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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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6561. A chronic-constriction injury of the sciatic nerve reduces bilaterally the responsiveness to formalin in rats: a behavioral and hormonal evaluation. (Abstract)

A chronic-constriction injury of the sciatic nerve reduces bilaterally the responsiveness to formalin in rats: a behavioral and hormonal evaluation. Application of four loose ligatures to the sciatic nerve of a rat (chronic constriction injury [CCI]) induces clear hypersensitivity to non-noxious stimulation and chemical irritants. However, in this study, an injection of formalin in the hind paw of a rat with CCI-induced mononeuropathy resulted in an ipsilateral decreased flinching and licking (...) with previously induced chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve. The effect in animals injected at the ipsilateral and contralateral site, sham-operated and controls, were compared.

2003 Anesthesia and Analgesia

6562. Intrathecal lidocaine reverses tactile allodynia caused by nerve injuries and potentiates the antiallodynic effect of the COX inhibitor ketorolac. (Abstract)

Intrathecal lidocaine reverses tactile allodynia caused by nerve injuries and potentiates the antiallodynic effect of the COX inhibitor ketorolac. Systemic lidocaine and other local anesthetics reduce hypersensitivity states induced by both acute inflammation and peripheral nerve injury in animals and produce analgesia in some patients with chronic pain. The mechanisms underlying the antiallodynic effect of systemic lidocaine are unclear, although most focus is on peripheral mechanisms. Central (...) mechanisms, particularly at the spinal dorsal horn level, are less known. In this study, the authors aimed to determine whether intrathecal lidocaine has an antiallodynic effect on established mechanical allodynia in two well-characterized neuropathic pain rat models: partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) and spinal nerve ligation (SNL).Lidocaine (100-300 micro g) was intrathecally injected in PSNL and SNL rats. The withdrawal threshold of both hind paws in response to mechanical stimulation was measured

2003 Anesthesiology

6563. Perineural alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor activation inhibits spinal cord neuroplasticity and tactile allodynia after nerve injury. (Abstract)

Perineural alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor activation inhibits spinal cord neuroplasticity and tactile allodynia after nerve injury. Nerve injury in animals increases alpha(2)-adrenoceptor expression in dorsal root ganglion cells and results in novel excitatory responses to their activation, perhaps leading to the phenomenon of sympathetically maintained pain. In contrast to this notion, peripheral alpha(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation fails to induce pain in patients with chronic pain. We hypothesized (...) cord.Clonidine reduced this hypersensitivity in a dose-dependent manner, and this was blocked by an alpha(2A)-preferring antagonist. Perineural clonidine injection had a slow onset (days) and prolonged duration (weeks). Systemic or intrathecal clonidine, or transient neural blockade with ropivacaine, had short lasting or no effect on hypersensitivity. alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor immunostaining was increased near the site of peripheral nerve injury, both in neurons and in immune cells (macrophages and T

2002 Anesthesiology

6564. Peripheral mechanisms in tremor after traumatic neck injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Peripheral mechanisms in tremor after traumatic neck injury. Tremor is a rare manifestation after neck injury, and its physiological mechanism has not been elucidated. We studied the effects of torque loading and ischaemic nerve block on coarse postural tremor in the right upper extremity, which had developed in association with a C7-C8 radiculopathy after traumatic neck injury in a 55 year old man. Loading reduced the tremor frequency from 6.1 Hz to 4.2 Hz with corresponding electromyography (...) (EMG) bursts at the same frequencies as the tremor. Ischaemic nerve block also reduced the tremor frequency from 6.2 Hz to 2.8 Hz, and the time course of the frequency was not in parallel with that of the size of the maximal M wave. A significant reduction of the tremor frequency by loading and ischaemic nerve block indicates a mechanical reflex mechanism underlying the tremor, and association of synchronous EMG bursts suggests an increase in gain in the stretch reflex loop. The stretch reflex loop

2002 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

6565. Acute Human Study: StimRouter for Peripheral Nerve Stimulation of Discrete Peripheral Nerves

, Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: 18 years of age or older Chronic peripheral pain persisting for greater than or equal to 3 months diagnosed previously as a mononeuropathy of the median nerve at the level of the carpal tunnel (i.e., diagnosed CTS) Average chronic pain level greater than or equal to 5/10 [on 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS) (BPI#14)], where such pain is attributed to injury, irritation, or entrapment of the median (...) terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Median Neuropathy Mononeuropathies Peripheral Nervous System Diseases Neuromuscular Diseases Nervous System Diseases Nerve Compression Syndromes Cumulative Trauma Disorders Sprains and Strains Wounds and Injuries

2008 Clinical Trials

6566. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in peripheral nerve regeneration: anti-MIF antibody induces delay of nerve regeneration and the apoptosis of Schwann cells. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in peripheral nerve regeneration: anti-MIF antibody induces delay of nerve regeneration and the apoptosis of Schwann cells. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine involved in inflammation and immune responses as well as in cell growth. Although we previously demonstrated the presence of MIF in peripheral nerves, and MIF mRNA expression was up-regulated after axotomy, the role of MIF in nerve injury (...) surgery by the anti-MIF antibody treatment. Consistent with these results, Ki-67-positive cells were significantly decreased by the anti-MIF antibody treatment. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that p53 and, to a lesser extent, Fas were more up-regulated in the anti-MIF antibody-treated nerves than in the controls.Taken together, these results suggest that MIF plays an important role in acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration and in prevention of Schwann cell apoptosis, mainly through

2002 Molecular Medicine

6567. GW406381 In Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injury

GW406381 In Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injury GW406381 In Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. GW406381 In Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injury (...) the Effects of Chronic Dose Oral GW406381 on Pain and Areas of Hyperalgesia and Allodynia in Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injury as a Result of Trauma or Surgery. Study Start Date : September 2003 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: Arms and Interventions Go to Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : To investigate the effect of chronic oral dosing (21 days) of GW406381 compared to placebo, on pain in patients with peripheral nerve injury Secondary

2006 Clinical Trials

6568. Ischemic preconditioning reduces the severity of ischemia-reperfusion injury of peripheral nerve in rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ischemic preconditioning reduces the severity of ischemia-reperfusion injury of peripheral nerve in rats Allow for protection of briefly ischemic tissues against the harmful effects of subsequent prolonged ischemia is a phenomenon called as Ischemic Preconditioning (IP). IP has not been studied in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model of peripheral nerve before. We aimed to study the effects of acute IP on I/R injury of peripheral nerve in rats.70 adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (...) group (p < 0.05).IP reduces the severity of I/R injury in peripheral nerve as shown by reduced tissue MDA levels at 3rd hour of reperfusion and axonal vacuolization at 7th postischemic day.

2006 Journal of brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injury

6569. Quantification of the rat spinal microglial response to peripheral nerve injury as revealed by immunohistochemical image analysis and flow cytometry Full Text available with Trip Pro

Quantification of the rat spinal microglial response to peripheral nerve injury as revealed by immunohistochemical image analysis and flow cytometry Microgliosis is implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurological disorders, including neuropathic pain. Consequently, perturbation of microgliosis is a mechanistic and drug development target in neuropathic pain, which highlights the requirement for specific, sensitive and reproducible methods of microgliosis measurement. In this study, we (...) to peripheral nerve injury and pharmacological attenuation thereof. In addition, flow cytometry provides an alternative approach for quantitative analysis of spinal microgliosis elicited by nerve injury.

2007 Journal of neuroscience methods

6570. Activation of MAPK ERK in peripheral nerve after injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Activation of MAPK ERK in peripheral nerve after injury Activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, has been proposed to mediate neurite outgrowth-promoting effects of several neurotrophic factors in vitro. However, the precise activity of ERK during axonal regeneration in vivo remains unclear. Peripheral axotomy has been shown to activate ERK in the cell bodies of primary afferent neurons and associated (...) satellite cells. Nevertheless, whether ERK is also activated in the axons and surrounded Schwann cells which also play a key role in the regeneration process has not been clarified.Phosphorylation of ERK in the sciatic nerve in several time-points after crush injury has been examined. Higher phosphorylation of ERK was observed in the proximal and distal nerve stumps compared to the contralateral intact nerve from one day to one month after crush. The activation of ERK was mainly localized in the axons

2006 BMC neuroscience

6571. Kinetics of ATP release following compression injury of a peripheral nerve trunk Full Text available with Trip Pro

Kinetics of ATP release following compression injury of a peripheral nerve trunk Compression and/or contusion of a peripheral nerve trunk can result in painful sensations. It is possible that release of ATP into the extracellular space may contribute to this symptom. In the present study, we used real-time measurements of ATP-induced bioluminescence together with electrophysiological recordings of compound action potentials to follow changes in the extracellular ATP concentration of isolated (...) rat spinal roots exposed to mechanical stimuli. Nerve compression for about 8 s resulted in an immediate release of ATP into the extracellular space and in a decrease in the amplitude of compound action potentials. On average, a rise in ATP to 60 nM was observed when nerve compression blocked 50% of the myelinated axons. After the compression, the extracellular concentration of ATP returned to the resting level within a few minutes. The importance of ecto-nucleotidases for the recovery period

2006 Purinergic signalling

6572. Editorial on participating in the Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Editorial on participating in the Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury 17374160 2007 07 26 2008 11 20 1749-7221 2 2007 Mar 20 Journal of brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injury J Brachial Plex Peripher Nerve Inj Editorial on participating in the Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury. 8 Bahm Jörg J eng Editorial 2007 03 20 United States J Brachial Plex Peripher Nerve Inj 101265114 1749-7221 2007 03 15 2007 03 20 2007 3 22 9 0 2007 3 22 9 1 2007 3 22 9 0

2007 Journal of brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injury

6573. Ketamine as an adjuvant in sympathetic blocks for management of central sensitization following peripheral nerve injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ketamine as an adjuvant in sympathetic blocks for management of central sensitization following peripheral nerve injury Proliferation of NMDA receptors and role of glutamate in producing central sensitization and 'wind up' phenomena in CRPS [complex regional pain syndrome] forms a strong basis for the use of Ketamine to block the cellular mechanisms that initiate and maintain these changes. In this case series, we describe 3 patients of CRPS Type II with debilitating central sensitization, heat

2008 Journal of brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injury

6574. Spinal myoclonus following a peripheral nerve injury: a case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spinal myoclonus following a peripheral nerve injury: a case report Spinal myoclonus is a rare disorder characterized by myoclonic movements in muscles that originate from several segments of the spinal cord and usually associated with laminectomy, spinal cord injury, post-operative, lumbosacral radiculopathy, spinal extradural block, myelopathy due to demyelination, cervical spondylosis and many other diseases. On rare occasions, it can originate from the peripheral nerve lesions (...) and be mistaken for peripheral myoclonus. Careful history taking and electrophysiological evaluation is important in differential diagnosis. The aim of this report is to evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics and treatment results of a case with spinal myoclonus following a peripheral nerve injury without any structural lesion.

2008 Journal of brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injury

6575. [Observation on therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture combined with functional training for treatment of peripheral nerve incomplete injury of upper limbs]. (Abstract)

[Observation on therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture combined with functional training for treatment of peripheral nerve incomplete injury of upper limbs]. To search for the best program for treatment of peripheral nerve incomplete injury.Ninety cases were randomly divided into a treatment group, a control group I and a control group II, 30 cases in each group. The treatment group were treated with electroacupuncture at Jianyu (LI 15), Hegu (LI 4), Quchi (LI 11), etc. plus functional (...) training, and the control group I with electroacupuncture and the control group H with functional training. After treatment for 3 months, basic function, practical function, EMG, nerve conduction velocity were compared among the 3 groups.The good rate of basic function of 50.0%, the curemarkedly effective rate of practical function of 50.0% and the total effective rate of neurophysiology of 64.3% in the treatment group were better than 20.7%, 17.2%, 41.4% in the control group I (P < 0.05) and 23.3

2007 Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6576. Significant reduction in neural adhesions after administration of the regenerating agent OTR4120, a synthetic glycosaminoglycan mimetic, after peripheral nerve injury in rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Significant reduction in neural adhesions after administration of the regenerating agent OTR4120, a synthetic glycosaminoglycan mimetic, after peripheral nerve injury in rats. Extradural and intraneural scar formation after peripheral nerve injury frequently causes tethering and compression of the nerve as well as inhibition of axonal regeneration. Regenerating agents (RGTAs) mimic stabilizing and protective properties of sulphated glycosaminoglycan toward heparin-binding growth factors (...) . The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an RGTA known as OTR4120 on extraneural fibrosis and axonal regeneration after crush injury in a rat sciatic nerve model.Thirty-two female Wistar rats underwent a standardized crush injury of the sciatic nerve. The animals were randomly allocated to RGTA treatment or sham treatment in a blinded design. To score neural adhesions, the force required to break the adhesions between the nerve and its surrounding tissue was measured 6 weeks after nerve crush

2008 Journal of Neurosurgery

6577. Use of a static magnetic field to promote recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Use of a static magnetic field to promote recovery after peripheral nerve injury. While pulsed electromagnetic stimulation has been shown to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, the effect of a static magnetic field on nerve repair is less clear. The aim of this study was to establish what effect an imposed exogenous static magnetic field has on peripheral nerve regeneration after transection and repair.Three groups of six adult sheep were used. The first group acted as normal controls (...) ), electrophysiological (determinations of stimulated jitter, maximum conduction velocity, refractory period, and F waves), and isometric tension (isometric twitch and tetanic tension) assessments.Exogenously applied static electromagnetic fields do not enhance peripheral nerve regeneration.

2006 Journal of Neurosurgery

6578. Peripheral nerve injury: diagnosis with MR imaging of denervated skeletal muscle--experimental study in rats. (Abstract)

Peripheral nerve injury: diagnosis with MR imaging of denervated skeletal muscle--experimental study in rats. To prospectively evaluate signal intensity change on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and the time course of T2 values and T2 ratios after reinnervation in various nerve injury models in rats.Institutional animal use and care committee approval was obtained. Thirty male rats made up four groups of rats with an injured left posterior tibial nerve (irreversible neurotmesis (...) groups were compared by using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Comparisons across the five groups at each acquisition point were performed by using one-way analysis of variance with Scheffe post hoc testing. P < .05 indicated a significant difference.The more severe the nerve damage, the higher the signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images. There were significant differences in T2 ratios between the nerve injury groups and the control group (P < .05). Changes in T2 values and ratios depended

2008 Radiology

6579. End-to-side neurorrhaphies in a rodent model of peripheral nerve injury: a preliminary report of a novel technique. (Abstract)

End-to-side neurorrhaphies in a rodent model of peripheral nerve injury: a preliminary report of a novel technique. The standard techniques for repair of peripheral nerve injuries with neuroma formation are typically suboptimal. To begin to explore alternative techniques, the authors used an established model in rodents by using end-to-side "terminolateral" neurorrhaphies (TLNs) to study alternative grafting techniques. The TLN "jump grafts" bypass a neuromain-continuity, hypothetically (...) maintaining functional units within the neuroma to facilitate functional regeneration. Evaluation of the extent and origin of the regenerating fibers within the grafts was also undertaken.The right tibial nerve in four adult Sprague-Dawley rats was injured using either a crush or transection technique and compared with four uninjured controls. The contralateral peroneal nerve was immediately harvested for microsurgical repair by using TLN jump grafts in all animals. Following a 3-month recovery

2004 Journal of Neurosurgery

6580. Surgical repair of brachial plexus injury: a multinational survey of experienced peripheral nerve surgeons. (Abstract)

Surgical repair of brachial plexus injury: a multinational survey of experienced peripheral nerve surgeons. Brachial plexus injuries (BPIs) are often devastating events that lead to upper-extremity paralysis, rendering the limb a painful extraneous appendage. Fortunately, there are several nerve repair techniques that provide restoration of some function. Although there is general agreement in the medical community concerning which patients may benefit from surgical intervention, the actual (...) repair technique for a given lesion is less clear. The authors sought to identify and better define areas of agreement and disagreement among experienced peripheral nerve surgeons as to the management of BPIs.The authors developed a detailed survey in two parts: one part addressing general issues related to BPI and the other presenting four clinical cases. The survey was mailed to 126 experienced peripheral nerve physicians and 49 (39%) participated in the study. The respondents represent 22

2004 Journal of Neurosurgery

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