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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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121. The Glia Response after Peripheral Nerve Injury: A Comparison between Schwann Cells and Olfactory Ensheathing Cells and Their Uses for Neural Regenerative Therapies (PubMed)

The Glia Response after Peripheral Nerve Injury: A Comparison between Schwann Cells and Olfactory Ensheathing Cells and Their Uses for Neural Regenerative Therapies The peripheral nervous system (PNS) exhibits a much larger capacity for regeneration than the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this difference is the difference in glial cell types between the two systems. PNS glia respond rapidly to nerve injury by clearing debris from the injury site, supplying essential growth factors (...) and providing structural support; all of which enhances neuronal regeneration. Thus, transplantation of glial cells from the PNS is a very promising therapy for injuries to both the PNS and the CNS. There are two key types of PNS glia: olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), which populate the olfactory nerve, and Schwann cells (SCs), which are present in the rest of the PNS. These two glial types share many similar morphological and functional characteristics but also exhibit key differences. The olfactory

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2017 International journal of molecular sciences

122. Mrpl10 and Tbp Are Suitable Reference Genes for Peripheral Nerve Crush Injury (PubMed)

Mrpl10 and Tbp Are Suitable Reference Genes for Peripheral Nerve Crush Injury Peripheral nerve injury triggers the dysregulation of a large number of genes at multiple sites, including neurons, peripheral nerve stump, and the target organ. Housekeeping genes were frequently used as reference genes to normalize the expression values of target genes. Suitable selection of housekeeping genes that are stably expressed after nerve injury minimizes bias elicited by reference genes and thus helps (...) peripheral nerve injury, Mrpl10 and Tbp might be used as suitable reference genes for sciatic nerve stump and DRGs, respectively.

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2017 International journal of molecular sciences

123. AlphaB-crystallin regulates remyelination after peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

AlphaB-crystallin regulates remyelination after peripheral nerve injury AlphaB-crystallin (αBC) is a small heat shock protein that is constitutively expressed by peripheral nervous system (PNS) axons and Schwann cells. To determine what role this crystallin plays after peripheral nerve damage, we found that loss of αBC impaired remyelination, which correlated with a reduced presence of myelinating Schwann cells and increased numbers of nonmyelinating Schwann cells. The heat shock protein also (...) seems to regulate the cross-talk between Schwann cells and axons, because expected changes in neuregulin levels and ErbB2 receptor expression after PNS injury were disrupted in the absence of αBC. Such dysregulations led to defects in conduction velocity and motor and sensory functions that could be rescued with therapeutic application of the heat shock protein in vivo. Altogether, these findings show that αBC plays an important role in regulating Wallerian degeneration and remyelination after PNS

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2017 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

124. Cingulate Alpha-2A Adrenoceptors Mediate the Effects of Clonidine on Spontaneous Pain Induced by Peripheral Nerve Injury (PubMed)

Cingulate Alpha-2A Adrenoceptors Mediate the Effects of Clonidine on Spontaneous Pain Induced by Peripheral Nerve Injury The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is an important brain area for the regulation of neuropathic pain. The α2A adrenoceptor is a good target for pain management. However, the role of cingulate α2A adrenoceptors in the regulation of neuropathic pain has been less studied. In this study, we investigated the involvement of cingulate α2A adrenoceptors in the regulation (...) of neuropathic pain at different time points after peripheral nerve injury in mice. The application of clonidine, either systemically (0.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or specifically to the ACC, increased paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) and induced conditioned place preference (CPP) at day 7 after nerve injury, suggesting that cingulate α2 adrenoceptors are involved in the regulation of pain-like behaviors. Quantitative real-time PCR data showed that α2A adrenoceptors are the dominant α2 adrenoceptors

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2017 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

125. Threshold effect of G9a/Glp on peripheral nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity (PubMed)

Threshold effect of G9a/Glp on peripheral nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity Previous studies disclosed the pivotal role of methyltransferase complex G9a/Glp in the pathogenesis of neuropathic hypersensitivity induced by peripheral nerve injury. We observed that higher dose of G9a inhibitor improved nociceptive behavior, but the lower dose worsened pain. The aim of this study is to extensively observe the differential effect of various dosages of G9a/Glp inhibitors on nerve injury-induced (...) inhibitors lower or higher than these threshold doses prominently improved nociceptive behavior, producing contrasting results. On the same animal, threshold dose followed by a lower or higher dose with a 14 days’ interval also showed contrast effect on nociceptive behavior, and a lower or higher dose to threshold dose sequence of inhibitor administration was vice versa.Methyltransferase complex G9a/Glp has a threshold role in mediating peripheral nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity at its low level

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2017 Molecular pain

126. Implanted hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells encapsulated in polyvinylidene fluoride membrane cylinders promote effective recovery of peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Implanted hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells encapsulated in polyvinylidene fluoride membrane cylinders promote effective recovery of peripheral nerve injury Hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, express the stem-cell marker, nestin, and have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. Transplanted HAP stem cells promote (...) the recovery of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injuries and have the potential for heart regeneration as well. In the present study, we implanted mouse green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing HAP stem-cell spheres encapsulated in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-membrane cylinders into the severed sciatic nerve of immunocompetent and immunocompromised (nude) mice. Eight weeks after implantation, immunofluorescence staining showed that the HAP stem cells differentiated into neurons and glial cells

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2017 Cell Cycle

127. miR-30c promotes Schwann cell remyelination following peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

miR-30c promotes Schwann cell remyelination following peripheral nerve injury Differential expression of miRNAs occurs in injured proximal nerve stumps and includes miRNAs that are firstly down-regulated and then gradually up-regulated following nerve injury. These miRNAs might be related to a Schwann cell phenotypic switch. miR-30c, as a member of this group, was further investigated in the current study. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sciatic nerve transection and proximal nerve stumps were (...) . We then modeled sciatic nerve crush injury in vivo in Sprague-Dawley rats and tested the effect of perineural injection of miR-30c agomir on myelin sheath regeneration. Fourteen days after surgery, sciatic nerve stumps were harvested and subjected to immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The direct injection of miR-30c stimulated the formation of myelin sheath, thus contributing to peripheral nerve regeneration. Overall, our findings indicate that miR

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2017 Neural Regeneration Research

128. Roles of nitric oxide and ethyl pyruvate after peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Roles of nitric oxide and ethyl pyruvate after peripheral nerve injury Short-lived reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species have acquired significant attention in the field of biomedical science. Nitric oxide (NO), which was thought to be an unstable gas and pollutant, is now regarded as a gas transmitter like H2S and CO. NO is synthesized inside the mammalian body by l-arginine via three different isoforms of NO synthase whereas pyruvate is a glycolysis product and substrate (...) for TCA cycle. Due to poor solubility and stability, therapeutic potential of pyruvate is limited. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is now considered as a suitable replacement of pyruvate. In this paper, we will try to focus the effect of NO and EP in Schwann cell dedifferentiation, proliferation, nerve degeneration, and regeneration during Wallerian degeneration (WD) of peripheral nerve injury along with their neuroprotective effects, cardiovascular functioning, support in hepatic complication, etc.

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2017 Inflammation and regeneration

129. MRI Diffusion Tensor Tractography to Track and Monitor Peripheral Nerve Recovery After Severe Crush or Cut/Repair Nerve Injury

MRI Diffusion Tensor Tractography to Track and Monitor Peripheral Nerve Recovery After Severe Crush or Cut/Repair Nerve Injury MRI Diffusion Tensor Tractography to Track and Monitor Peripheral Nerve Recovery After Severe Crush or Cut/Repair Nerve Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached (...) the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. MRI Diffusion Tensor Tractography to Track and Monitor Peripheral Nerve Recovery After Severe Crush or Cut/Repair Nerve Injury The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our

2016 Clinical Trials

130. Perioperative Nerve Injury After Peripheral Nerve Block in Patients With Previous Systemic Chemotherapy. (PubMed)

Perioperative Nerve Injury After Peripheral Nerve Block in Patients With Previous Systemic Chemotherapy. There are multiple risk factors for developing perioperative nerve injury (PNI). Perioperative nerve injury after peripheral nerve blockade (PNB) is rare. Exposure to systemic chemotherapy may cause peripheral neuropathy, but its role as a risk factor for PNI after PNB is unknown. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of PNI in patients undergoing PNB (...) studies. Perioperative nerve injury was possibly attributable to the PNB in 0.5% of patients. However, in the absence of a control group of surgical patients who previously received systemic chemotherapy without regional anesthesia, we cannot determine whether the higher incidence of neurologic injury is secondary to the surgical procedure, the anesthetic technique, the natural progression of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, or a combination of factors and the relative contribution of each.

2016 Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

131. Can the Babysitter Procedure Improve Nerve Regeneration and Denervated Muscle Atrophy in the Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Injury? (PubMed)

Can the Babysitter Procedure Improve Nerve Regeneration and Denervated Muscle Atrophy in the Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Injury? The authors evaluated the long-term efficacy of the "babysitter" procedure in improving nerve regeneration and denervated muscle atrophy for peripheral nerve repair.Eighty Lewis rats were allocated equally into four groups. The peroneal nerves of all animals were divided. In group A, the peroneal nerve stumps were anchored into adjacent muscles. Rats in group B (...) underwent end-to-end neurorrhaphy. Rats in group C underwent end-to-side neurorrhaphy of the distal peroneal nerve stump to an epineurial window on the tibial nerve. Rats in group D underwent end-to-side neurorrhaphy of the distal stump to the tibial nerve with 40 percent neurectomy. After 8 weeks, end-to-end neurorrhaphy of the peroneal nerve stumps was performed in group A, C, and D during a second-stage procedure. Electrophysiology, myelinated fiber counts, muscle force and weight, and muscle

2016 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

132. Expression changes of nerve cell adhesion molecules L1 and semaphorin 3A after peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Expression changes of nerve cell adhesion molecules L1 and semaphorin 3A after peripheral nerve injury The expression of nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 in the neuronal growth cone of the central nervous system is strongly associated with the direction of growth of the axon, but its role in the regeneration of the peripheral nerve is still unknown. This study explored the problem in a femoral nerve section model in rats. L1 and semaphorin 3A mRNA and protein expressions were measured over the 4 (...) -week recovery period. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression was higher in the sensory nerves than in motor nerves at 2 weeks after injury, but vice versa for the expression of semaphorin 3A. Western blot assay results demonstrated that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression was higher in motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at the proximal end after injury, but its expression was greater in the sensory nerves at 2 weeks. Semaphorin 3A

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2016 Neural Regeneration Research

133. Autophagy Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration and Motor Recovery Following Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats (PubMed)

Autophagy Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration and Motor Recovery Following Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats Autophagy maintains cellular homeostasis by stimulating the lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic structures, including damaged organelles and dysfunctional proteins. The role of autophagy in the renewal and regeneration of injured peripheral nerves remains poorly understood. The current study investigated the role of autophagy in peripheral nerve regeneration and motor function (...) inhibitor 3-methyladenine. These data indicate that the modulation of autophagy in peripheral nerve injury could be an effective pharmacological approach to promote nerve regeneration and reestablish motor function.

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2016 Journal of Molecular Neuroscience

134. A novel bioactive nerve conduit for the repair of peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

A novel bioactive nerve conduit for the repair of peripheral nerve injury The use of a nerve conduit provides an opportunity to regulate cytokines, growth factors and neurotrophins in peripheral nerve regeneration and avoid autograft defects. We constructed a poly-D-L-lactide (PDLLA)-based nerve conduit that was modified using poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-lysine)]} and β-tricalcium phosphate. The effectiveness of this bioactive PDLLA-based nerve conduit was compared (...) to that of PDLLA-only conduit in the nerve regeneration following a 10-mm sciatic nerve injury in rats. We observed the nerve morphology in the early period of regeneration, 35 days post injury, using hematoxylin-eosin and methylene blue staining. Compared with the PDLLA conduit, the nerve fibers in the PDLLA-based bioactive nerve conduit were thicker and more regular in size. Muscle fibers in the soleus muscle had greater diameters in the PDLLA bioactive group than in the PDLLA only group. The PDLLA-based

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2016 Neural Regeneration Research

135. Effects of Hip Arthroscopy Without a Perineal Post on Venous Blood Flow, Muscle Damage, Peripheral Nerve Conduction, and Perineal Injury: A Prospective Study. (PubMed)

Effects of Hip Arthroscopy Without a Perineal Post on Venous Blood Flow, Muscle Damage, Peripheral Nerve Conduction, and Perineal Injury: A Prospective Study. Prior reports of hip arthroscopy using a perineal post have established the risks of groin soft tissue injury, sexual dysfunction, and altered lower extremity neurovascular function. These parameters have not been investigated for hip arthroscopy without the use of a perineal post.To evaluate the effects of postless hip arthroscopy (...) were conducted intraoperatively. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) were measured intraoperatively for the lower limbs. Perineal injury was assessed at 7 to 12 days postoperatively.35 patients underwent a total of 40 hip arthroscopies. No significant differences were found in venous blood flow between the operative and nonoperative legs for either the CFV or popliteal vein. SSEP monitoring of the peroneal nerve showed no significant reduction

2019 American Journal of Sports Medicine

136. The efficacy of a scaffold-free Bio 3D conduit developed from human fibroblasts on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model. (PubMed)

The efficacy of a scaffold-free Bio 3D conduit developed from human fibroblasts on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve model. Although autologous nerve grafting is the gold standard treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, several alternative methods have been developed, including nerve conduits that use supportive cells. However, the seeding efficacy and viability of supportive cells injected in nerve grafts remain unclear. Here, we focused on a novel completely biological (...) , tissue-engineered, scaffold-free conduit.We developed six scaffold-free conduits from human normal dermal fibroblasts using a Bio 3D Printer. Twelve adult male rats with immune deficiency underwent mid-thigh-level transection of the right sciatic nerve. The resulting 5-mm nerve gap was bridged using 8-mm Bio 3D conduits (Bio 3D group, n = 6) and silicone tube (silicone group, n = 6). Several assessments were conducted to examine nerve regeneration eight weeks post-surgery.Kinematic analysis revealed

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2017 PLoS ONE

137. Attempt of peripheral nerve reconstruction during lung cancer surgery (PubMed)

Attempt of peripheral nerve reconstruction during lung cancer surgery Vagus nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury are not rare complications of lung cancer surgery and can cause lethal consequences. Until now, no optimal method other than paying greater attention during surgery has been available.Four patients underwent lung surgery that involved RLN or vagus nerve injury. The left RLN or vagus nerve was cut off and then reconstructed immediately during surgery. Two patients (...) underwent direct anastomosis, while the remaining two underwent phrenic nerve replacing tension-relieving anastomosis.All patients were able to speak immediately after recovery. No or minimal glottal gap was observed during laryngoscopy conducted on the second day after surgery. Most patients achieved full recovery of voice quality.Immediate reconstruction of RLN is technically feasible and can be carried out with satisfying short-term and long-term outcomes.© 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published

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2018 Thoracic cancer

138. Therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue using implantable thin-film wireless nerve stimulators. (PubMed)

of simultaneously delivering therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue and providing postoperative serial assessment of functional recovery. METHODS Flexible wireless stimulators were fabricated and implanted into Lewis rats. Thin-film implants were used to deliver brief electrical stimulation (1 hour, 20 Hz) to sciatic nerves after nerve crush or nerve transection-and-repair injuries. RESULTS Electrical stimulation of injured nerves via implanted wireless stimulators significantly (...) improved functional recovery. Brief electrical stimulation was observed to increase the rate of functional recovery after both nerve crush and nerve transection-and-repair injuries. Wireless stimulators successfully facilitated therapeutic stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue and serial assessment of nerve recovery. CONCLUSIONS Implantable wireless stimulators can deliver therapeutic electrical stimulation to injured peripheral nerve tissue. Implantable wireless nerve stimulators might represent

2018 Journal of Neurosurgery

139. Ultrasound and Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Guided Femoral Nerve Block

Official Title: Short Term Effect of Ultrasound and Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Guided Femoral Nerve Block With Phenol on Outcomes in People With Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Actual Study Start Date : January 2014 Actual Primary Completion Date : December 2016 Actual Study Completion Date : December 2016 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: available for: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment femoral nerve block Other: Femoral nerve block (...) Ultrasound and Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Guided Femoral Nerve Block Ultrasound and Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Guided Femoral Nerve Block - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Ultrasound

2018 Clinical Trials

140. Decellularized sciatic nerve matrix as a biodegradable conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration (PubMed)

Decellularized sciatic nerve matrix as a biodegradable conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration The use of autologous nerve grafts remains the gold standard for treating nerve defects, but current nerve repair techniques are limited by donor tissue availability and morbidity associated with tissue loss. Recently, the use of conduits in nerve injury repair, made possible by tissue engineering, has shown therapeutic potential. We manufactured a biodegradable, collagen-based nerve conduit (...) containing decellularized sciatic nerve matrix and compared this with a silicone conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration using a rat model. The collagen-based conduit contains nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and laminin, as demonstrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the collagen-based conduit had an outer wall to prevent scar tissue infiltration and a porous inner structure to allow axonal growth. Rats that were implanted

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2018 Neural Regeneration Research

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