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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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41. Peripheral nerve injury with Nexplanon removal: case report and review of the literature Full Text available with Trip Pro

Peripheral nerve injury with Nexplanon removal: case report and review of the literature Implantable devices offer convenient, long-acting, and reversible contraception. Injury to the peripheral nerves and blood vessels have been reported as rare complications of implantation and extraction.We present a case of ulnar nerve injury in a 21-year-old woman from attempted in-office removal of a deeply implanted Nexplanon® device. The injury resulted in an ulnar nerve palsy requiring surgical (...) exploration, neuroma excision, and sural nerve cable grafting.In-office attempts to remove contraceptive implants that are deep or have migrated can cause iatrogenic nerve injury. Devices that are non-palpable, deep, or migrated should be imaged before formal surgical exploration and removal. Any patient with neurologic symptoms after placement or after attempted removal requires prompt diagnosis and referral to a peripheral nerve surgeon.

2018 Contraception and Reproductive Medicine

42. Transcriptome analysis of adherens junction pathway-related genes after peripheral nerve injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Transcriptome analysis of adherens junction pathway-related genes after peripheral nerve injury The neural regeneration process is driven by a wide range of molecules and pathways. Adherens junctions are critical cellular junctions for the integrity of peripheral nerves. However, few studies have systematically characterized the transcript changes in the adherens junction pathway following injury. In this study, a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury was established by forceps. Deep (...) of these genes were upregulated in the sciatic nerve stump following peripheral nerve injury, except for CTNNA2, which was downregulated. Our findings reveal the dynamic changes of key molecules in adherens junctions and in remodeling of adherens junctions. These key genes provide a reference for the selection of clinical therapeutic targets for peripheral nerve injury.

2018 Neural Regeneration Research

43. Progressive adaptation of whole-limb kinematics after peripheral nerve injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Progressive adaptation of whole-limb kinematics after peripheral nerve injury The ability to recover purposeful movement soon after debilitating neuromuscular injury is essential to animal survival. Various neural and mechanical mechanisms exist to preserve whole-limb kinematics despite exhibiting long-term deficits of individual joints following peripheral nerve injury. However, it is unclear whether functionally relevant whole-limb movement is acutely conserved following injury. Therefore (...) , the objective of this longitudinal study of the injury response from four individual cats was to test the hypothesis that whole-limb length is conserved following localized nerve injury of ankle extensors in cats with intact nervous systems. The primary finding of our study was that whole-limb kinematics during walking was not immediately preserved following peripheral nerve injuries that paralyzed subsets of ankle extensor muscles. Instead, whole-limb kinematics recovered gradually over multiple weeks

2018 Biology open

44. Temporal changes in macrophage phenotype after peripheral nerve injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Temporal changes in macrophage phenotype after peripheral nerve injury Macrophages play a key role in peripheral nerve repair and demonstrate complex phenotypes that are highly dependent on microenvironmental cues.We determined temporal changes in macrophage gene expression over time using RNA sequencing after fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) macrophage populations from injured peripheral nerve. We identified key upstream regulators and dominant pathways using ingenuity pathway (...) analysis and confirmed these changes with NanoString technology. We then investigate the effects of extreme polarizers of macrophage phenotype (IL4 and IFNγ) on nerve regeneration. We determined macrophage gene expression in vivo at the site of peripheral nerve injury with NanoString technology, and assessed recovery from sciatic nerve injury by cranial tibial muscle weights and retrograde labeling motor neurons in mice with deletion of IL4 or IFNγ receptors.We demonstrate that IL4R and IFNγR deletions

2018 Journal of neuroinflammation

45. miR-129 controls axonal regeneration via regulating insulin-like growth factor-1 in peripheral nerve injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

miR-129 controls axonal regeneration via regulating insulin-like growth factor-1 in peripheral nerve injury The microenvironment of peripheral nerve regeneration consists of multiple neurotrophic factors, adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix molecules, secreted by unique glial cells in the peripheral nerve system (PNS)-Schwann cell (SCs). Following peripheral nerve injury (PNI), local IGF-1 production is upregulated in SCs and denervated muscle during axonal sprouting and regeneration (...) . Regulation of IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling is considered as a potentially targeted therapy of PNI. We previously identified a group of novel miRNAs in proximal nerve following rat sciatic nerve transection. The present work focused on the role of miR-129 in regulation of IGF-1 signaling after sciatic nerve injury. The temporal change profile of the miR-129 expression was negatively correlated with the IGF-1 expression in proximal nerve stump and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) following sciatic nerve transection

2018 Cell death & disease

46. MicroRNA Mediated Regulation of Schwann Cell Migration and Proliferation in Peripheral Nerve Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

MicroRNA Mediated Regulation of Schwann Cell Migration and Proliferation in Peripheral Nerve Injury Schwann cells (SCs) contribute to nerve repair following injury; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are short noncoding RNAs, have been shown to play a role in neuronal disease. In this work, we show that miRNAs regulate the peripheral nerve system by modulating the migration and proliferation of SCs. Thus, miRNAs expressed in peripheral (...) nerves may provide a potential therapeutic target for peripheral nerve injury or repair.

2018 BioMed research international

47. Guiding Device for Precision Grafting of Peripheral Nerves in Complete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury: Design and Sizing for Clinical Trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Guiding Device for Precision Grafting of Peripheral Nerves in Complete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury: Design and Sizing for Clinical Trial In an effort to translate preclinical success in achieving spinal cord regeneration through peripheral nerve grafts, this study details the design and sizing of a guiding device for precision grafting of peripheral nerves for use in a clinical trial in complete (AIS-A) thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). The device's design and sizing are compared

2018 Frontiers in neurology

48. Chemogenetic Enhancement of Axon Regeneration Following Peripheral Nerve Injury in the SLICK-A Mouse Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chemogenetic Enhancement of Axon Regeneration Following Peripheral Nerve Injury in the SLICK-A Mouse The effects of chemogenetics on axon regeneration following peripheral nerve transection and repair were studied in mice expressing a Cre-dependent excitatory designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) and Cre-recombinase/yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in a subset of motor and sensory neurons and cortical motoneurons (SLICK-A). Sciatic nerves were cut and repaired (...) and mice were treated either once, at the time of injury, or five days per week for two weeks with clozapine N-oxide (CNO) (1 mg/kg, i.p.), or were untreated controls. Two weeks after injury, the lengths of YFP+ axon profiles were measured in nerves harvested from euthanized animals. Compared to untreated controls, regenerating axon lengths were not significantly longer in mice treated only once with CNO, but they were more than three times longer in mice receiving CNO repeatedly. Based on results

2018 Brain sciences

49. Transplantation of a Peripheral Nerve with Neural Stem Cells Plus Lithium Chloride Injection Promote the Recovery of Rat Spinal Cord Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Transplantation of a Peripheral Nerve with Neural Stem Cells Plus Lithium Chloride Injection Promote the Recovery of Rat Spinal Cord Injury Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) holds great potential for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, transplanted NSCs poorly survive in the SCI environment. We injected NSCs into tibial nerve and transplanted tibial nerve into a hemisected spinal cord and investigated the effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) on the survival of spinal (...) into the host spinal cord. The combination of tibial nerve transplantation with NSCs and LiCl injection resulted in more host motoneurons surviving in the spinal cord, more regenerated axons in tibial nerve, less glial scar area, and decreased ED1 expression. We conclude that lithium may have therapeutic potential in cell replacement strategies for central nervous system injury due to its ability to promote survival and neuronal generation of grafted NSCs and reduced host immune reaction.

2018 Cell transplantation

50. Attenuation of TRPV1 by AMG-517 after nerve injury promotes peripheral axonal regeneration in rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

Attenuation of TRPV1 by AMG-517 after nerve injury promotes peripheral axonal regeneration in rats Aims The main objective was to investigate the effects of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) on nerve regeneration following sciatic transection injury by functional blockage of TRPV1 using AMG-517, a specific blocker of TRPV1. Methods AMG-517 was injected into the area surrounding ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia 30 min after unilateral sciatic (...) was decreased and GAP-43 was increased at the proximal stump. However, the expression of both glial fibrillary acidic protein and GAP-43 increased significantly in AMG-517-treated groups. Conclusions TRPV1 may be an important therapeutic target to promote peripheral nerve regeneration after injury.

2018 Molecular pain

51. Conundrums and confusions regarding how polyethylene glycol-fusion produces excellent behavioral recovery after peripheral nerve injuries Full Text available with Trip Pro

Conundrums and confusions regarding how polyethylene glycol-fusion produces excellent behavioral recovery after peripheral nerve injuries Current Neuroscience dogma holds that transections or ablations of a segment of peripheral nerves produce: (1) Immediate loss of axonal continuity, sensory signaling, and motor control; (2) Wallerian rapid (1-3 days) degeneration of severed distal axons, muscle atrophy, and poor behavioral recovery after many months (if ever, after ablations) by slowly (...) dogma and a paradigm shift in clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.

2018 Neural Regeneration Research

52. Peripheral nerve injury increases contribution of L-type calcium channels to synaptic transmission in spinal lamina II: Role of α2δ–1 subunits Full Text available with Trip Pro

Peripheral nerve injury increases contribution of L-type calcium channels to synaptic transmission in spinal lamina II: Role of α2δ–1 subunits Background Following peripheral nerve chronic constriction injury, the accumulation of the α2δ-1 auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in primary afferent terminals contributes to the onset of neuropathic pain. Overexpression of α2δ-1 in Xenopus oocytes increases the opening properties of Cav1.2 L-type channels and allows Ca2+ influx (...) -sensitive calcium current. In lamina II, gabapentin reduced spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current frequency in neurons from animals subject to chronic constriction injury but not in those from sham-operated animals. Intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg nitrendipine increased paw withdrawal threshold in animals subject to chronic constriction injury. Conclusion We suggest that L-type channels show an increased contribution to synaptic transmission in lamina II dorsal horn following peripheral nerve

2018 Molecular pain

53. Swimming Training Attenuates Allodynia and Hyperalgesia Induced by Peripheral Nerve Injury in an Adult Male Rat Neuropathic Model: Effects on Irisin and GAD65. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Swimming Training Attenuates Allodynia and Hyperalgesia Induced by Peripheral Nerve Injury in an Adult Male Rat Neuropathic Model: Effects on Irisin and GAD65. The analgesic mechanism of long-lasting exercise on neuropathic pain is not well understood. This study explored the effects of swimming training on neuropathic pain and the expression of irisin, GAD65, and P2X3 after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve.Thirty-five male rats were randomly assigned to one (...) of the following five groups: 1) no CCI or swimming (control); 2) swimming without CCI (SW); 3) swimming with CCI (CCISW); 4) CCI without swimming (CCI); and 5) sham CCI surgery (sham CCI). Behavioral responses to mechanical, cold, and heat stimuli were tested before and after CCI surgery, as well as each week throughout the four weeks of swimming training. The expression of irisin, GAD65, and P2X3 proteins in L4-L6 spinal cord segment, ipsilateral to the nerve injury, were evaluated by western

2018 Pain Medicine

54. Peripheral nerve injury arising in anaesthesia practice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Peripheral nerve injury arising in anaesthesia practice. In this article, we will discuss the pathophysiology of peripheral nerve injury in anaesthetic practice, including factors which increase the susceptibility of nerves to damage. We will describe a practical and evidence-based approach to the management of suspected peripheral nerve injury and will go on to discuss major nerve injury patterns relating to intra-operative positioning and to peripheral nerve blockade. We will review (...) the evidence surrounding particular strategies to reduce the incidence of peripheral nerve injury during nerve blockade, including nerve localisation methods, timing of blocks, needle techniques and design, injection pressure-monitoring and local anaesthetic and adjunct choice.© 2018 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

2018 Anaesthesia

55. Efficacy and safety of novel collagen conduits filled with collagen filaments to treat patients with peripheral nerve injury: A multicenter, controlled, open-label clinical trial. (Abstract)

Efficacy and safety of novel collagen conduits filled with collagen filaments to treat patients with peripheral nerve injury: A multicenter, controlled, open-label clinical trial. The safety and efficacy of using artificial collagen nerve conduits filled with collagen filaments to treat nerve defects has not been fully studied in humans. We conducted a multicenter, controlled, open-label study to compare the safety and efficacy of artificial nerve conduit grafts with those of autologous nerve (...) using autologous nerve grafts. Based on our data, the new artificial collagen nerve conduit can provide an alternative to autologous nerve for the treatment of peripheral nerve defects.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2018 Injury

56. A Pilot Study of a Novel Automated Somatosensory Evoked Potential (SSEP) Monitoring Device for Detection and Prevention of Intraoperative Peripheral Nerve Injury in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Surgery. (Abstract)

A Pilot Study of a Novel Automated Somatosensory Evoked Potential (SSEP) Monitoring Device for Detection and Prevention of Intraoperative Peripheral Nerve Injury in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Surgery. Peripheral nerve injury is a potentially devastating complication after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) surgery. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of using an automated somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) device to provide a timely alert/intervention to minimize intraoperative (...) insults. No patients demonstrated postoperative peripheral neuropathy at 6 weeks.A high incidence (19%) of intraoperative nerve insult was observed in this study demonstrating the feasibility of using an automated SSEP device to provide a timely alert and enable an intervention in order to minimize peripheral nerve injury during TSA. Further randomized studies are warranted.

2018 Journal of neurosurgical anesthesiology

57. Upregulation of N-type calcium channels in the soma of uninjured dorsal root ganglion neurons contributes to neuropathic pain by increasing neuronal excitability following peripheral nerve injury. (Abstract)

Upregulation of N-type calcium channels in the soma of uninjured dorsal root ganglion neurons contributes to neuropathic pain by increasing neuronal excitability following peripheral nerve injury. N-type voltage-gated calcium (Cav2.2) channels are expressed in the central terminals of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and are critical for neurotransmitter release. Cav2.2 channels are also expressed in the soma of DRG neurons, where their function remains largely unknown. Here, we showed (...) -10 substantially prevented mechanical allodynia and Cav2.2 upregulation in L4 DRGs in L5-SNL rats. Finally, in cultured DRG neurons, Cav2.2 was dose-dependently upregulated by IL-1β and downregulated by IL-10. These data indicate that the upregulation of Cav2.2 in uninjured DRG neurons via IL-1β over-production contributes to neuropathic pain by increasing neuronal excitability following peripheral nerve injury.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 Brain, behavior, and immunity

58. Peripheral Nerve Injury After Elbow Arthroscopy: An Analysis of Risk Factors. (Abstract)

Peripheral Nerve Injury After Elbow Arthroscopy: An Analysis of Risk Factors. To identify risk factors associated with peripheral nerve injury after elbow arthroscopy and provide an updated incidence of those complications.The elbow arthroscopies that were performed at our institution between 2006 and 2016 were identified. Over a 10-year period, 253 elbow arthroscopies were performed at our institution. Two hundred twenty-seven cases had a minimum follow-up of 4 weeks, and were included in our (...) analysis. Minor and major nerve-related complications were recorded. The surgeon's experience and training, body max index of the patients, surgical tourniquet time, type of anesthesia or surgery, radiographic appearance of the elbow, diagnosis at the time of surgery, and presence of diabetes were analyzed.There were 12 reported peripheral nerve injuries, 10 minor (4.4%) and 2 major complications (0.9%). The risk factors examined in this study were not correlated with a higher rate of complications.The

2018 Arthroscopy

59. Hyperpolarization-activated channels shape temporal patterns of ectopic spontaneous discharge in C-nociceptors after peripheral nerve injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hyperpolarization-activated channels shape temporal patterns of ectopic spontaneous discharge in C-nociceptors after peripheral nerve injury. Neuropathic pain is thought to be mediated by aberrant impulses from sensitized primary afferents, and the temporal summation of the discharges might also influence nociceptive processing. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels (Ih current) generate rhythmic activity in neurons within the central nervous system and contribute (...) to nociceptors excitability in neuropathic pain.We searched for single fibres with ectopic spontaneous discharges from an in vitro preparation in mice containing a neuroma formed in a peripheral branch of the saphenous nerve together with the undamaged branches.Both damaged (axotomized) and undamaged fibres (putative intact) developed ectopic spontaneous activity with different temporal spike trains: Clock-like, Irregular or Bursts. The Ih current blocker, ZD7288, significantly suppressed ectopic spontaneous

2018 European Journal of Pain

60. Detection of local and remote cellular damage caused by spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury using a heat shock signaling reporter system Full Text available with Trip Pro

Detection of local and remote cellular damage caused by spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury using a heat shock signaling reporter system Spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury results in extensive damage to the locally injured cells as well as distant cells that are functionally connected to them. Both primary and secondary damage can cause a broad range of clinical abnormalities, including neuropathic pain and cognitive and memory dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying (...) these abnormalities remain unclear, awaiting new methods to identify affected cells to enable examination of their molecular, cellular and physiological characteristics. Here, we report that both primary and secondary damage to cells in mouse models of spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury can be detected in vivo using a novel fluorescent reporter system based on the immediate stress response via activation of Heat Shock Factor 1. We also provide evidence for altered electrophysiological properties of reporter

2018 IBRO Reports

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