Involvement of Brain-Enriched Guanylate Kinase-Associated Protein (BEGAIN) in Chronic Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury Maintenance of neuropathic pain caused by peripheral nerve injury crucially depends on the phosphorylation of GluN2B, a subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, at Tyr1472 (Y1472) and subsequent formation of a postsynaptic density (PSD) complex of superficial spinal dorsal horn neurons. Here we took advantage of comparative proteomic analysis based on isobaric (...) stable isotope tags (iTRAQ) between wild-type and knock-in mice with a mutation of Y1472 to Phe of GluN2B (Y1472F-KI) to search for PSD proteins in the spinal dorsal horn that mediate the signaling downstream of phosphorylated Y1472 GluN2B. Among several candidate proteins, we focused on brain-enriched guanylate kinase-associated protein (BEGAIN), which was specifically up-regulated in wild-type mice after spared nerve injury (SNI). Immunohistochemical analysis using the generated antibody

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2016 eNeuro

149. A therapeutic shock propels Schwann cells to proliferate in peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

A therapeutic shock propels Schwann cells to proliferate in peripheral nerve injury Damage to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is a prevalent issue and represents a great burden to patients. Although the PNS has a good capacity for regeneration, regeneration over long distances poses several difficulties. Several recent studies have addressed Schwann cells' limited proliferative capacity; however, a solution has yet to be found. Here, we examine the effects of extracorporeal shock wave (...) must be conducted to address the molecular mechanisms by which ESWT alters Schwann cells and the potential implications for peripheral nerve damage and other prevalent illnesses. This study is a review article. Referred literature in this paper has been listed in the references part. The datasets supporting the conclusions of this article are available online by searching the PubMed. Some original points in this article come from the laboratory practice in our research centers and the authors

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2016 Brain Circulation

150. NR2B Expression in Rat DRG Is Differentially Regulated Following Peripheral Nerve Injuries That Lead to Transient or Sustained Stimuli-Evoked Hypersensitivity (PubMed)

NR2B Expression in Rat DRG Is Differentially Regulated Following Peripheral Nerve Injuries That Lead to Transient or Sustained Stimuli-Evoked Hypersensitivity Following injury, primary sensory neurons undergo changes that drive central sensitization and contribute to the maintenance of persistent hypersensitivity. NR2B expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) has not been previously examined in neuropathic pain models. Here, we investigated if changes in NR2B expression within the DRG (...) are associated with hypersensitivities that result from peripheral nerve injuries. This was done by comparing the NR2B expression in the DRG derived from two modalities of the spared nerve injury (SNI) model, since each variant produces different neuropathic pain phenotypes. Using the electronic von Frey to stimulate the spared and non-spared regions of the hindpaws, we demonstrated that sural-SNI animals develop sustained neuropathic pain in both regions while the tibial-SNI animals recover. NR2B expression

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2016 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

151. 17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model (PubMed)

17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly (...) of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT

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2016 BioMed research international

152. Cortical Effects of Peripheral Nerve Injury At Birth

Cortical Effects of Peripheral Nerve Injury At Birth Cortical Effects of Peripheral Nerve Injury At Birth - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Cortical Effects of Peripheral Nerve Injury At Birth (...) and Research Hospital Information provided by (Responsible Party): Zeynep Tuna, Gazi University Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Cortical activity during rest and with stimulation by functional magnetic resonance imaging will be investigated in patients with OBPI. Condition or disease Peripheral Nerve Injury Detailed Description: Peripheral nerve injury results in a number of cortical changes due to the lack of sensory and motor stimuli. Although functional magnetic resonance imaging

2016 Clinical Trials

153. Effects of Early Sensory Reeducation Programs Using Mirror Therapy for Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injuries

Effects of Early Sensory Reeducation Programs Using Mirror Therapy for Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injuries Effects of Early Sensory Reeducation Programs Using Mirror Therapy for Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injuries - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved (...) studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Effects of Early Sensory Reeducation Programs Using Mirror Therapy for Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injuries The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02768857 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : May 11, 2016 Last

2016 Clinical Trials

154. Therapeutic Ultrasound and Treadmill Training Suppress Peripheral Nerve Injury Induced-Pain in Rats. (PubMed)

Therapeutic Ultrasound and Treadmill Training Suppress Peripheral Nerve Injury Induced-Pain in Rats. Although evidence suggests that therapeutic ultrasound (TU) in combination with treadmill training (TT) suppresses nerve injury-associated pain, the molecular mechanisms for this action are not clear.The purpose of this research was to study the possible beneficial effects of TU and TT, alone and in combination, on 2 clinical indicators of neuropathic pain and correlate these findings (...) with changes in inflammatory mediators within the spinal cord. Our experimental model used the well-known chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the rat sciatic nerve.This was an experimental study.Each group contained 10 rats. Group 1 underwent only the CCI procedure. Group 2 underwent a sham operation where the sciatic nerve was exposed but not ligated. Group 3 had the sham operation followed by both TT and TU. Groups 4, 5, and 6 underwent the CCI procedure followed by TT alone, TU alone, and both the TT

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2016 Physical therapy

155. Bone marrow-derived cells in the population of spinal microglia after peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Bone marrow-derived cells in the population of spinal microglia after peripheral nerve injury Accumulating evidence indicates that peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates spinal microglia that are necessary for neuropathic pain. Recent studies using bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice have reported that after PNI, circulating BM-derived cells infiltrate into the spinal cord and differentiate into microglia-like cells. This raises the possibility that the population of spinal microglia after PNI may

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2016 Scientific reports

156. Modulation of Matrix Metalloproteinases Activity in the Ventral Horn of the Spinal Cord Re-stores Neuroglial Synaptic Homeostasis and Neurotrophic Support following Peripheral Nerve Injury (PubMed)

Modulation of Matrix Metalloproteinases Activity in the Ventral Horn of the Spinal Cord Re-stores Neuroglial Synaptic Homeostasis and Neurotrophic Support following Peripheral Nerve Injury Modulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) could represent a valid therapeutic strategy to prevent maladaptive synaptic plasticity in central nervous system (CNS). Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and maintaining a neurotrophic support could represent (...) two approaches to prevent or reduce the maladaptive plastic changes in the ventral horn of spinal cord following PNI. The purpose of our study was to analyze changes in the ventral horn produced by gliopathy determined by the suffering of motor neurons following spared nerve injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve and how the intrathecal (i.t.) administration of GM6001 (a MMPs inhibitor) or the NGF mimetic peptide BB14 modulate these events. Immunohistochemical analysis of spinal cord sections revealed

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2016 PloS one

157. Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Axon Regeneration After Peripheral Nerve Injuries in Animal Models and Humans (PubMed)

Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Axon Regeneration After Peripheral Nerve Injuries in Animal Models and Humans Injured peripheral nerves regenerate their lost axons but functional recovery in humans is frequently disappointing. This is so particularly when injuries require regeneration over long distances and/or over long time periods. Fat replacement of chronically denervated muscles, a commonly accepted explanation, does not account for poor functional recovery. Rather, the basis (...) for the poor nerve regeneration is the transient expression of growth-associated genes that accounts for declining regenerative capacity of neurons and the regenerative support of Schwann cells over time. Brief low-frequency electrical stimulation accelerates motor and sensory axon outgrowth across injury sites that, even after delayed surgical repair of injured nerves in animal models and patients, enhances nerve regeneration and target reinnervation. The stimulation elevates neuronal cyclic adenosine

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2016 Neurotherapeutics

158. Dorsal root ganglion transcriptome analysis following peripheral nerve injury in mice (PubMed)

Dorsal root ganglion transcriptome analysis following peripheral nerve injury in mice Peripheral nerve injury leads to changes in gene expression in primary sensory neurons of the injured dorsal root ganglia. These changes are believed to be involved in neuropathic pain genesis. Previously, these changes have been identified using gene microarrays or next generation RNA sequencing with poly-A tail selection, but these approaches cannot provide a more thorough analysis of gene expression (...) following spinal nerve ligation.Our findings suggest that next generation RNA sequencing can be used as a promising approach to analyze the changes of whole transcriptomes in dorsal root ganglia following nerve injury and to possibly identify new targets for prevention and treatment of neuropathic pain.© The Author(s) 2016.

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2016 Molecular pain

159. Activation of the unfolded protein response promotes axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Activation of the unfolded protein response promotes axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury Although protein-folding stress at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is emerging as a driver of neuronal dysfunction in models of spinal cord injury and neurodegeneration, the contribution of this pathway to peripheral nerve damage remains poorly explored. Here we targeted the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive reaction against ER stress, in mouse models of sciatic nerve injury (...) delivered XBP1s or an shRNA targeting this transcription factor to sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia using a gene therapy approach and found an enhancement or reduction of axonal regeneration in vivo, respectively. Our results demonstrate a functional role of specific components of the ER proteostasis network in the cellular changes associated to regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury.

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2016 Scientific reports

160. Profiling of the dynamically alteredgene expression in peripheral nerve injury using NGS RNA sequencing technique (PubMed)

Profiling of the dynamically alteredgene expression in peripheral nerve injury using NGS RNA sequencing technique Functional recovery of peripheral nerve injuries is of major demand in clinical practice worldwide. Although, to some extent, peripheral nervous system can spontaneously regenerate, post-injury recovery is often associated with poor functional outcome. The molecular mechanism controlling the peripheral nerve repair process is still majorly unclear. In this study, by utilizing (...) the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) RNA sequencing technique, we aim to profile the gene expression spectrum of the peripheral nerve repair. In total, we detected 2847 were differentially expressed at day 7 post crush nerve injury. The GO, Panther, IPA and GSEA analysis was performed to decipher the biological processes involving the differentially expressed genes. Collectively, our results highlighted the inflammatory response and related signaling pathway (NFkB and TNFa signaling) play key role

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2016 American journal of translational research

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