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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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281. Heparin-Poloxamer Thermosensitive Hydrogel Loaded with bFGF and NGF Enhances Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Diabetic Rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

Heparin-Poloxamer Thermosensitive Hydrogel Loaded with bFGF and NGF Enhances Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Diabetic Rats Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a major burden to society with limited therapeutic options, and novel biomaterials have great potential for shifting the current paradigm of treatment. With a rising prevalence of chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus (DM), treatment of PNI is further complicated, and only few studies have proposed therapies suitable for peripheral (...) nerve regeneration in DM. To provide a supportive environment to restore structure and/or function of nerves in DM, we developed a novel thermo-sensitive heparin-poloxamer (HP) hydrogel co-delivered with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in diabetic rats with sciatic nerve crush injury. The delivery vehicle not only had a good affinity for large amounts of growth factors (GFs), but also controlled their release in a steady fashion, preventing degradation in vitro

2018 Biomaterials

282. Stimulating effect of thyroid hormones in peripheral nerve regeneration: research history and future direction toward clinical therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Stimulating effect of thyroid hormones in peripheral nerve regeneration: research history and future direction toward clinical therapy Injury to peripheral nerves is often observed in the clinic and severe injuries may cause loss of motor and sensory functions. Despite extensive investigation, testing various surgical repair techniques and neurotrophic molecules, at present, a satisfactory method to ensuring successful recovery does not exist. For successful molecular therapy in nerve (...) regeneration, it is essential to improve the intrinsic ability of neurons to survive and to increase the speed of axonal outgrowth. Also to induce Schwann cell phenotypical changes to prepare the local environment favorable for axonal regeneration and myelination. Therefore, any molecule that regulates gene expression of both neurons and Schwann cells could play a crucial role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Clinical and experimental studies have reported that thyroid hormones are essential

2018 Neural Regeneration Research

283. Increased Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Macrophages Are Involved in Astragalus membranaceus-Mediated Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Rats. (Abstract)

([Formula: see text]), while FGF, NGF, PDGF, IL-1, and IFN-[Formula: see text] were increased in the low-dose AM group ([Formula: see text]). These results suggest that AM can modulate local inflammatory conditions, enhance nerve regeneration, and potentially increase recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury. (...) Increased Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Macrophages Are Involved in Astragalus membranaceus-Mediated Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Rats. Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is one of 50 fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies have shown that AM extract can be a potential nerve growth-promoting factor, being beneficial for the growth of peripheral nerve axons. We further investigated the effects of AM extract on regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve transection model

2018 American Journal of Chinese Medicine

284. Salvage of cervical motor radiculopathy using peripheral nerve transfer reconstruction. (Abstract)

Salvage of cervical motor radiculopathy using peripheral nerve transfer reconstruction. Motor nerve transfer surgery involves re-innervation of important distal muscles using either an expendable motor branch or a fascicle from an adjacent functioning nerve. This technique is established as part of the reconstructive algorithm for traumatic brachial plexus injuries. The reproducible outcomes of motor nerve transfer surgery have resulted in exploration of the application of this technique (...) to other paralysing conditions. The objective of this study is to report feasibility and increase awareness about nerve transfer as a method of improving upper limb function in patients with cervical motor radiculopathy of different aetiology.In this case series we report 3 cases with different modes of injury to the spinal nerve roots with significant and residual motor radiculopathy that have been successfully treated with nerve transfer surgery with good functional outcomes. The cases involved

2018 British Journal of Neurosurgery

285. An Orally Active Epac Inhibitor Reverses Mechanical Allodynia and Loss of Intraepidermal Nerve Fibers \iIn A Mouse Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An Orally Active Epac Inhibitor Reverses Mechanical Allodynia and Loss of Intraepidermal Nerve Fibers \iIn A Mouse Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major side effect of cancer treatment that significantly compromises quality of life of cancer patients and survivors. Identification of targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or reverse CIPN is needed. We investigated exchange protein regulated by cAMP (Epac (...) ) as a potential target. Epacs are cAMP-binding proteins known to play a pivotal role in mechanical allodynia induced by nerve injury and inflammation. We demonstrate that global Epac1-knockout (Epac1-/-) male and female mice are protected against paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia. In addition, spinal cord astrocyte activation and intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) loss are significantly reduced in Epac1-/- mice as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, Epac1-/- mice do not develop the paclitaxel-induced

2018 Pain

286. Effects of Hip Distraction Without a Perineal Post on Venous Blood Flow and Peripheral Nerve Conduction

Effects of Hip Distraction Without a Perineal Post on Venous Blood Flow and Peripheral Nerve Conduction Effects of Hip Distraction Without a Perineal Post on Venous Blood Flow and Peripheral Nerve Conduction - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100 (...) ). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Effects of Hip Distraction Without a Perineal Post on Venous Blood Flow and Peripheral Nerve Conduction The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03417934 Recruitment Status : Enrolling by invitation First Posted : January 31, 2018 Last

2018 Clinical Trials

287. Selection of the best point and angle of lateral ventricle puncture according to DTI reconstruction of peripheral nerve fibers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Selection of the best point and angle of lateral ventricle puncture according to DTI reconstruction of peripheral nerve fibers. This study aims to find accurate angles and depths of lateral ventricle puncture using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) reconstruction, as well as to provide an optimized and alternative puncturing strategy.A total of 90 computed tomography (CT) images and 30 CT images with DTI were analyzed. The measurements were performed on coronal, sagittal, and horizontal planes (...) will reduce injury and remain function. A DTI imaging examination combining with nerve fibers reconstruction were strongly recommended before lateral ventricle puncture, which will help neurosurgeons to determine the best puncturing angles and depth.

2018 Medicine

288. Ultrasound-guided peripheral forearm nerve block for digit fractures in a pediatric emergency department. (Abstract)

Ultrasound-guided peripheral forearm nerve block for digit fractures in a pediatric emergency department. Although ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block (UGPNB) has recently been introduced into pediatric emergency departments (EDs), knowledge of its use is still limited among pediatric emergency physicians. Ultrasound-guided ulnar nerve block (UGUNB) is a form of peripheral nerve block available for controlling the pain caused by phalangeal injuries, but studies of its use in pediatric (...) patients are still scarce. The aim of this case series was to describe the experience of UGUNB use for pediatric phalangeal fractures in a pediatric ED setting. In all the patients with phalangeal fractures, the ulnar nerve was successfully visualized using a hockey-stick type transducer. Approximately 0.1-0.2 mg/kg of 1% lidocaine was used as the nerve block. The procedure was effective for pain control, and fracture reduction was successfully performed without the need for rescue analgesia. This case

2018 American Journal of Emergency Medicine

289. Inflammaging impairs peripheral nerve maintenance and regeneration Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inflammaging impairs peripheral nerve maintenance and regeneration The regenerative capacity of peripheral nerves declines during aging, contributing to the development of neuropathies, limiting organism function. Changes in Schwann cells prompt failures in instructing maintenance and regeneration of aging nerves; molecular mechanisms of which have yet to be delineated. Here, we identified an altered inflammatory environment leading to a defective Schwann cell response, as an underlying (...) mechanism of impaired nerve regeneration during aging. Chronic inflammation was detected in intact uninjured old nerves, characterized by increased macrophage infiltration and raised levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and CC chemokine ligand 11 (CCL11). Schwann cells in the old nerves appeared partially dedifferentiated, accompanied by an activated repair program independent of injury. Upon sciatic nerve injury, an initial delayed immune response was followed by a persistent

2018 Aging cell

290. An integrated multi-layer 3D-fabrication of PDA/RGD coated graphene loaded PCL nanoscaffold for peripheral nerve restoration Full Text available with Trip Pro

) method in multi-layered porous scaffold fabrication. The scaffold is composed of single-layered graphene (SG) or multi-layered graphene (MG) and polycaprolactone (PCL). The electrically conductive 3D graphene scaffold can significantly improve neural expression both in vitro and in vivo. It promotes successful axonal regrowth and remyelination after peripheral nerve injury. These findings implicate that graphene-based nanotechnology have great potentials in peripheral nerve restoration in preclinical (...) An integrated multi-layer 3D-fabrication of PDA/RGD coated graphene loaded PCL nanoscaffold for peripheral nerve restoration As a conductive nanomaterial, graphene has huge potentials in nerve function restoration by promoting electrical signal transduction and metabolic activities with unique topological properties. Polydopamine (PDA) and arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) can improve cell adhesion in tissue engineering. Here we report an integrated 3D printing and layer-by-layer casting (LBLC

2018 Nature communications

291. Actin Cytoskeleton Affects Schwann Cell Migration and Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Full Text available with Trip Pro

-related genes and the specific roles of actin cytoskeleton following peripheral nerve injury have not been fully revealed. To address this question, we made rat sciatic nerve crush surgery, collected injured sciatic nerve stumps, analyzed RNA deep sequencing outcomes, and specifically studied two significantly involved canonical pathways that were related with actin, actin cytoskeleton signaling and regulation of actin-based motility by Rho. By using bioinformatic tools and qRT-PCR, We identified (...) and validated differentially expressed genes in these two signaling pathways. Moreover, by applying actin polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin D to sciatic nerve crushed rats, we studied the in vivo effect of cytochalasin D and demonstrated that inhibiting actin polymerization would delay the migration of Schwann cells and hinder the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Overall, our data revealed the changes of actin cytoskeleton-related genes following peripheral nerve injury and stated

2018 Frontiers in physiology

292. Anastomotic stoma coated with chitosan film as a betamethasone dipropionate carrier for peripheral nerve regeneration Full Text available with Trip Pro

Anastomotic stoma coated with chitosan film as a betamethasone dipropionate carrier for peripheral nerve regeneration Scar hyperplasia at the suture site is an important reason for hindering the repair effect of peripheral nerve injury anastomosis. To address this issue, two repair methods are often used. Biological agents are used to block nerve sutures and the surrounding tissue to achieve physical anti-adhesion effects. Another agent is glucocorticosteroid, which can prevent scar growth (...) by inhibiting inflammation. However, the overall effect of promoting regeneration of the injured nerve is not satisfactory. In this regard, we envision that these two methods can be combined and lead to shared understanding for achieving improved nerve repair. In this study, the right tibial nerve was transected 1 cm above the knee to establish a rat tibial nerve injury model. The incision was directly sutured after nerve transection. The anastomotic stoma was coated with 0.5 × 0.5 cm2 chitosan sheets

2018 Neural Regeneration Research

293. Quantitative Multimodal Evaluation of Passaging Human Neural Crest Stem Cells for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Full Text available with Trip Pro

Quantitative Multimodal Evaluation of Passaging Human Neural Crest Stem Cells for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Peripheral nerve injury is a major burden to societies worldwide, however, current therapy options (e.g. autologous nerve grafts) are unable to produce satisfactory outcomes. Many studies have shown that stem cell transplantation holds great potential for peripheral nerve repair, and human neural crest stem cells (hNCSCs), which give rise to a variety of tissues in the peripheral (...) , we employed a multimodal evaluation system to investigate changes in outcomes between transplantation with 5th (p5) and 6th passage (p6) NCSCs in a 15 mm rat sciatic nerve injury and repair model. Using CatWalk gait analysis, gastrocnemius muscle index, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and histomorphometric analysis, we showed that p6 NCSCs demonstrated decreased cell survival, Schwann-cell differentiation, axonal growth, and functional outcomes compared to p5 NCSCs (all p < 0.05

2018 Stem Cell Reviews

294. Effect of long-term electroacupuncture stimulation on recovery of sensorimotor function after peripheral nerve anastomosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of long-term electroacupuncture stimulation on recovery of sensorimotor function after peripheral nerve anastomosis Recently, application of electroacupuncture (EA) to stimulate nerve regeneration has become a mainstream treatment in clinical rehabilitation and related basic research, but the efficacy of long-term stimulation has not been confirmed.To evaluate the influence of long term EA on peripheral nerve injury (PNI) from multiple angles.Twenty-four rats were divided into three (...) groups: control, PNI and PNI+EA. In the latter two groups, PNI was modelled by transection followed by re-anastomosis of thesciatic nerve. In the PNI+EA group only,EA was delivered using a discontinuous wave with frequency 5 Hz, pulse width 2 ms, and intensity approximately 2 mA, until the affected limb was observed to twitch slightly. The treatment was given for 15 min each time, six times a week (continuously for 6 days followed by a 1-day break) for a total of 8 weeks. The effects of EA

2018 Acupuncture In Medicine

295. Peripheral Nerve Stimulation(PNS) for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome(SIS)

1.0 hr. sessions of physical therapy (PT) over a 4-wk period from a therapist blinded to Peripheral Nerve Stimulation (PNS) treatment assignment. Each participant also performs home exercises. The primary objective of physical therapy (PT) and the home exercise program is to prevent re-injury by educating and training participants in the biomechanics and proper use of the shoulder and upper limb. During each in-lab session, participants are trained in the implementation of these exercises, which (...) Peripheral Nerve Stimulation(PNS) for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome(SIS) Peripheral Nerve Stimulation(PNS) for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome(SIS) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2018 Clinical Trials

296. Selective Fiber Degeneration in the Peripheral Nerve of a Patient With Severe Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

Selective Fiber Degeneration in the Peripheral Nerve of a Patient With Severe Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Aims: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by chronic debilitating pain disproportional to the inciting event and accompanied by motor, sensory, and autonomic disturbances. The pathophysiology of CRPS remains elusive. An exceptional case of severe CRPS leading to forearm amputation provided the opportunity to examine nerve histopathological features of the peripheral (...) nerves. Methods: A 35-year-old female developed CRPS secondary to low voltage electrical injury. The CRPS was refractory to medical therapy and led to functional loss of the forelimb, repeated cutaneous wound infections leading to hospitalization. Specifically, the patient had exhausted a targeted conservative pain management programme prior to forearm amputation. Radial, median, and ulnar nerve specimens were obtained from the amputated limb and analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy

2018 Frontiers in neuroscience

297. An allogeneic ‘off the shelf’ therapeutic strategy for peripheral nerve tissue engineering using clinical grade human neural stem cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

An allogeneic ‘off the shelf’ therapeutic strategy for peripheral nerve tissue engineering using clinical grade human neural stem cells Artificial tissues constructed from therapeutic cells offer a promising approach for improving the treatment of severe peripheral nerve injuries. In this study the effectiveness of using CTX0E03, a conditionally immortalised human neural stem cell line, as a source of allogeneic cells for constructing living artificial nerve repair tissue was tested (...) . CTX0E03 cells were differentiated then combined with collagen to form engineered neural tissue (EngNT-CTX), stable aligned sheets of cellular hydrogel. EngNT-CTX sheets were delivered within collagen tubes to repair a 12 mm sciatic nerve injury model in athymic nude rats. Autologous nerve grafts (autografts) and empty tubes were used for comparison. After 8 weeks functional repair was assessed using electrophysiology. Further, detailed histological and electron microscopic analysis of the repaired

2018 Scientific reports

298. Ultrasound-guided Peripheral Nerve Block Versus Forearm Bier's Block in Patients Undergoing Carpal Tunnel Release

anesthesia Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Median Neuropathy Mononeuropathies Peripheral Nervous System Diseases Neuromuscular Diseases Nervous System Diseases Nerve Compression Syndromes Cumulative Trauma Disorders Sprains and Strains Wounds and Injuries Anesthetics Central Nervous System Depressants Physiological Effects of Drugs (...) Ultrasound-guided Peripheral Nerve Block Versus Forearm Bier's Block in Patients Undergoing Carpal Tunnel Release Ultrasound-guided Peripheral Nerve Block Versus Forearm Bier's Block in Patients Undergoing Carpal Tunnel Release - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved

2018 Clinical Trials

299. An Optimized Collagen-Fibrin Blend Engineered Neural Tissue Promotes Peripheral Nerve Repair Full Text available with Trip Pro

to formulations with higher and lower fibrin content. Initial in vivo tests in an 8 mm rat sciatic nerve model using rolled collagen-fibrin EngNT rods revealed a significantly enhanced axonal count in the midsection of the repair, as well as in the distal part of the nerve after 4 weeks. This optimized collagen-fibrin blend therefore provides a novel way to improve the capacity of EngNT to promote regeneration following peripheral nerve injury. (...) An Optimized Collagen-Fibrin Blend Engineered Neural Tissue Promotes Peripheral Nerve Repair Tissue engineering approaches in nerve regeneration often aim to improve results by bridging nerve defects with conduits that mimic key features of the nerve autograft. One such approach uses Schwann cell self-alignment and stabilization within collagen gels to generate engineered neural tissue (EngNT). In this study, we investigated whether a novel blend of fibrin and collagen could be used to form

2018 Tissue engineering. Part A

300. A small molecule screen identifies in vivo modulators of peripheral nerve regeneration in zebrafish. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A small molecule screen identifies in vivo modulators of peripheral nerve regeneration in zebrafish. Adult vertebrates have retained the ability to regenerate peripheral nerves after injury, although regeneration is frequently incomplete, often leading to functional impairments. Small molecule screens using whole organisms have high potential to identify biologically relevant targets, yet currently available assays for in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration are either very laborious (...) and/or require complex technology. Here we take advantage of the optical transparency of larval zebrafish to develop a simple and fast pectoral fin removal assay that measures peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo. Twenty-four hours after fin amputation we observe robust and stereotyped nerve regrowth at the fin base. Similar to laser mediated nerve transection, nerve regrowth after fin amputation requires Schwann cells and FGF signaling, confirming that the fin amputation assay identifies pathways relevant

2017 PLoS ONE

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