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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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121. N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Retrograde Motor Neuron Death after Neonatal Peripheral Nerve Injury. (Abstract)

N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Retrograde Motor Neuron Death after Neonatal Peripheral Nerve Injury. Neuronal death may be an overlooked and unaddressed component of disability following neonatal nerve injuries, such as obstetric brachial plexus injury. N-acetylcysteine and acetyl-L-carnitine improve survival of neurons after adult nerve injury, but it is unknown whether they improve survival after neonatal injury, when neurons are most susceptible to retrograde neuronal death. The authors (...) ' objective was to examine whether N-acetylcysteine or acetyl-L-carnitine treatment improves survival of neonatal motor or sensory neurons in a rat model of neonatal nerve injury.Rat pups received either a sciatic nerve crush or transection injury at postnatal day 3 and were then randomized to receive either intraperitoneal vehicle (5% dextrose), N-acetylcysteine (750 mg/kg), or acetyl-L-carnitine (300 mg/kg) once or twice daily. Four weeks after injury, surviving neurons were retrograde-labeled with 4

2017 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

122. CRACKCast 107 – Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Asymmetrical proximal and distal peripheral neuropathies: Brachial plexopathy Open Direct plexus injury (knife or gunshot wound) Neurovascular (plexus ischemia) Iatrogenic (central line insertion) Closed Traction injuries “Stingers” Traction neurapraxia Partial or complete nerve root avulsion Radiation Neoplastic Idiopathic brachial plexitis Thoracic outlet Lumbosacral plexopathies Open Closed Traction injuries Pelvic double vertical shearing fracture Posterior hip dislocation Retroperitoneal hemorrhage (...) CRACKCast 107 – Peripheral Nerve Disorders CRACKCast 107 - Peripheral Nerve Disorders - CanadiEM CRACKCast 107 – Peripheral Nerve Disorders In , by Chris Lipp September 7, 2017 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s Chapter 107, Peripheral Nerve Disorders. These disorders have a wide range of presentations and etiologies. This chapter includes a comprehensive classification system to help in the ED in recognizing the various disorders. Shownotes – Rosen’s In Perspective Nervous System

2017 CandiEM

123. Phrenic nerve transfer in brachial plexus injury (IPG468)

Phrenic nerve transfer in brachial plexus injury (IPG468) Overview | Phrenic nerve transfer in brachial plexus injury | Guidance | NICE Phrenic nerve transfer in brachial plexus injury Interventional procedures guidance [IPG468] Published date: November 2013 Share Save Guidance The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) issued full guidance to the NHS in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland on Phrenic nerve transfer in brachial plexus injury, in November 2013 (...) . Description Brachial plexus injuries are typically caused by traction of the arm at birth and by road traffic accidents. They result in loss of sensation and movement in all or part of the arm and can be associated with severe pain. The exact symptoms depend on the severity and location of the injury. Brachial plexus injuries in which the nerves are injured but still intact are usually managed by conservative care, including physiotherapy. If the plexus has been disrupted then surgical repair

2013 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Interventional Procedures

124. Axillary nerve injury associated with glenohumeral dislocation: A review and algorithm for management Full Text available with Trip Pro

and consideration of local practice in a regional peripheral nerve injury unit, an algorithm has been developed to help identification of those patients with more severe nerve injuries.Early identification of patients with high-grade injuries allows rapid referral to peripheral nerve injury centres, allowing specialist observation or intervention at an early stage in their injury, thus aiming to maximize potential for recovery. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:70-77. DOI:10.1302/2058-5241.3.170003. (...) Axillary nerve injury associated with glenohumeral dislocation: A review and algorithm for management Axillary nerve injury is a well-recognized complication of glenohumeral dislocation. It is often a low-grade injury which progresses to full recovery without intervention. There is, however, a small number of patients who have received a higher-grade injury and are less likely to achieve a functional recovery without surgical exploration and reconstruction.Following a review of the literature

2018 EFORT open reviews

125. Effects of Hip Arthroscopy Without a Perineal Post on Venous Blood Flow, Muscle Damage, Peripheral Nerve Conduction, and Perineal Injury: A Prospective Study. (Abstract)

Effects of Hip Arthroscopy Without a Perineal Post on Venous Blood Flow, Muscle Damage, Peripheral Nerve Conduction, and Perineal Injury: A Prospective Study. Prior reports of hip arthroscopy using a perineal post have established the risks of groin soft tissue injury, sexual dysfunction, and altered lower extremity neurovascular function. These parameters have not been investigated for hip arthroscopy without the use of a perineal post.To evaluate the effects of postless hip arthroscopy (...) were conducted intraoperatively. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) were measured intraoperatively for the lower limbs. Perineal injury was assessed at 7 to 12 days postoperatively.35 patients underwent a total of 40 hip arthroscopies. No significant differences were found in venous blood flow between the operative and nonoperative legs for either the CFV or popliteal vein. SSEP monitoring of the peroneal nerve showed no significant reduction

2019 American Journal of Sports Medicine

126. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation: neuromodulation of the suprascapular nerve and brachial plexus for postoperative analgesia following ambulatory rotator cuff repair. A proof-of-concept study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ultrasound-guided percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation: neuromodulation of the suprascapular nerve and brachial plexus for postoperative analgesia following ambulatory rotator cuff repair. A proof-of-concept study. Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is an analgesic modality involving the insertion of a lead through an introducing needle followed by the delivery of electric current. This modality has been reported to treat chronic pain as well as postoperative pain following (...) -14 had a median of 1 or less on the Numeric Rating Scale, and opioid requirements averaged less than 1 tablet daily with active stimulation. Two leads dislodged during use and four fractured on withdrawal, but no infections, nerve injuries, or adverse sequelae were reported.This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that ultrasound-guided percutaneous PNS of the brachial plexus is feasible for ambulatory shoulder surgery, and although analgesia immediately following surgery does not appear

2019 Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

127. Peripheral Nerve Injury

Peripheral Nerve Injury Peripheral Nerve Injury Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Peripheral Nerve Injury Peripheral (...) Nerve Injury Aka: Peripheral Nerve Injury , Peripheral Nerve Entrapment , Neuropraxia , Axonotmesis , Neurotmesis From Related Chapters II. Definition: Categories of Peripheral Nerve Injury Neuropraxia Least severe Peripheral Nerve Injury Myelin fibers surrounding the axon are injured focally Axon and connective tissue sheath remain unharmed Limited duration of injury (typically days to weeks) Axonotmesis Axon injury Recovery over months and frequently incomplete nerve regeneration with residual

2018 FP Notebook

128. A systematic review of outcome measures used in clinical peripheral nerve injury research: what is the gold-standard?

A systematic review of outcome measures used in clinical peripheral nerve injury research: what is the gold-standard? Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence

2018 PROSPERO

129. Modern management of peripheral nerve injury following lower limb arthroplasty: a systematic review

Modern management of peripheral nerve injury following lower limb arthroplasty: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web

2018 PROSPERO

130. ErbB2 blockade with Herceptin (trastuzumab) enhances peripheral nerve regeneration after repair of acute or chronic peripheral nerve injury. (Abstract)

ErbB2 blockade with Herceptin (trastuzumab) enhances peripheral nerve regeneration after repair of acute or chronic peripheral nerve injury. Attenuation of the growth supportive environment within the distal nerve stump after delayed peripheral nerve repair profoundly limits nerve regeneration. Levels of the potent Schwann cell mitogen neuregulin and its receptor ErbB2 decline during this period, but the regenerative impact of this change is not completely understood. Herein, the ErbB2 receptor (...) . Reduced EGFR activation was observed using immunofluorescent imaging.Inhibition of the ErbB2 receptor with Herceptin unexpectedly enhances nerve regeneration after acute and delayed nerve repair. This finding raises the possibility of using targeted molecular therapies to improve outcomes of peripheral nerve injuries. The mechanism may involve a novel inhibitory association between ErbB2 and EGFR. Ann Neurol 2016;80:112-126.© 2016 American Neurological Association.

2016 Annals of Neurology

131. Peripheral Nerve Injury: Stem Cell Therapy and Peripheral Nerve Transfer Full Text available with Trip Pro

Peripheral Nerve Injury: Stem Cell Therapy and Peripheral Nerve Transfer Peripheral nerve injury can lead to great morbidity in those afflicted, ranging from sensory loss, motor loss, chronic pain, or a combination of deficits. Over time, research has investigated neuronal molecular mechanisms implicated in nerve damage, classified nerve injury, and developed surgical techniques for treatment. Despite these advancements, full functional recovery remains less than ideal. In this review, we (...) discuss historical aspects of peripheral nerve injury and introduce nerve transfer as a therapeutic option, as well as an adjunct therapy to transplantation of Schwann cells and their stem cell derivatives for repair of the damaged nerve. This review furthermore, will provide an elaborated discussion on the sources of Schwann cells, including sites to harvest their progenitor and stem cell lines. This reflects the accessibility to an additional, concurrent treatment approach with nerve transfers

2016 International journal of molecular sciences

132. A randomised, patient-assessor blinded, sham-controlled trial of external non-invasive peripheral nerve stimulation for chronic neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury (EN-PENS trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A randomised, patient-assessor blinded, sham-controlled trial of external non-invasive peripheral nerve stimulation for chronic neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury (EN-PENS trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Eight percent of people in the UK are estimated to have persistent (chronic) neuropathic pain, and for many there is no effective treatment. Medications are the most common first-line treatment but often have limited benefit or adverse events. Surgical (...) size for patients with longstanding neuropathic pain.EN-PENS is a single-site, blinded, randomised controlled parallel-group superiority add-on trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio, designed to evaluate the efficacy of treatment versus control treatment in 76 patients with longstanding neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. Patients with moderate to -severe neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury will be randomised to receive either the active or control treatment, followed

2016 Trials Controlled trial quality: predicted high

133. Fas Ligand Gene (Faslg) Plays an Important Role in Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration After Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

injury. The data showed that Faslg was up-regulated in injured nerves. Expression changed of Faslg in Schwann cells (SCs) resulted in alterations in the release of related factors. Silencing or overexpression of Faslg affected SC proliferation, migration, and apoptosis through β-catenin, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and caspase-3 pathways in vivo and in vitro. Our data suggest that Faslg is a key regulatory gene that affects nerve repair and regeneration in peripheral nerve injury. This study sheds new (...) Fas Ligand Gene (Faslg) Plays an Important Role in Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration After Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury Wallerian degeneration (WD) is associated with changes in the expression levels of a large number of genes. However, the effects of these up- or down-regulated genes are poorly understood. We have reported some key factors that are differentially regulated during WD in our previous research. Here, we explored the roles of Fas ligand gene (Faslg) in WD after rat sciatic nerve

2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

134. Baseline effects of lysophosphatidylcholine and nerve growth factor in a rat model of sciatic nerve regeneration after crush injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Baseline effects of lysophosphatidylcholine and nerve growth factor in a rat model of sciatic nerve regeneration after crush injury Schwann cells play a major role in helping heal injured nerves. They help clear debris, produce neurotrophins, upregulate neurotrophin receptors, and form bands of Büngner to guide the healing nerve. But nerves do not always produce enough neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors to repair themselves. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important neurotrophin (...) for the electrophysiological parameters but only differed from the control group at week 3 for the morphological parameters. The crush, crush-NGF, and crush-LPC-NGF groups did not differ from each other over the course of the study. Single injections of LPC and NGF one week apart or multiple treatments of NGF at 5, 7 and 9 days post-injury did not alter the healing rate of the sciatic nerves during weeks 1-6 of the study. These findings are important to define the baseline effects of NGF and LPC injections, as part

2018 Neural Regeneration Research

135. Resveratrol Promotes Nerve Regeneration via Activation of p300 Acetyltransferase-Mediated VEGF Signaling in a Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Resveratrol Promotes Nerve Regeneration via Activation of p300 Acetyltransferase-Mediated VEGF Signaling in a Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Peripheral nerve injuries are generally associated with incomplete restoration of motor function. The slow rate of nerve regeneration after injury may account for this. Although many benefits of resveratrol have been shown in the nervous system, it is not clear whether resveratrol could promote fast nerve regeneration and motor repair after (...) peripheral nerve injury. This study showed that the motor deficits caused by sciatic nerve crush injury were alleviated by daily systematic resveratrol treatment within 10 days. Resveratrol increased the number of axons in the distal part of the injured nerve, indicating enhanced nerve regeneration. In the affected ventral spinal cord, resveratrol enhanced the expression of several vascular endothelial growth factor family proteins (VEGFs) and increased the phosphorylation of p300 through Akt signaling

2018 Frontiers in neuroscience

136. Accumulation of Cav3.2 T-type Calcium Channels in the Uninjured Sural Nerve Contributes to Neuropathic Pain in Rats with Spared Nerve Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Accumulation of Cav3.2 T-type Calcium Channels in the Uninjured Sural Nerve Contributes to Neuropathic Pain in Rats with Spared Nerve Injury Injuries to peripheral nerve fibers induce neuropathic pain. But the involvement of adjacent uninjured fibers to pain is not fully understood. The present study aims to investigate the possible contribution of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels in uninjured afferent nerve fibers to neuropathic pain in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI). Aβ-, Aδ- and C-fibers (...) of the uninjured sural nerve were sensitized revealed by in vivo single-unit recording, which were accompanied by accumulation of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel proteins shown by Western blotting. Application of mibefradil, a T-type calcium channel blocker, to sural nerve receptive fields increased mechanical thresholds of Aβ-, Aδ- and C-fibers, confirming the functional involvement of accumulated channels in the sural nerve in SNI rats. Finally, perineural application of mibefradil or TTA-P2 to the uninjured

2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

137. Attempt of peripheral nerve reconstruction during lung cancer surgery Full Text available with Trip Pro

Attempt of peripheral nerve reconstruction during lung cancer surgery Vagus nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury are not rare complications of lung cancer surgery and can cause lethal consequences. Until now, no optimal method other than paying greater attention during surgery has been available.Four patients underwent lung surgery that involved RLN or vagus nerve injury. The left RLN or vagus nerve was cut off and then reconstructed immediately during surgery. Two patients (...) underwent direct anastomosis, while the remaining two underwent phrenic nerve replacing tension-relieving anastomosis.All patients were able to speak immediately after recovery. No or minimal glottal gap was observed during laryngoscopy conducted on the second day after surgery. Most patients achieved full recovery of voice quality.Immediate reconstruction of RLN is technically feasible and can be carried out with satisfying short-term and long-term outcomes.© 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published

2018 Thoracic cancer

138. Correction: MHC-I and PirB Upregulation in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System Following Sciatic Nerve Injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Correction: MHC-I and PirB Upregulation in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System Following Sciatic Nerve Injury. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161463.].

2016 PLoS ONE

139. A Long-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injury Therapy Using Human Skeletal Muscle-Derived Stem Cells (Sk-SCs): An Achievement of Significant Morphological, Numerical and Functional Recovery. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Long-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injury Therapy Using Human Skeletal Muscle-Derived Stem Cells (Sk-SCs): An Achievement of Significant Morphological, Numerical and Functional Recovery. Losses in vital functions of the somatic motor and sensory nervous system are induced by severe long-gap peripheral nerve transection injury. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment, despite the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions, whereas the prognosis is not always (...) in both groups with the expression of key factors (mRNA and protein levels), suggesting the paracrine effects to angiogenesis. These results suggested that the human Sk-SCs may be a practical source for autologous stem cell therapy following severe peripheral nerve injury.

2016 PLoS ONE

140. Duloxetine Inhibits Microglial P2X4 Receptor Function and Alleviates Neuropathic Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Duloxetine Inhibits Microglial P2X4 Receptor Function and Alleviates Neuropathic Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury. P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) are a family of ATP-gated non-selective cation channels. We previously demonstrated that activation of P2X4R in spinal microglia is crucial for neuropathic pain, a highly debilitating chronic pain condition, suggesting that P2X4R is a potential therapeutic target for treating neuropathic pain. Thus, the identification of a compound that has a potent (...) of nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia, a cardinal symptom of neuropathic pain. In rats that were pretreated with a serotonin-depleting agent and a noradrenaline neurotoxin, the antiallodynic effect of duloxetine was reduced, but still remained. Based on these results, we suggest that, in addition to duloxetine's primary inhibitory action on serotonin and noradrenaline transporters, an inhibitory effect on P2X4R may be involved at least in part in an antiallodynic effect of intrathecal duloxetine

2016 PLoS ONE

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