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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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61. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor mediates peripheral nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity by curbing dopaminergic descending inhibition (PubMed)

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor mediates peripheral nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity by curbing dopaminergic descending inhibition Our previous works disclosed the contributing role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and dopaminergic inhibition by lysine dimethyltransferase G9a/Glp complex in peripheral nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity. We herein propose that the proinflammatory cytokine MIF participates in the regulation of neuropathic hypersensitivity (...) the recruitment of G9a and SUV39H1, followed by an increase in H3K9me2/H3K9me3. These molecular changes correspondingly exhibited alterations in Th promoter CpG site methylation and pain behaviors. In summary, MIF functions as a braking factor in curbing dopaminergic descending inhibition in peripheral nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity by mediating Th gene methylation through G9a/SUV39H1-associated H3K9 methylation.

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2018 Experimental & molecular medicine

62. Regenerative effects of human embryonic stem cell‐derived neural crest cells for treatment of peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Regenerative effects of human embryonic stem cell‐derived neural crest cells for treatment of peripheral nerve injury Surgical intervention is the current gold standard treatment following peripheral nerve injury. However, this approach has limitations, and full recovery of both motor and sensory modalities often remains incomplete. The development of artificial nerve grafts that either complement or replace current surgical procedures is therefore of paramount importance. An essential (...) crest. Conditioned media harvested from the differentiated cells contained a range of biologically active trophic factors and was able to stimulate in vitro neurite outgrowth. Differentiated neural crest cells were seeded into a biodegradable nerve conduit, and their regeneration potential was assessed in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. A robust regeneration front was observed across the entire width of the conduit seeded with the differentiated neural crest cells. Moreover, the up-regulation

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2018 Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

63. The Whole Transcriptome Involved in Denervated Muscle Atrophy Following Peripheral Nerve Injury (PubMed)

The Whole Transcriptome Involved in Denervated Muscle Atrophy Following Peripheral Nerve Injury Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) usually leads to progressive muscle atrophy and poor functional recovery. Previous studies have demonstrated that non-coding ribonucleic acid (ncRNA) is a key regulator of muscle atrophy and beneficial for the treatment of PNI. We aimed to analyze the whole transcriptome involved in denervated muscle atrophy after PNI. Animal models of sciatic nerve injury were assessed (...) at 0 (control group), 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after injury. The expression patterns in the whole transcriptome in the gastrocnemius muscle were profiled using RNA sequencing at each time point and compared to that obtained in the control group. Six-hundred and sixty-four long non-coding RNAs, 671 microRNAs, 236 circular RNAs, and 12,768 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were differentially expressed (DE) after injury. Changes in some of the DE ncRNAs and mRNAs were validated using quantitative polymerase chain

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2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

64. Detection of local and remote cellular damage caused by spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury using a heat shock signaling reporter system (PubMed)

Detection of local and remote cellular damage caused by spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury using a heat shock signaling reporter system Spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury results in extensive damage to the locally injured cells as well as distant cells that are functionally connected to them. Both primary and secondary damage can cause a broad range of clinical abnormalities, including neuropathic pain and cognitive and memory dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying (...) these abnormalities remain unclear, awaiting new methods to identify affected cells to enable examination of their molecular, cellular and physiological characteristics. Here, we report that both primary and secondary damage to cells in mouse models of spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury can be detected in vivo using a novel fluorescent reporter system based on the immediate stress response via activation of Heat Shock Factor 1. We also provide evidence for altered electrophysiological properties of reporter

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2018 IBRO Reports

65. Botulinum Toxin B Affects Neuropathic Pain but Not Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury in a Mouse Model (PubMed)

Botulinum Toxin B Affects Neuropathic Pain but Not Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury in a Mouse Model Clinical use of neurotoxins from Clostridium botulinum is well established and is continuously expanding, including in treatment of pain conditions. Background: The serotype A (BoNT/A) has been widely investigated, and current data demonstrate that it induces analgesia and modulates nociceptive processing initiated by inflammation or nerve injury. Given that data concerning (...) the serotype B (BoNT/B) are limited, the aim of the present study was to verify if also BoNT/B is able not only to counteract neuropathic pain, but also to interfere with inflammatory and regenerative processes associated with the nerve injury. Methods: As model of neuropathic pain, chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve was performed in CD1 male mice. Mice were intraplantarly injected with saline (control) or BoNT/B (5 or 7.5 pg/mouse) into the injured hindpaw. For comparison, another

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2018 Toxins

66. Acute- and late-phase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity is comparable in female and male rats after peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Acute- and late-phase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity is comparable in female and male rats after peripheral nerve injury In the peripheral nerve, pro-inflammatory matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 performs essential functions in the acute response to injury. Whether MMP-9 activity contributes to late-phase injury or whether MMP-9 expression or activity after nerve injury is sexually dimorphic remains unknown.Patterns of MMP-9 expression, activity and excretion were assessed in a model (...) of painful peripheral neuropathy, sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI), in female and male rats. Real-time Taqman RT-PCR for MMP-9 and its endogenous inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) of nerve samples over a 2-month time course of CCI was followed by gelatin zymography of crude nerve extracts and purified MMP-9 from the extracts using gelatin Sepharose-beads. MMP excretion was determined using protease activity assay of urine in female and male rats with CCI.The

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2018 Journal of neuroinflammation

67. Contribution of dorsal root ganglion octamer transcription factor 1 to neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. (PubMed)

Contribution of dorsal root ganglion octamer transcription factor 1 to neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Neuropathic pain genesis is related to gene alterations in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after peripheral nerve injury. Transcription factors control gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether octamer transcription factor 1 (OCT1), a transcription factor, contributed to neuropathic pain caused by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Chronic (...) constriction injury produced a time-dependent increase in the level of OCT1 protein in the ipsilateral L4/5 DRG, but not in the spinal cord. Blocking this increase through microinjection of OCT1 siRNA into the ipsilateral L4/5 DRG attenuated the initiation and maintenance of CCI-induced mechanical allodynia, heat hyperalgesia, and cold allodynia and improved morphine analgesia after CCI, without affecting basal responses to acute mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli as well as locomotor functions. Mimicking

2018 Pain

68. Peripheral nerve injury, scarring, and recovery. (PubMed)

Peripheral nerve injury, scarring, and recovery. Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) resulting from trauma can be severe and permanently debilitating. Despite the armamentarium of meticulous microsurgical repair techniques that includes direct repair, grafting of defects with autograft nerve, and grafting with cadaveric allografts, approximately one-third of all PNI demonstrate incomplete recovery with poor restoration of function. This may include total loss or incomplete recovery of motor (...) and/or sensory function, chronic pain, muscle atrophy, and profound weakness, which can result in lifelong morbidity. Much of this impaired nerve healing can be attributed to perineural scarring and fibrosis at the site of injury and repair. To date, this challenging clinical problem has not been adequately addressed. In this review, we summarize the existing literature surrounding biological aspects of perineural fibrosis following PNI, detail current strategies to limit nerve scarring, present our own work

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2018 Connective Tissue Research

69. A Pilot Study of a Novel Automated Somatosensory Evoked Potential (SSEP) Monitoring Device for Detection and Prevention of Intraoperative Peripheral Nerve Injury in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Surgery. (PubMed)

A Pilot Study of a Novel Automated Somatosensory Evoked Potential (SSEP) Monitoring Device for Detection and Prevention of Intraoperative Peripheral Nerve Injury in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Surgery. Peripheral nerve injury is a potentially devastating complication after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) surgery. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of using an automated somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) device to provide a timely alert/intervention to minimize intraoperative (...) insults. No patients demonstrated postoperative peripheral neuropathy at 6 weeks.A high incidence (19%) of intraoperative nerve insult was observed in this study demonstrating the feasibility of using an automated SSEP device to provide a timely alert and enable an intervention in order to minimize peripheral nerve injury during TSA. Further randomized studies are warranted.

2018 Journal of neurosurgical anesthesiology

70. Upregulation of N-type calcium channels in the soma of uninjured dorsal root ganglion neurons contributes to neuropathic pain by increasing neuronal excitability following peripheral nerve injury. (PubMed)

Upregulation of N-type calcium channels in the soma of uninjured dorsal root ganglion neurons contributes to neuropathic pain by increasing neuronal excitability following peripheral nerve injury. N-type voltage-gated calcium (Cav2.2) channels are expressed in the central terminals of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and are critical for neurotransmitter release. Cav2.2 channels are also expressed in the soma of DRG neurons, where their function remains largely unknown. Here, we showed (...) -10 substantially prevented mechanical allodynia and Cav2.2 upregulation in L4 DRGs in L5-SNL rats. Finally, in cultured DRG neurons, Cav2.2 was dose-dependently upregulated by IL-1β and downregulated by IL-10. These data indicate that the upregulation of Cav2.2 in uninjured DRG neurons via IL-1β over-production contributes to neuropathic pain by increasing neuronal excitability following peripheral nerve injury.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 Brain, behavior, and immunity

71. Perioperative Peripheral Nerve Injury After General Anesthesia: A Qualitative Systematic Review. (PubMed)

Perioperative Peripheral Nerve Injury After General Anesthesia: A Qualitative Systematic Review. Perioperative peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a well-recognized complication of general anesthesia that continues to result in patient disability and malpractice claims. However, the multifactorial etiology of PNI is often not appreciated in malpractice claims given that most PNI is alleged to be due to errors in patient positioning. New advances in monitoring may aid anesthesiologists in the early (...) and ulnar nerves representing two-thirds of PNI claims. The causes of perioperative PNI after general anesthesia are likely multifactorial, resulting in a "difficult to predict and prevent" phenomenon. Nearly half of the PNI closed claims did not have an obvious etiology, and most (91%) were associated with appropriate anesthetic care. Future studies should focus on the interaction between different mechanisms of insult, severity and duration of injury, and underlying neuronal reserves. Recent automated

2018 Anesthesia and Analgesia

72. CRACKCast 107 – Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Asymmetrical proximal and distal peripheral neuropathies: Brachial plexopathy Open Direct plexus injury (knife or gunshot wound) Neurovascular (plexus ischemia) Iatrogenic (central line insertion) Closed Traction injuries “Stingers” Traction neurapraxia Partial or complete nerve root avulsion Radiation Neoplastic Idiopathic brachial plexitis Thoracic outlet Lumbosacral plexopathies Open Closed Traction injuries Pelvic double vertical shearing fracture Posterior hip dislocation Retroperitoneal hemorrhage (...) CRACKCast 107 – Peripheral Nerve Disorders CRACKCast 107 - Peripheral Nerve Disorders - CanadiEM CRACKCast 107 – Peripheral Nerve Disorders In , by Chris Lipp September 7, 2017 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s Chapter 107, Peripheral Nerve Disorders. These disorders have a wide range of presentations and etiologies. This chapter includes a comprehensive classification system to help in the ED in recognizing the various disorders. Shownotes – Rosen’s In Perspective Nervous System

2017 CandiEM

73. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation: neuromodulation of the suprascapular nerve and brachial plexus for postoperative analgesia following ambulatory rotator cuff repair. A proof-of-concept study. (PubMed)

Ultrasound-guided percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation: neuromodulation of the suprascapular nerve and brachial plexus for postoperative analgesia following ambulatory rotator cuff repair. A proof-of-concept study. Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is an analgesic modality involving the insertion of a lead through an introducing needle followed by the delivery of electric current. This modality has been reported to treat chronic pain as well as postoperative pain following (...) -14 had a median of 1 or less on the Numeric Rating Scale, and opioid requirements averaged less than 1 tablet daily with active stimulation. Two leads dislodged during use and four fractured on withdrawal, but no infections, nerve injuries, or adverse sequelae were reported.This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that ultrasound-guided percutaneous PNS of the brachial plexus is feasible for ambulatory shoulder surgery, and although analgesia immediately following surgery does not appear

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2019 Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

74. Ciguatoxin reduces regenerative capacity of axotomized peripheral neurons and delays functional recovery in pre-exposed mice after peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Ciguatoxin reduces regenerative capacity of axotomized peripheral neurons and delays functional recovery in pre-exposed mice after peripheral nerve injury Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) results from consumption of tropical reef fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). Pacific (P)-CTX-1 is among the most potent known CTXs and the predominant source of CFP in the endemic region responsible for the majority of neurological symptoms in patients. Chronic and persistent neurological symptoms occur in some (...) weeks of exposure before returning to baseline levels. These pre-exposed animals exhibited delayed sensory and motor functional recovery, and irreversible motor deficits after peripheral nerve injury in which formation of functional synapses was impaired. These findings are consistent with reduced muscle function, as assessed by electromyography recordings. Our study provides strong evidence that the persistence of P-CTX-1 in peripheral nerves reduces the intrinsic growth capacity of peripheral

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2016 Scientific reports

75. Identification of Neuromas by High Resolution Ultrasound in Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injury and Amputations

Identification of Neuromas by High Resolution Ultrasound in Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injury and Amputations Identification of Neuromas by High Resolution Ultrasound in Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injury and Amputations - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved (...) studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Identification of Neuromas by High Resolution Ultrasound in Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injury and Amputations The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03051113 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : February 13, 2017

2017 Clinical Trials

76. Pain-related Evoked Potentials in Unilateral Peripheral Nerve Injuries

Pain-related Evoked Potentials in Unilateral Peripheral Nerve Injuries Pain-related Evoked Potentials in Unilateral Peripheral Nerve Injuries - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Pain-related (...) Evoked Potentials in Unilateral Peripheral Nerve Injuries The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03082820 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : March 17, 2017 Last Update Posted : March 21, 2017 Sponsor: Ruhr University of Bochum Information provided by (Responsible Party): Christoph

2017 Clinical Trials

77. "State of the Art Techniques in Treating Peripheral Nerve Injury". (PubMed)

"State of the Art Techniques in Treating Peripheral Nerve Injury". Peripheral nerve injuries remain a major clinical concern, as they often lead to chronic disability and significant health care expenditures. Despite advancements in microsurgical techniques to enhance nerve repair, biological approaches are needed to augment nerve regeneration and improve functional outcomes after injury.Presented herein is a review of the current literature on state-of-the-art techniques to enhance functional (...) future of treating peripheral nerve injury will include multimodality use of electroconductive conduits, fat grafting, neuronal stimulation, and optogenetics. Further clinical investigation is needed to confirm the efficacy of these technologies on peripheral nerve recovery in humans, and how best to implement this treatment for a diverse population of nerve-injured patients.

2017 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

78. Risk factors for peripheral nerve injuries following neuraxial labour analgesia: a nested case-control study. (PubMed)

Risk factors for peripheral nerve injuries following neuraxial labour analgesia: a nested case-control study. Post-partum lower extremity motor and sensory dysfunctions occur in 0.1-9.2‰ of deliveries. While macrosomia, lithotomy position and forceps use are well-identified causes of peripheral nerve injuries, additional contributors such as patient condition and anaesthesia care may also have to be considered.We performed a case-control study nested in a cohort of 19,840 patients having (...) neuraxial anaesthesia for childbirth. Cases were all patients who developed motor or sensory dysfunction of lower extremities in the post-partum period. These were compared, using Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, logistic regression and time series, to a random sample of controls without any neurological symptoms or injury.We identified 19 (0.96‰) patients with peripheral nerve injuries of which 15 (0.76‰) were likely associated with obstetrical care. In four additional cases (0.20‰), a nerve root

2017 Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica

79. Neuron-Derived ADAM10 Production Stimulates Peripheral Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain by Cleavage of E-Cadherin in Satellite Glial Cells. (PubMed)

Neuron-Derived ADAM10 Production Stimulates Peripheral Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain by Cleavage of E-Cadherin in Satellite Glial Cells. Increasing evidence suggests the potential involvement of metalloproteinase family proteins in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive.Using the spinal nerve ligation model, we investigated whether ADAM10 proteins participate in pain regulation. By implementing invitro methods, we produced a purified (...) peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain by cleaving E-cadherin in satellite glial cells.© 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

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2017 Pain Medicine

80. N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Retrograde Motor Neuron Death after Neonatal Peripheral Nerve Injury. (PubMed)

N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Retrograde Motor Neuron Death after Neonatal Peripheral Nerve Injury. Neuronal death may be an overlooked and unaddressed component of disability following neonatal nerve injuries, such as obstetric brachial plexus injury. N-acetylcysteine and acetyl-L-carnitine improve survival of neurons after adult nerve injury, but it is unknown whether they improve survival after neonatal injury, when neurons are most susceptible to retrograde neuronal death. The authors (...) ' objective was to examine whether N-acetylcysteine or acetyl-L-carnitine treatment improves survival of neonatal motor or sensory neurons in a rat model of neonatal nerve injury.Rat pups received either a sciatic nerve crush or transection injury at postnatal day 3 and were then randomized to receive either intraperitoneal vehicle (5% dextrose), N-acetylcysteine (750 mg/kg), or acetyl-L-carnitine (300 mg/kg) once or twice daily. Four weeks after injury, surviving neurons were retrograde-labeled with 4

2017 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

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