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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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101. Priming the stump in peripheral nerve injury (Commentary on Zhang et al. (2017)) (PubMed)

Priming the stump in peripheral nerve injury (Commentary on Zhang et al. (2017)) 28102017 2018 07 30 2018 12 02 1460-9568 45 6 2017 03 The European journal of neuroscience Eur. J. Neurosci. Priming the stump in peripheral nerve injury (Commentary on Zhang et al. (2017)). 748-749 10.1111/ejn.13523 Elfar John C JC The Del Monte Institute for Neuroscience and the Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA. eng K08 AR060164 AR (...) NIAMS NIH HHS United States Journal Article Comment 2017 02 06 France Eur J Neurosci 8918110 0953-816X IM Eur J Neurosci. 2017 Mar;45(6):750-762 27973754 Humans Motor Activity Nerve Regeneration Peripheral Nerve Injuries Sciatic Nerve 2017 1 20 6 0 2018 7 31 6 0 2017 1 20 6 0 ppublish 28102017 10.1111/ejn.13523 PMC5821056 NIHMS942244 J Hand Surg Am. 2010 Feb;35(2):332-41 20141906 Ann Plast Surg. 2015 Jun;74 Suppl 4:S222-8 25978554 J Hand Surg Am. 2013 Mar;38(3):617-8 23428193 J Hand Surg Am. 2012

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2017 The European journal of neuroscience

102. Useful Effects of Melatonin in Peripheral Nerve Injury and Development of the Nervous System (PubMed)

Useful Effects of Melatonin in Peripheral Nerve Injury and Development of the Nervous System This review summarizes the role of melatonin (MLT) in defense against toxic-free radicals and its novel effects in the development of the nervous system, and the effect of endogenously produced and exogenously administered MLT in reducing the degree of tissue and nerve injuries. MLT was recently reported to be an effective free radical scavenger and antioxidant. Since endogenous MLT levels fall (...) significantly in senility, these findings imply that the loss of this antioxidant could contribute to the incidence or severity of some age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Considering the high efficacy of MLT in overcoming much of the injury not only to the peripheral nerve but also to other organs, clinical trials for this purpose should be seriously considered.

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2017 Journal of brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injury

103. Transplantation of Embryonic Spinal Cord Derived Cells Helps to Prevent Muscle Atrophy after Peripheral Nerve Injury (PubMed)

Transplantation of Embryonic Spinal Cord Derived Cells Helps to Prevent Muscle Atrophy after Peripheral Nerve Injury Injuries to peripheral nerves are frequent in serious traumas and spinal cord injuries. In addition to surgical approaches, other interventions, such as cell transplantation, should be considered to keep the muscles in good condition until the axons regenerate. In this study, E14.5 rat embryonic spinal cord fetal cells and cultured neural progenitor cells from different spinal (...) , are beneficial in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries due to their ability to prevent the muscle atrophy.

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2017 International journal of molecular sciences

104. Chaperone Proteins in the Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System after Nerve Injury (PubMed)

Chaperone Proteins in the Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System after Nerve Injury Injury to axons of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is accompanied by the upregulation and downregulation of numerous molecules that are involved in mediating nerve repair, or in augmentation of the original damage. Promoting the functions of beneficial factors while reducing the properties of injurious agents determines whether regeneration and functional

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2017 Frontiers in neuroscience

105. Role of dorsal root ganglion K2P1.1 in peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain (PubMed)

Role of dorsal root ganglion K2P1.1 in peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain Peripheral nerve injury-caused hyperexcitability and abnormal ectopic discharges in the primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) play a key role in neuropathic pain development and maintenance. The two-pore domain background potassium (K2P) channels have been identified as key determinants of the resting membrane potential and neuronal excitability. However, whether K2P channels contribute (...) to neuropathic pain is still elusive. We reported here that K2P1.1, the first identified mammalian K2P channel, was highly expressed in mouse DRG and distributed in small-, medium-, and large-sized DRG neurons. Unilateral lumbar (L) 4 spinal nerve ligation led to a significant and time-dependent reduction of K2P1.1 mRNA and protein in the ipsilateral L4 DRG, but not in the contralateral L4 or ipsilateral L3 DRG. Rescuing this reduction through microinjection of adeno-associated virus-DJ expressing full

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2017 Molecular pain

106. Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling in the Insular Cortex Alleviates Neuropathic Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury (PubMed)

Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling in the Insular Cortex Alleviates Neuropathic Pain after Peripheral Nerve Injury Injury of peripheral nerves can trigger neuropathic pain, producing allodynia and hyperalgesia via peripheral and central sensitization. Recent studies have focused on the role of the insular cortex (IC) in neuropathic pain. Because the IC is thought to store pain-related memories, translational regulation in this structure may reveal novel targets (...) allodynia was assessed in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after neuropathic surgery and following microinjections of rapamycin into the IC on postoperative days (PODs) 3 and 7. Optical recording was conducted to observe the neural responses of the IC to peripheral stimulation. Rapamycin reduced mechanical allodynia and downregulated the expression of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), decreased neural excitability in the IC, thereby inhibiting neuropathic pain-induced synaptic plasticity

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2017 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

107. Comparison of DNA Methylation in Schwann Cells before and after Peripheral Nerve Injury in Rats (PubMed)

Comparison of DNA Methylation in Schwann Cells before and after Peripheral Nerve Injury in Rats This study aims to find the difference of genomewide DNA methylation in Schwann cells (SCs) before and after peripheral nerve system (PNS) injury by Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation Sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) and seek meaningful differentially methylated genes related to repairment of injured PNS. SCs harvested from sciatic nerve were named as activated Schwann cells (ASCs), and the ones harvested from (...) of these methylated genes were also conducted. The expression patterns of hypermethylated genes (Dgcr8, Zeb2, Dixdc1, Sox2, and Shh) and hypomethylated genes (Gpr126, Birc2) detected by qRT-PCR were opposite to the MeDIP analysis data with significance (p < 0.05), which proved MeDIP analysis data were real and believable. Our data serve as a basis for understanding the injury-induced epigenetic changes in SCs and the foundation for further studies on repair of PNS injury.

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2017 BioMed research international

108. Afferent Fiber Remodeling in the Somatosensory Thalamus of Mice as a Neural Basis of Somatotopic Reorganization in the Brain and Ectopic Mechanical Hypersensitivity after Peripheral Sensory Nerve Injury (PubMed)

Afferent Fiber Remodeling in the Somatosensory Thalamus of Mice as a Neural Basis of Somatotopic Reorganization in the Brain and Ectopic Mechanical Hypersensitivity after Peripheral Sensory Nerve Injury Plastic changes in the CNS in response to peripheral sensory nerve injury are a series of complex processes, ranging from local circuit remodeling to somatotopic reorganization. However, the link between circuit remodeling and somatotopic reorganization remains unclear. We have previously (...) . The anatomical remodeling, emergence of ectopic receptive fields, and extraterritorial pain behavior all concomitantly developed within a week and lasted more than three months after the transection. Our findings, thus, indicate a strong linkage between these plastic changes after peripheral sensory nerve injury, which may provide a neural circuit basis underlying large-scale reorganization of somatotopic representation and abnormal ectopic sensations.

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2017 eNeuro

109. Time-dependent differential expression of long non-coding RNAs following peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Time-dependent differential expression of long non-coding RNAs following peripheral nerve injury Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are widely accepted as key players in various biological processes. However, the roles of lncRNA in peripheral nerve regeneration remain completely unknown. Thus, in this study, we performed microarray analysis to measure lncRNA expression in the distal segment of the sciatic nerve at 0, 3, 7 and 14 days following injury. We identified 5,354 lncRNAs that were (...) lncRNAs in peripheral nerve damage. Importantly, we predicted that several lncRNA-mRNA pairs may participate in biological processes related to peripheral nerve injury. RT-qPCR was performed for the preliminary verification of three lncRNA‑mRNA pairs. The overexpression of NONMMUG014387 promoted the proliferation of mouse Schwann cells. Thus, the findings of our study may enhance our knowledge of the role of lncRNAs in nerve injury.

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2017 International journal of molecular medicine

110. Suppression of MyD88-dependent signaling alleviates neuropathic pain induced by peripheral nerve injury in the rat (PubMed)

Suppression of MyD88-dependent signaling alleviates neuropathic pain induced by peripheral nerve injury in the rat MyD88 is the adaptor protein of MyD88-dependent signaling pathway of TLRs and IL-1 receptor and regulates innate immune response. However, it was not clear whether and how MyD88 and related signaling pathways in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn (SDH) are involved in neuropathic pain.Chronic constriction injury (CCI) was used to induce neuropathic pain (...) in the rat. The expression of MyD88, TRIF, IBA1, and GFAP was detected with immunofluorescent staining and Western blot. The expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), NF-κB-p65, phosphorylated NF-κB-p65, ERK, phosphorylated ERK, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was detected with Western blot. Pain-related behavioral effects of MyD88 homodimerization inhibitory peptide (MIP) were accessed up to 3 weeks after intrathecal administration.Peripheral nerve injury

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2017 Journal of neuroinflammation

111. Estrogen signaling is necessary for exercise-mediated enhancement of motoneuron participation in axon regeneration after peripheral nerve injury in mice (PubMed)

Estrogen signaling is necessary for exercise-mediated enhancement of motoneuron participation in axon regeneration after peripheral nerve injury in mice Thousands of people each year suffer from peripheral nerve injury. Treatment options are limited, and recovery is often incomplete. Treadmill exercise can enhance nerve regeneration; however, this appears to occur in a sex-dependent manner. Females respond best to short duration, high speed interval training; whereas, males respond best (...) of the spinal cord. Both treadmill training and estradiol administration increased the number of motoneurons participating in axon regeneration, but these effects were blocked by ER antagonist treatment. Estrogen signaling is important for the enhancing effects of treadmill exercise on motoneuron participation after peripheral nerve cut. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1133-1143, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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2017 Developmental neurobiology

112. Patterns of production of collagen‐rich deposits in peripheral nerves in response to injury: A pilot study in a rabbit model (PubMed)

Patterns of production of collagen‐rich deposits in peripheral nerves in response to injury: A pilot study in a rabbit model Although collagen-rich deposits are the main component of neural scars, the patterns of their formation are ill defined. Essential to the biosynthesis of collagen fibrils are enzymes catalyzing posttranslational modifications and chaperones that control the formation of the collagen triple helix. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H) and heat shock protein-47 (HSP47) play a key (...) fibrotic tissue (FT) in response to peripheral nerve injury. To reach this goal, we employed a rabbit model of crush-injury and partial-transection injury of the sciatic nerves.Our study demonstrated that αSMA is expressed in a relatively small number of cells seen in neural FT. In contrast, cells producing P4H and HSP47 are ubiquitously present in sites of injury of the sciatic nerves.We contemplate that these proteins may serve as valuable markers that define fibrotic activities in the injured

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2017 Brain and behavior

113. Interfacing peripheral nerve with macro-sieve electrodes following spinal cord injury (PubMed)

Interfacing peripheral nerve with macro-sieve electrodes following spinal cord injury Macro-sieve electrodes were implanted in the sciatic nerve of five adult male Lewis rats following spinal cord injury to assess the ability of the macro-sieve electrode to interface regenerated peripheral nerve fibers post-spinal cord injury. Each spinal cord injury was performed via right lateral hemisection of the cord at the T9-10 site. Five months post-implantation, the ability of the macro-sieve electrode (...) for histological evaluation. Successful sciatic nerve regeneration across the macro-sieve electrode interface following spinal cord injury was seen in all five animals. Recorded electromyography signals and muscle force recordings obtained through macro-sieve electrode stimulation confirm the ability of the macro-sieve electrode to successfully recruit distal musculature in this injury model. Taken together, these results demonstrate the macro-sieve electrode as a viable interface for peripheral nerve

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2017 Neural Regeneration Research

114. MicroRNA-9 regulates mammalian axon regeneration in peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

MicroRNA-9 regulates mammalian axon regeneration in peripheral nerve injury Effective axon regeneration is achieved mainly by precise regulation of gene expression after peripheral nerve injury. MicroRNAs play an important role in controlling axon regeneration owe to its key epigenetic function in regulating gene expression. Here, we reveal that microRNA-9 (miR-9) may be a new suppressor of axon regeneration and FoxP1 is the functional target of miR-9. High level of endogenous miR-9 in sensory

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2017 Molecular pain

115. Brain injury in combination with tacrolimus promotes the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves (PubMed)

Brain injury in combination with tacrolimus promotes the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves Both brain injury and tacrolimus have been reported to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. In this study, before transection of rat sciatic nerve, moderate brain contusion was (or was not) induced. After sciatic nerve injury, tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant, was (or was not) intraperitoneally administered. At 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, Masson's trichrome, hematoxylin (...) retrograde tracing revealed that the number of horseradish peroxidase-positive neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord was greatly increased. Brain injury in combination with tacrolimus exhibited better effects on repair of injured peripheral nerves than brain injury or tacrolimus alone. This result suggests that brain injury in combination with tacrolimus promotes repair of peripheral nerve injury.

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2017 Neural Regeneration Research

116. Exercise and Peripheral Nerve Grafts as a Strategy To Promote Regeneration after Acute or Chronic Spinal Cord Injury (PubMed)

Exercise and Peripheral Nerve Grafts as a Strategy To Promote Regeneration after Acute or Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord injury (SCI) routinely are designed to address multiple aspects of the primary and/or secondary damage that occurs. Exercise has a demonstrated efficacy for post-SCI complications such as cardiovascular dysfunction, neuropathic pain, and chronic inflammation, yet there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which improvements (...) might result from this non-invasive approach. Here we review several of our observations of molecular and cellular changes within the injured spinal cord following acute or delayed exercise regimens that illustrate the potential for positive effects on neuroprotection and rehabilitation. Further, we provide new information about the role of exercise in promoting the regeneration of spinal axons into peripheral nerve grafts (PNGs) placed immediately or 6 weeks after injury. Acute and chronically

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2017 Journal of neurotrauma

117. Quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) neurography for evaluation of peripheral nerves and plexus injuries (PubMed)

Quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) neurography for evaluation of peripheral nerves and plexus injuries Traumatic conditions of peripheral nerves and plexus have been classically evaluated by morphological imaging techniques and electrophysiological tests. New magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies based on 3D fat-suppressed techniques are providing high accuracy for peripheral nerve injury evaluation from a qualitative point of view. However, these techniques do not provide quantitative (...) peripheral nerve analysis, providing valuable pathophysiological information about functional integrity of these structures. In the field of trauma and peripheral nerve or plexus injury, several derived parameters from DWI and DTI studies such as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) or fractional anisotropy (FA) among others, can be used as potential biomarkers of neural damage providing information about fiber organization, axonal flow or myelin integrity. A proper knowledge of physical basis

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2017 Quantitative imaging in medicine and surgery

118. Erythropoietin enhanced recovery after peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Erythropoietin enhanced recovery after peripheral nerve injury 28966638 2018 11 13 1673-5374 12 8 2017 Aug Neural regeneration research Neural Regen Res Erythropoietin enhanced recovery after peripheral nerve injury. 1268-1269 10.4103/1673-5374.213544 Modrak Max M University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA. Sundem Leigh L University of Rochester (...) Neurol. 2004 Dec;56(6):815-26 15470751 Injury. 2016 Aug;47(8):1819-23 27287740 Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:478103 25821803

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2017 Neural Regeneration Research

119. TNF-α Differentially Regulates Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus and Spinal Cord by Microglia-Dependent Mechanisms after Peripheral Nerve Injury (PubMed)

TNF-α Differentially Regulates Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus and Spinal Cord by Microglia-Dependent Mechanisms after Peripheral Nerve Injury Clinical studies show that chronic pain is accompanied by memory deficits and reduction in hippocampal volume. Experimental studies show that spared nerve injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve induces long-term potentiation (LTP) at C-fiber synapses in spinal dorsal horn, but impairs LTP in the hippocampus. The opposite changes may contribute (...) . Previous studies have shown that peripheral nerve injury produces both neuropathic pain and memory deficits and induces long-term potentiation (LTP) at C-fiber synapses in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) but inhibits LTP in hippocampus. The opposite changes in synaptic plasticity may contribute to chronic pain and memory deficits, respectively. However, the structural and molecular bases of these alterations of synaptic plasticity are unclear. Here, we show that the complexity of excitatory synaptic

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2017 The Journal of Neuroscience

120. Neuregulin 1-ErbB module in C-bouton synapses on somatic motor neurons: molecular compartmentation and response to peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Neuregulin 1-ErbB module in C-bouton synapses on somatic motor neurons: molecular compartmentation and response to peripheral nerve injury The electric activity of lower motor neurons (MNs) appears to play a role in determining cell-vulnerability in MN diseases. MN excitability is modulated by cholinergic inputs through C-type synaptic boutons, which display an endoplasmic reticulum-related subsurface cistern (SSC) adjacent to the postsynaptic membrane. Besides cholinergic molecules

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2017 Scientific reports

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