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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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41. Peripheral nerve injury arising in anaesthesia practice. (PubMed)

Peripheral nerve injury arising in anaesthesia practice. In this article, we will discuss the pathophysiology of peripheral nerve injury in anaesthetic practice, including factors which increase the susceptibility of nerves to damage. We will describe a practical and evidence-based approach to the management of suspected peripheral nerve injury and will go on to discuss major nerve injury patterns relating to intra-operative positioning and to peripheral nerve blockade. We will review (...) the evidence surrounding particular strategies to reduce the incidence of peripheral nerve injury during nerve blockade, including nerve localisation methods, timing of blocks, needle techniques and design, injection pressure-monitoring and local anaesthetic and adjunct choice.© 2018 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

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2018 Anaesthesia

42. Swimming Training Attenuates Allodynia and Hyperalgesia Induced by Peripheral Nerve Injury in an Adult Male Rat Neuropathic Model: Effects on Irisin and GAD65. (PubMed)

Swimming Training Attenuates Allodynia and Hyperalgesia Induced by Peripheral Nerve Injury in an Adult Male Rat Neuropathic Model: Effects on Irisin and GAD65. The analgesic mechanism of long-lasting exercise on neuropathic pain is not well understood. This study explored the effects of swimming training on neuropathic pain and the expression of irisin, GAD65, and P2X3 after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve.Thirty-five male rats were randomly assigned to one (...) of the following five groups: 1) no CCI or swimming (control); 2) swimming without CCI (SW); 3) swimming with CCI (CCISW); 4) CCI without swimming (CCI); and 5) sham CCI surgery (sham CCI). Behavioral responses to mechanical, cold, and heat stimuli were tested before and after CCI surgery, as well as each week throughout the four weeks of swimming training. The expression of irisin, GAD65, and P2X3 proteins in L4-L6 spinal cord segment, ipsilateral to the nerve injury, were evaluated by western

2018 Pain Medicine

43. Peripheral Nerve Injury After Elbow Arthroscopy: An Analysis of Risk Factors. (PubMed)

Peripheral Nerve Injury After Elbow Arthroscopy: An Analysis of Risk Factors. To identify risk factors associated with peripheral nerve injury after elbow arthroscopy and provide an updated incidence of those complications.The elbow arthroscopies that were performed at our institution between 2006 and 2016 were identified. Over a 10-year period, 253 elbow arthroscopies were performed at our institution. Two hundred twenty-seven cases had a minimum follow-up of 4 weeks, and were included in our (...) analysis. Minor and major nerve-related complications were recorded. The surgeon's experience and training, body max index of the patients, surgical tourniquet time, type of anesthesia or surgery, radiographic appearance of the elbow, diagnosis at the time of surgery, and presence of diabetes were analyzed.There were 12 reported peripheral nerve injuries, 10 minor (4.4%) and 2 major complications (0.9%). The risk factors examined in this study were not correlated with a higher rate of complications.The

2018 Arthroscopy

44. Efficacy and safety of novel collagen conduits filled with collagen filaments to treat patients with peripheral nerve injury: A multicenter, controlled, open-label clinical trial. (PubMed)

Efficacy and safety of novel collagen conduits filled with collagen filaments to treat patients with peripheral nerve injury: A multicenter, controlled, open-label clinical trial. The safety and efficacy of using artificial collagen nerve conduits filled with collagen filaments to treat nerve defects has not been fully studied in humans. We conducted a multicenter, controlled, open-label study to compare the safety and efficacy of artificial nerve conduit grafts with those of autologous nerve (...) using autologous nerve grafts. Based on our data, the new artificial collagen nerve conduit can provide an alternative to autologous nerve for the treatment of peripheral nerve defects.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2018 Injury

45. Peripheral Nerve Injury Associated with a Subdermal Contraceptive Implant: Illustrative Cases and Systematic Review of Literature.

Peripheral Nerve Injury Associated with a Subdermal Contraceptive Implant: Illustrative Cases and Systematic Review of Literature. Despite demonstrable safety and efficacy of subdermal contraceptive implants (SCIs), both insertion and removal of SCIs in the arm have been associated with neurovascular complications. The aim of this study was to investigate type and prognosis of nerve injuries associated with SCIs.We performed a comprehensive search of 4 electronic databases for studies (...) completely recovered; the remaining patients continued to have motor and/or sensory deficit at mean follow-up of 0.7 year (range, 0-2 years).Nerve injuries related to SCIs are rare but potentially serious. For nonpalpable SCIs, a multidisciplinary approach, including practitioners with experience treating peripheral nerve injuries, is invaluable.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 World neurosurgery

46. MiR-7 inhibited peripheral nerve injury repair by affecting neural stem cells migration and proliferation through cdc42 (PubMed)

MiR-7 inhibited peripheral nerve injury repair by affecting neural stem cells migration and proliferation through cdc42 Objective Neural stem cells play an important role in the recovery and regeneration of peripheral nerve injury, and the microRNA-7 (miR-7) regulates differentiation of neural stem cells. This study aimed to explore the role of miR-7 in neural stem cells homing and proliferation and its influence on peripheral nerve injury repair. Methods The mice model of peripheral nerve (...) stem cells could abolish the protective role of neural stem cells on peripheral nerve injury. Conclusion MiR-7 inhibited peripheral nerve injury repair by affecting neural stem cells migration and proliferation through cdc42.

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2018 Molecular pain

47. MicroRNA Mediated Regulation of Schwann Cell Migration and Proliferation in Peripheral Nerve Injury (PubMed)

MicroRNA Mediated Regulation of Schwann Cell Migration and Proliferation in Peripheral Nerve Injury Schwann cells (SCs) contribute to nerve repair following injury; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are short noncoding RNAs, have been shown to play a role in neuronal disease. In this work, we show that miRNAs regulate the peripheral nerve system by modulating the migration and proliferation of SCs. Thus, miRNAs expressed in peripheral (...) nerves may provide a potential therapeutic target for peripheral nerve injury or repair.

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2018 BioMed research international

48. Conundrums and confusions regarding how polyethylene glycol-fusion produces excellent behavioral recovery after peripheral nerve injuries (PubMed)

Conundrums and confusions regarding how polyethylene glycol-fusion produces excellent behavioral recovery after peripheral nerve injuries Current Neuroscience dogma holds that transections or ablations of a segment of peripheral nerves produce: (1) Immediate loss of axonal continuity, sensory signaling, and motor control; (2) Wallerian rapid (1-3 days) degeneration of severed distal axons, muscle atrophy, and poor behavioral recovery after many months (if ever, after ablations) by slowly (...) dogma and a paradigm shift in clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.

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2018 Neural Regeneration Research

49. GSK3β inhibitor promotes myelination and mitigates muscle atrophy after peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

GSK3β inhibitor promotes myelination and mitigates muscle atrophy after peripheral nerve injury Delay of axon regeneration after peripheral nerve injury usually leads to progressive muscle atrophy and poor functional recovery. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is considered to be one of the main molecular mechanisms that lead to skeletal muscle atrophy in the elderly. We hold the hypothesis that the innervation of target muscle can be promoted by accelerating axon regeneration (...) and decelerating muscle cell degeneration so as to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following peripheral nerve injury. This process may be associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our study designed in vitro cell models to simulate myelin regeneration and muscle atrophy. We investigated the effects of SB216763, a glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta inhibitor, on the two major murine cell lines RSC96 and C2C12 derived from Schwann cells and muscle satellite cells. The results showed

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2018 Neural Regeneration Research

50. Guiding Device for Precision Grafting of Peripheral Nerves in Complete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury: Design and Sizing for Clinical Trial (PubMed)

Guiding Device for Precision Grafting of Peripheral Nerves in Complete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury: Design and Sizing for Clinical Trial In an effort to translate preclinical success in achieving spinal cord regeneration through peripheral nerve grafts, this study details the design and sizing of a guiding device for precision grafting of peripheral nerves for use in a clinical trial in complete (AIS-A) thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). The device's design and sizing are compared

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2018 Frontiers in neurology

51. Chemogenetic Enhancement of Axon Regeneration Following Peripheral Nerve Injury in the SLICK-A Mouse (PubMed)

Chemogenetic Enhancement of Axon Regeneration Following Peripheral Nerve Injury in the SLICK-A Mouse The effects of chemogenetics on axon regeneration following peripheral nerve transection and repair were studied in mice expressing a Cre-dependent excitatory designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) and Cre-recombinase/yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in a subset of motor and sensory neurons and cortical motoneurons (SLICK-A). Sciatic nerves were cut and repaired (...) and mice were treated either once, at the time of injury, or five days per week for two weeks with clozapine N-oxide (CNO) (1 mg/kg, i.p.), or were untreated controls. Two weeks after injury, the lengths of YFP+ axon profiles were measured in nerves harvested from euthanized animals. Compared to untreated controls, regenerating axon lengths were not significantly longer in mice treated only once with CNO, but they were more than three times longer in mice receiving CNO repeatedly. Based on results

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2018 Brain sciences

52. Transplantation of a Peripheral Nerve with Neural Stem Cells Plus Lithium Chloride Injection Promote the Recovery of Rat Spinal Cord Injury (PubMed)

Transplantation of a Peripheral Nerve with Neural Stem Cells Plus Lithium Chloride Injection Promote the Recovery of Rat Spinal Cord Injury Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) holds great potential for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, transplanted NSCs poorly survive in the SCI environment. We injected NSCs into tibial nerve and transplanted tibial nerve into a hemisected spinal cord and investigated the effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) on the survival of spinal (...) into the host spinal cord. The combination of tibial nerve transplantation with NSCs and LiCl injection resulted in more host motoneurons surviving in the spinal cord, more regenerated axons in tibial nerve, less glial scar area, and decreased ED1 expression. We conclude that lithium may have therapeutic potential in cell replacement strategies for central nervous system injury due to its ability to promote survival and neuronal generation of grafted NSCs and reduced host immune reaction.

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2018 Cell transplantation

53. Attenuation of TRPV1 by AMG-517 after nerve injury promotes peripheral axonal regeneration in rats (PubMed)

Attenuation of TRPV1 by AMG-517 after nerve injury promotes peripheral axonal regeneration in rats Aims The main objective was to investigate the effects of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) on nerve regeneration following sciatic transection injury by functional blockage of TRPV1 using AMG-517, a specific blocker of TRPV1. Methods AMG-517 was injected into the area surrounding ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia 30 min after unilateral sciatic (...) was decreased and GAP-43 was increased at the proximal stump. However, the expression of both glial fibrillary acidic protein and GAP-43 increased significantly in AMG-517-treated groups. Conclusions TRPV1 may be an important therapeutic target to promote peripheral nerve regeneration after injury.

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2018 Molecular pain

54. Temporal changes in macrophage phenotype after peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Temporal changes in macrophage phenotype after peripheral nerve injury Macrophages play a key role in peripheral nerve repair and demonstrate complex phenotypes that are highly dependent on microenvironmental cues.We determined temporal changes in macrophage gene expression over time using RNA sequencing after fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) macrophage populations from injured peripheral nerve. We identified key upstream regulators and dominant pathways using ingenuity pathway (...) analysis and confirmed these changes with NanoString technology. We then investigate the effects of extreme polarizers of macrophage phenotype (IL4 and IFNγ) on nerve regeneration. We determined macrophage gene expression in vivo at the site of peripheral nerve injury with NanoString technology, and assessed recovery from sciatic nerve injury by cranial tibial muscle weights and retrograde labeling motor neurons in mice with deletion of IL4 or IFNγ receptors.We demonstrate that IL4R and IFNγR deletions

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2018 Journal of neuroinflammation

55. Molecular and cellular identification of the immune response in peripheral ganglia following nerve injury (PubMed)

Molecular and cellular identification of the immune response in peripheral ganglia following nerve injury Neuroinflammation accompanies neural trauma and most neurological diseases. Axotomy in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) leads to dramatic changes in the injured neuron: the cell body expresses a distinct set of genes known as regeneration-associated genes, the distal axonal segment degenerates and its debris is cleared, and the axons in the proximal segment form growth cones and extend (...) neurites. These processes are orchestrated in part by immune and other non-neuronal cells. Macrophages in ganglia play an integral role in supporting regeneration. Here, we explore further the molecular and cellular components of the injury-induced immune response within peripheral ganglia.Adult male wild-type (WT) and Ccr2 -/- mice were subjected to a unilateral transection of the sciatic nerve and axotomy of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Antibody arrays were used to determine the expression

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2018 Journal of neuroinflammation

56. miR-129 controls axonal regeneration via regulating insulin-like growth factor-1 in peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

miR-129 controls axonal regeneration via regulating insulin-like growth factor-1 in peripheral nerve injury The microenvironment of peripheral nerve regeneration consists of multiple neurotrophic factors, adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix molecules, secreted by unique glial cells in the peripheral nerve system (PNS)-Schwann cell (SCs). Following peripheral nerve injury (PNI), local IGF-1 production is upregulated in SCs and denervated muscle during axonal sprouting and regeneration (...) . Regulation of IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling is considered as a potentially targeted therapy of PNI. We previously identified a group of novel miRNAs in proximal nerve following rat sciatic nerve transection. The present work focused on the role of miR-129 in regulation of IGF-1 signaling after sciatic nerve injury. The temporal change profile of the miR-129 expression was negatively correlated with the IGF-1 expression in proximal nerve stump and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) following sciatic nerve transection

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2018 Cell death & disease

57. Puerarin ameliorates allodynia and hyperalgesia in rats with peripheral nerve injury (PubMed)

Puerarin ameliorates allodynia and hyperalgesia in rats with peripheral nerve injury Puerarin is a major active ingredient of the traditional Chinese plant medicine, Radix Puerariae, and commonly used in the treatment of myocardial and cerebral ischemia. However, the effects of puerarin on neuropathic pain are still unclear. In this study, a neuropathic pain animal model was created by partial sciatic nerve ligation. Puerarin (30 or 60 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected once a day for 7 days (...) receptor potential ankyrin 1 (Trpa1) in a dose-dependent manner in dorsal root ganglion neurons after peripheral nerve injury. These results suggest that puerarin dose-dependently ameliorates neuropathic pain by suppressing Trpv1 and Trpa1 up-regulation in dorsal root ganglion of neuropathic pain rats.

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2018 Neural Regeneration Research

58. Peripheral nerve injury increases contribution of L-type calcium channels to synaptic transmission in spinal lamina II: Role of α2δ–1 subunits (PubMed)

Peripheral nerve injury increases contribution of L-type calcium channels to synaptic transmission in spinal lamina II: Role of α2δ–1 subunits Background Following peripheral nerve chronic constriction injury, the accumulation of the α2δ-1 auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in primary afferent terminals contributes to the onset of neuropathic pain. Overexpression of α2δ-1 in Xenopus oocytes increases the opening properties of Cav1.2 L-type channels and allows Ca2+ influx (...) -sensitive calcium current. In lamina II, gabapentin reduced spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current frequency in neurons from animals subject to chronic constriction injury but not in those from sham-operated animals. Intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg nitrendipine increased paw withdrawal threshold in animals subject to chronic constriction injury. Conclusion We suggest that L-type channels show an increased contribution to synaptic transmission in lamina II dorsal horn following peripheral nerve

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2018 Molecular pain

59. Peripheral nerve injury with Nexplanon removal: case report and review of the literature (PubMed)

Peripheral nerve injury with Nexplanon removal: case report and review of the literature Implantable devices offer convenient, long-acting, and reversible contraception. Injury to the peripheral nerves and blood vessels have been reported as rare complications of implantation and extraction.We present a case of ulnar nerve injury in a 21-year-old woman from attempted in-office removal of a deeply implanted Nexplanon® device. The injury resulted in an ulnar nerve palsy requiring surgical (...) exploration, neuroma excision, and sural nerve cable grafting.In-office attempts to remove contraceptive implants that are deep or have migrated can cause iatrogenic nerve injury. Devices that are non-palpable, deep, or migrated should be imaged before formal surgical exploration and removal. Any patient with neurologic symptoms after placement or after attempted removal requires prompt diagnosis and referral to a peripheral nerve surgeon.

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2018 Contraception and Reproductive Medicine

60. Dental pulp-derived stem cells can counterbalance peripheral nerve injury-induced oxidative stress and supraspinal neuro-inflammation in rat brain (PubMed)

Dental pulp-derived stem cells can counterbalance peripheral nerve injury-induced oxidative stress and supraspinal neuro-inflammation in rat brain Previously, we reported the successful regeneration of injured peripheral nerves using human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) or differentiated neuronal cells from DPSCs (DF-DPSCs) in a rat model. Here, we attempted to evaluate oxidative stress and supraspinal neuro-inflammation in rat brain after sciatic nerve injury (SNI). We divided our experimental (...) was lower at 2 weeks, while it gradually increased at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery in the SNI DPSCs and DF-DPSCs groups. Similarly, SNI DPSCs had a high expression of pAMPK, SIRT1 and NFkB at the onset of SNI. However, 12 weeks after surgery, pAMPK and SIRT1 expression levels were higher and NFkB was down-regulated in both DPSCs and DF-DPSCs compared to the control group. Finally, we concluded that DPSCs responded early and more efficiently than DF-DPSCs to counterbalance peripheral nerve injury (PNI

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2018 Scientific reports

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