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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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121. MRI Diffusion Tensor Tractography to Track and Monitor Peripheral Nerve Recovery After Severe Crush or Cut/Repair Nerve Injury

MRI Diffusion Tensor Tractography to Track and Monitor Peripheral Nerve Recovery After Severe Crush or Cut/Repair Nerve Injury MRI Diffusion Tensor Tractography to Track and Monitor Peripheral Nerve Recovery After Severe Crush or Cut/Repair Nerve Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached (...) the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. MRI Diffusion Tensor Tractography to Track and Monitor Peripheral Nerve Recovery After Severe Crush or Cut/Repair Nerve Injury The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our

2016 Clinical Trials

122. Perioperative Nerve Injury After Peripheral Nerve Block in Patients With Previous Systemic Chemotherapy. (PubMed)

Perioperative Nerve Injury After Peripheral Nerve Block in Patients With Previous Systemic Chemotherapy. There are multiple risk factors for developing perioperative nerve injury (PNI). Perioperative nerve injury after peripheral nerve blockade (PNB) is rare. Exposure to systemic chemotherapy may cause peripheral neuropathy, but its role as a risk factor for PNI after PNB is unknown. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of PNI in patients undergoing PNB (...) studies. Perioperative nerve injury was possibly attributable to the PNB in 0.5% of patients. However, in the absence of a control group of surgical patients who previously received systemic chemotherapy without regional anesthesia, we cannot determine whether the higher incidence of neurologic injury is secondary to the surgical procedure, the anesthetic technique, the natural progression of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, or a combination of factors and the relative contribution of each.

2016 Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

123. Can the Babysitter Procedure Improve Nerve Regeneration and Denervated Muscle Atrophy in the Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Injury? (PubMed)

Can the Babysitter Procedure Improve Nerve Regeneration and Denervated Muscle Atrophy in the Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Injury? The authors evaluated the long-term efficacy of the "babysitter" procedure in improving nerve regeneration and denervated muscle atrophy for peripheral nerve repair.Eighty Lewis rats were allocated equally into four groups. The peroneal nerves of all animals were divided. In group A, the peroneal nerve stumps were anchored into adjacent muscles. Rats in group B (...) underwent end-to-end neurorrhaphy. Rats in group C underwent end-to-side neurorrhaphy of the distal peroneal nerve stump to an epineurial window on the tibial nerve. Rats in group D underwent end-to-side neurorrhaphy of the distal stump to the tibial nerve with 40 percent neurectomy. After 8 weeks, end-to-end neurorrhaphy of the peroneal nerve stumps was performed in group A, C, and D during a second-stage procedure. Electrophysiology, myelinated fiber counts, muscle force and weight, and muscle

2016 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

124. Expression changes of nerve cell adhesion molecules L1 and semaphorin 3A after peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Expression changes of nerve cell adhesion molecules L1 and semaphorin 3A after peripheral nerve injury The expression of nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 in the neuronal growth cone of the central nervous system is strongly associated with the direction of growth of the axon, but its role in the regeneration of the peripheral nerve is still unknown. This study explored the problem in a femoral nerve section model in rats. L1 and semaphorin 3A mRNA and protein expressions were measured over the 4 (...) -week recovery period. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression was higher in the sensory nerves than in motor nerves at 2 weeks after injury, but vice versa for the expression of semaphorin 3A. Western blot assay results demonstrated that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression was higher in motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at the proximal end after injury, but its expression was greater in the sensory nerves at 2 weeks. Semaphorin 3A

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2016 Neural Regeneration Research

125. Autophagy Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration and Motor Recovery Following Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats (PubMed)

Autophagy Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration and Motor Recovery Following Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats Autophagy maintains cellular homeostasis by stimulating the lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic structures, including damaged organelles and dysfunctional proteins. The role of autophagy in the renewal and regeneration of injured peripheral nerves remains poorly understood. The current study investigated the role of autophagy in peripheral nerve regeneration and motor function (...) inhibitor 3-methyladenine. These data indicate that the modulation of autophagy in peripheral nerve injury could be an effective pharmacological approach to promote nerve regeneration and reestablish motor function.

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2016 Journal of Molecular Neuroscience

126. A novel bioactive nerve conduit for the repair of peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

A novel bioactive nerve conduit for the repair of peripheral nerve injury The use of a nerve conduit provides an opportunity to regulate cytokines, growth factors and neurotrophins in peripheral nerve regeneration and avoid autograft defects. We constructed a poly-D-L-lactide (PDLLA)-based nerve conduit that was modified using poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-lysine)]} and β-tricalcium phosphate. The effectiveness of this bioactive PDLLA-based nerve conduit was compared (...) to that of PDLLA-only conduit in the nerve regeneration following a 10-mm sciatic nerve injury in rats. We observed the nerve morphology in the early period of regeneration, 35 days post injury, using hematoxylin-eosin and methylene blue staining. Compared with the PDLLA conduit, the nerve fibers in the PDLLA-based bioactive nerve conduit were thicker and more regular in size. Muscle fibers in the soleus muscle had greater diameters in the PDLLA bioactive group than in the PDLLA only group. The PDLLA-based

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2016 Neural Regeneration Research

127. The efficacy of a scaffold-free Bio 3D conduit developed from human fibroblasts on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model. (PubMed)

The efficacy of a scaffold-free Bio 3D conduit developed from human fibroblasts on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model. Although autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, several alternative methods have been developed, including nerve conduits that use supportive cells. However, the seeding efficacy and viability of supportive cells injected in nerve grafts remain unclear. Here, we focused on a novel completely biological (...) , tissue-engineered, scaffold-free conduit.We developed six scaffold-free conduits from human normal dermal fibroblasts using a Bio 3D Printer. Twelve adult male rats with immune deficiency underwent mid-thigh-level transection of the right sciatic nerve. The resulting 5-mm nerve gap was bridged using 8-mm Bio 3D conduits (Bio 3D group, n = 6) and silicone tube (silicone group, n = 6). Several assessments were conducted to examine nerve regeneration eight weeks post-surgery.Kinematic analysis revealed

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2017 PLoS ONE

128. Attempt of peripheral nerve reconstruction during lung cancer surgery (PubMed)

Attempt of peripheral nerve reconstruction during lung cancer surgery Vagus nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury are not rare complications of lung cancer surgery and can cause lethal consequences. Until now, no optimal method other than paying greater attention during surgery has been available.Four patients underwent lung surgery that involved RLN or vagus nerve injury. The left RLN or vagus nerve was cut off and then reconstructed immediately during surgery. Two patients (...) underwent direct anastomosis, while the remaining two underwent phrenic nerve replacing tension-relieving anastomosis.All patients were able to speak immediately after recovery. No or minimal glottal gap was observed during laryngoscopy conducted on the second day after surgery. Most patients achieved full recovery of voice quality.Immediate reconstruction of RLN is technically feasible and can be carried out with satisfying short-term and long-term outcomes.© 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published

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2018 Thoracic cancer

129. Therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue using implantable thin-film wireless nerve stimulators. (PubMed)

of simultaneously delivering therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue and providing postoperative serial assessment of functional recovery. METHODS Flexible wireless stimulators were fabricated and implanted into Lewis rats. Thin-film implants were used to deliver brief electrical stimulation (1 hour, 20 Hz) to sciatic nerves after nerve crush or nerve transection-and-repair injuries. RESULTS Electrical stimulation of injured nerves via implanted wireless stimulators significantly (...) improved functional recovery. Brief electrical stimulation was observed to increase the rate of functional recovery after both nerve crush and nerve transection-and-repair injuries. Wireless stimulators successfully facilitated therapeutic stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue and serial assessment of nerve recovery. CONCLUSIONS Implantable wireless stimulators can deliver therapeutic electrical stimulation to injured peripheral nerve tissue. Implantable wireless nerve stimulators might represent

2018 Journal of Neurosurgery

130. Ultrasound and Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Guided Femoral Nerve Block

Official Title: Short Term Effect of Ultrasound and Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Guided Femoral Nerve Block With Phenol on Outcomes in People With Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Actual Study Start Date : January 2014 Actual Primary Completion Date : December 2016 Actual Study Completion Date : December 2016 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: available for: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment femoral nerve block Other: Femoral nerve block (...) Ultrasound and Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Guided Femoral Nerve Block Ultrasound and Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Guided Femoral Nerve Block - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Ultrasound

2018 Clinical Trials

131. Decellularized sciatic nerve matrix as a biodegradable conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration (PubMed)

Decellularized sciatic nerve matrix as a biodegradable conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration The use of autologous nerve grafts remains the gold standard for treating nerve defects, but current nerve repair techniques are limited by donor tissue availability and morbidity associated with tissue loss. Recently, the use of conduits in nerve injury repair, made possible by tissue engineering, has shown therapeutic potential. We manufactured a biodegradable, collagen-based nerve conduit (...) containing decellularized sciatic nerve matrix and compared this with a silicone conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration using a rat model. The collagen-based conduit contains nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and laminin, as demonstrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the collagen-based conduit had an outer wall to prevent scar tissue infiltration and a porous inner structure to allow axonal growth. Rats that were implanted

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2018 Neural Regeneration Research

132. Regeneration of peripheral nerves by nerve guidance conduits: Influence of design, biopolymers, cells, growth factors, and physical stimuli. (PubMed)

Regeneration of peripheral nerves by nerve guidance conduits: Influence of design, biopolymers, cells, growth factors, and physical stimuli. Injuries to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) cause neuropathies that lead to weakness and paralysis, poor or absent sensation, unpleasant and painful neuropathies, and impaired autonomic function. In this regard, implanted artificial nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) used to bridge an injured site may provide appropriate biochemical and biophysical (...) guidance cues required to stimulate regeneration across a nerve gap and restore the function of PNS. Advanced conduit design and fabrication techniques have made it possible to fabricate autograft-like structures in the NGCs with incredible precision. To this end, strategies involving the use of biopolymers, cells, growth factors, and physical stimuli have been developed over the past decades and have led to the development of varying NGCs, from simple hollow tubes to complex conduits that incorporate

2018 Progress in Neurobiology

133. Fetal extracellular matrix nerve wraps locally improve peripheral nerve remodeling after complete transection and direct repair in rat (PubMed)

Fetal extracellular matrix nerve wraps locally improve peripheral nerve remodeling after complete transection and direct repair in rat In peripheral nerve (PN) injuries requiring surgical repair, as in PN transection, cellular and ECM remodeling at PN epineurial repair sites is hypothesized to reduce PN functional outcomes by slowing, misdirecting, or preventing axons from regrowing appropriately across the repair site. Herein this study reports on deriving and analyzing fetal porcine urinary (...) bladder extracellular matrix (fUB-ECM) by vacuum assisted decellularization, fabricating fUBM-ECM nerve wraps, and testing fUB-ECM nerve wrap biocompatibility and bioactivity in a trigeminal, infraorbital nerve (ION) branch transection and direct end-to-end repair model in rat. FUB-ECM nerve wraps significantly improved epi- and endoneurial organization and increased both neovascularization and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expression at PN repair sites, 28-days post surgery. However

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2018 Scientific reports

134. Upslope treadmill exercise enhances motor axon regeneration but not functional recovery following peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Upslope treadmill exercise enhances motor axon regeneration but not functional recovery following peripheral nerve injury Following peripheral nerve injury, moderate daily exercise conducted on a level treadmill results in enhanced axon regeneration and modest improvements in functional recovery. If the exercise is conducted on an upwardly inclined treadmill, even more motor axons regenerate successfully and reinnervate muscle targets. Whether this increased motor axon regeneration also results (...) in greater improvement in functional recovery from sciatic nerve injury was studied. Axon regeneration and muscle reinnervation were studied in Lewis rats over an 11 wk postinjury period using stimulus evoked electromyographic (EMG) responses in the soleus muscle of awake animals. Motor axon regeneration and muscle reinnervation were enhanced in slope-trained rats. Direct muscle (M) responses reappeared faster in slope-trained animals than in other groups and ultimately were larger than untreated animals

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2016 Journal of neurophysiology

135. Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation that is induced by ferulic acid through MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling promotes peripheral nerve remyelination following crush injury in rats (PubMed)

Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation that is induced by ferulic acid through MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling promotes peripheral nerve remyelination following crush injury in rats Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation is critical for the remyelination of injured peripheral nerves. Ferulic acid (FA) is a widely used antioxidant agent with neuroprotective properties. However, the potentially beneficial effects of FA on Schwann cells are unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed (...) was intraperitoneally administered to rats with sciatic nerve crush injury, and the results revealed an increase in Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation, while the MAG and MBP expression levels in sciatic nerves were markedly upregulated following FA administration. In conclusion, the current results demonstrate that Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation is induced by FA through MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling and that FA may accelerate injured peripheral nerve remyelination.

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2016 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

136. Epigenomic Regulation of Schwann Cell Reprogramming in Peripheral Nerve Injury (PubMed)

Epigenomic Regulation of Schwann Cell Reprogramming in Peripheral Nerve Injury The rapid and dynamic transcriptional changes of Schwann cells in response to injury are critical to peripheral nerve repair, yet the epigenomic reprograming that leads to the induction of injury-activated genes has not been characterized. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes the trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3), which produces a transcriptionally repressive chromatin environment. We (...) find that many promoters and/or gene bodies of injury-activated genes of mature rat nerves are occupied with H3K27me3. In contrast, the majority of distal enhancers that gain H3K27 acetylation after injury are not repressed by H3K27 methylation before injury, which is normally observed in developmentally poised enhancers. Injury induces demethylation of H3K27 in many genes, such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which is silenced throughout Schwann cell development before injury. In addition, experiments

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2016 The Journal of Neuroscience

137. Atf3 mutant mice show reduced axon regeneration and impaired regeneration-associated gene induction after peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Atf3 mutant mice show reduced axon regeneration and impaired regeneration-associated gene induction after peripheral nerve injury Axon injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) induces a regeneration-associated gene (RAG) response. Atf3 (activating transcription factor 3) is such a RAG and ATF3's transcriptional activity might induce 'effector' RAGs (e.g. small proline rich protein 1a (Sprr1a), Galanin (Gal), growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43)) facilitating peripheral axon regeneration (...) . We provide a first analysis of Atf3 mouse mutants in peripheral nerve regeneration. In Atf3 mutant mice, facial nerve regeneration and neurite outgrowth of adult ATF3-deficient primary dorsal root ganglia neurons was decreased. Using genome-wide transcriptomics, we identified a neuropeptide-encoding RAG cluster (vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip), Ngf, Grp, Gal, Pacap) regulated by ATF3. Exogenous administration of neuropeptides enhanced neurite growth of Atf3 mutant mice suggesting

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2016 Open biology

138. Beyond peripheral nerve injury: spinal gliopathy and maladaptive synaptic plasticity (PubMed)

Beyond peripheral nerve injury: spinal gliopathy and maladaptive synaptic plasticity 27857743 2018 11 13 1673-5374 11 9 2016 Sep Neural regeneration research Neural Regen Res Beyond peripheral nerve injury: spinal gliopathy and maladaptive synaptic plasticity. 1422-1423 Cirillo Giovanni G 0000-0003-3183-8773 Laboratory of Neuronal Networks, Department of Mental and Physical Health and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy. Papa Michele M Laboratory of Neuronal Networks

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2016 Neural Regeneration Research

139. Changes in microtubule-associated protein tau during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration (PubMed)

Changes in microtubule-associated protein tau during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration Tau, a primary component of microtubule-associated protein, promotes microtubule assembly and/or disassembly and maintains the stability of the microtubule structure. Although the importance of tau in neurodegenerative diseases has been well demonstrated, whether tau is involved in peripheral nerve regeneration remains unknown. In the current study, we obtained sciatic nerve tissue from adult rats 0, 1 (...) , 4, 7, and 14 days after sciatic nerve crush and examined tau mRNA and protein expression levels and the location of tau in the sciatic nerve following peripheral nerve injury. The results from our quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that compared with the uninjured control sciatic nerve, mRNA expression levels for both tau and tau tubulin kinase 1, a serine/threonine kinase that regulates tau phosphorylation, were decreased following peripheral nerve

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2016 Neural Regeneration Research

140. MHC-I and PirB Upregulation in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System following Sciatic Nerve Injury (PubMed)

MHC-I and PirB Upregulation in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System following Sciatic Nerve Injury Major histocompatibility complex class one (MHC-I) antigen-presenting molecules participate in central nervous system (CNS) synaptic plasticity, as does the paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), an MHC-I ligand that can inhibit immune-cells and bind to myelin axon growth inhibitors. Based on the dual roles of both molecules in the immune and nervous systems, we evaluated (...) their expression in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) following sciatic nerve injury in mice. Increased PirB and MHC-I protein and gene expression is present in the spinal cord one week after nerve transection, PirB being mostly expressed in the neuropile region. In the crushed nerve, MHC-I protein levels increased 2 weeks after lesion (wal) and progressively decreased over the next eight weeks. The same kinetics were observed for infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) but not for PirB

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2016 PloS one

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