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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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221. Dexmedetomidine enhances ropivacaine-induced sciatic nerve injury in diabetic rats. (PubMed)

nerve injury in diabetic rats that is greatly potentiated by high-dose dexmedetomidine. Although the dose of dexmedetomidine used in this study is considerably higher than that used in clinical practice, our data suggest that further studies to assess ropivacaine (alone and in combination with dexmedetomidine) use for peripheral nerve blockade in diabetic patients are warranted.Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved. (...) Dexmedetomidine enhances ropivacaine-induced sciatic nerve injury in diabetic rats. Previous studies suggest that dexmedetomidine has a protective effect against local anaesthetic-induced nerve injury in regional nerve blocks. Whether this potentially protective effect exists in the context of diabetes mellitus is unknown.A diabetic state was established in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Injections of ropivacaine 0.5%, dexmedetomidine 20 μg kg-1

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2019 British Journal of Anaesthesia

222. Prehospital ultrasound-guided nerve blocks improve reduction-feasibility of dislocated extremity injuries compared to systemic analgesia. A randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

Prehospital ultrasound-guided nerve blocks improve reduction-feasibility of dislocated extremity injuries compared to systemic analgesia. A randomized controlled trial. Out-of-hospital analgosedation in trauma patients is challenging for emergency physicians due to associated complications. We compared peripheral nerve block (PNB) with analgosedation (AS) as an analgetic approach for patients with isolated extremity injury, assuming that prehospital required medical interventions (e.g (...) . reduction, splinting of dislocation injury) using PNB are less painful and more feasible compared to AS.Thirty patients (aged 18 or older) were randomized to receive either ultrasound-guided PNB (10 mL prilocaine 1%, 10 mL ropivacaine 0.2%) or analgosedation (midazolam combined with s-ketamine or with fentanyl). Reduction-feasibility was classified (easy, intermediate, impossible) and pain scores were assessed using numeric rating scales (NRS 0-10).Eighteen patients were included in the PNB-group

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2018 PLoS ONE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

223. Ultrasound-guided peripheral forearm nerve block for digit fractures in a pediatric emergency department. (PubMed)

Ultrasound-guided peripheral forearm nerve block for digit fractures in a pediatric emergency department. Although ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block (UGPNB) has recently been introduced into pediatric emergency departments (EDs), knowledge of its use is still limited among pediatric emergency physicians. Ultrasound-guided ulnar nerve block (UGUNB) is a form of peripheral nerve block available for controlling the pain caused by phalangeal injuries, but studies of its use in pediatric (...) patients are still scarce. The aim of this case series was to describe the experience of UGUNB use for pediatric phalangeal fractures in a pediatric ED setting. In all the patients with phalangeal fractures, the ulnar nerve was successfully visualized using a hockey-stick type transducer. Approximately 0.1-0.2 mg/kg of 1% lidocaine was used as the nerve block. The procedure was effective for pain control, and fracture reduction was successfully performed without the need for rescue analgesia. This case

2018 American Journal of Emergency Medicine

224. An Orally Active Epac Inhibitor Reverses Mechanical Allodynia and Loss of Intraepidermal Nerve Fibers \iIn A Mouse Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy. (PubMed)

An Orally Active Epac Inhibitor Reverses Mechanical Allodynia and Loss of Intraepidermal Nerve Fibers \iIn A Mouse Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major side effect of cancer treatment that significantly compromises quality of life of cancer patients and survivors. Identification of targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or reverse CIPN is needed. We investigated exchange protein regulated by cAMP (Epac (...) ) as a potential target. Epacs are cAMP-binding proteins known to play a pivotal role in mechanical allodynia induced by nerve injury and inflammation. We demonstrate that global Epac1-knockout (Epac1-/-) male and female mice are protected against paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia. In addition, spinal cord astrocyte activation and intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) loss are significantly reduced in Epac1-/- mice as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, Epac1-/- mice do not develop the paclitaxel-induced

2018 Pain

225. Effects of Hip Distraction Without a Perineal Post on Venous Blood Flow and Peripheral Nerve Conduction

Effects of Hip Distraction Without a Perineal Post on Venous Blood Flow and Peripheral Nerve Conduction Effects of Hip Distraction Without a Perineal Post on Venous Blood Flow and Peripheral Nerve Conduction - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100 (...) ). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Effects of Hip Distraction Without a Perineal Post on Venous Blood Flow and Peripheral Nerve Conduction The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03417934 Recruitment Status : Enrolling by invitation First Posted : January 31, 2018 Last

2018 Clinical Trials

226. Ultrasound-guided Peripheral Nerve Block Versus Forearm Bier's Block in Patients Undergoing Carpal Tunnel Release

anesthesia Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Median Neuropathy Mononeuropathies Peripheral Nervous System Diseases Neuromuscular Diseases Nervous System Diseases Nerve Compression Syndromes Cumulative Trauma Disorders Sprains and Strains Wounds and Injuries Anesthetics Central Nervous System Depressants Physiological Effects of Drugs (...) Ultrasound-guided Peripheral Nerve Block Versus Forearm Bier's Block in Patients Undergoing Carpal Tunnel Release Ultrasound-guided Peripheral Nerve Block Versus Forearm Bier's Block in Patients Undergoing Carpal Tunnel Release - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved

2018 Clinical Trials

227. Increased Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Macrophages Are Involved in Astragalus membranaceus-Mediated Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Rats. (PubMed)

([Formula: see text]), while FGF, NGF, PDGF, IL-1, and IFN-[Formula: see text] were increased in the low-dose AM group ([Formula: see text]). These results suggest that AM can modulate local inflammatory conditions, enhance nerve regeneration, and potentially increase recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury. (...) Increased Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Macrophages Are Involved in Astragalus membranaceus-Mediated Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Rats. Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is one of 50 fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies have shown that AM extract can be a potential nerve growth-promoting factor, being beneficial for the growth of peripheral nerve axons. We further investigated the effects of AM extract on regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve transection model

2018 American Journal of Chinese Medicine

228. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells versus adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration (PubMed)

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells versus adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration Studies have confirmed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used for treatment of several nervous system diseases. However, isolation of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) is an invasive and painful process and the yield is very low. Therefore, there is a need to search for other alterative stem cell sources. Adipose-derived MSCs (ADSCs) have (...) phenotypic and gene expression profiles similar to those of BMSCs. The production of ADSCs is greater than that of BMSCs, and ADSCs proliferate faster than BMSCs. To compare the effects of venous grafts containing BMSCs or ADSCs on sciatic nerve injury, in this study, rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham (only sciatic nerve exposed), Matrigel (MG; sciatic nerve injury + intravenous transplantation of MG vehicle), ADSCs (sciatic nerve injury + intravenous MG containing ADSCs), and BMSCs

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2018 Neural Regeneration Research

229. Selective Fiber Degeneration in the Peripheral Nerve of a Patient With Severe Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (PubMed)

Selective Fiber Degeneration in the Peripheral Nerve of a Patient With Severe Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Aims: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by chronic debilitating pain disproportional to the inciting event and accompanied by motor, sensory, and autonomic disturbances. The pathophysiology of CRPS remains elusive. An exceptional case of severe CRPS leading to forearm amputation provided the opportunity to examine nerve histopathological features of the peripheral (...) nerves. Methods: A 35-year-old female developed CRPS secondary to low voltage electrical injury. The CRPS was refractory to medical therapy and led to functional loss of the forelimb, repeated cutaneous wound infections leading to hospitalization. Specifically, the patient had exhausted a targeted conservative pain management programme prior to forearm amputation. Radial, median, and ulnar nerve specimens were obtained from the amputated limb and analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy

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2018 Frontiers in neuroscience

230. Stimulating effect of thyroid hormones in peripheral nerve regeneration: research history and future direction toward clinical therapy (PubMed)

Stimulating effect of thyroid hormones in peripheral nerve regeneration: research history and future direction toward clinical therapy Injury to peripheral nerves is often observed in the clinic and severe injuries may cause loss of motor and sensory functions. Despite extensive investigation, testing various surgical repair techniques and neurotrophic molecules, at present, a satisfactory method to ensuring successful recovery does not exist. For successful molecular therapy in nerve (...) regeneration, it is essential to improve the intrinsic ability of neurons to survive and to increase the speed of axonal outgrowth. Also to induce Schwann cell phenotypical changes to prepare the local environment favorable for axonal regeneration and myelination. Therefore, any molecule that regulates gene expression of both neurons and Schwann cells could play a crucial role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Clinical and experimental studies have reported that thyroid hormones are essential

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2018 Neural Regeneration Research

231. Peripheral Nerve Stimulation(PNS) for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome(SIS)

1.0 hr. sessions of physical therapy (PT) over a 4-wk period from a therapist blinded to Peripheral Nerve Stimulation (PNS) treatment assignment. Each participant also performs home exercises. The primary objective of physical therapy (PT) and the home exercise program is to prevent re-injury by educating and training participants in the biomechanics and proper use of the shoulder and upper limb. During each in-lab session, participants are trained in the implementation of these exercises, which (...) Peripheral Nerve Stimulation(PNS) for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome(SIS) Peripheral Nerve Stimulation(PNS) for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome(SIS) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2018 Clinical Trials

232. Partially oxidized polyvinyl alcohol conduitfor peripheral nerve regeneration (PubMed)

Partially oxidized polyvinyl alcohol conduitfor peripheral nerve regeneration Surgical reconstruction of peripheral nerves injuries with wide substance-loss is still a challenge. Many studies focused on the development of artificial nerve conduits made of synthetic or biological materials but the ideal device has not yet been identified. Here, we manufactured a conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration using a novel biodegradable hydrogel we patented that is oxidized polyvinyl alcohol (OxPVA (...) portion of the explanted conduit interestingly highlighted a significantly better outcome for OxPVA scaffolds compared to PVA conduits in terms of axon density, also with respect to the autograft group. This study suggests the potential of our novel biomaterial for the development of conduits for clinical use in case of peripheral nerve lesions with substance loss.

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2018 Scientific reports

233. An integrated multi-layer 3D-fabrication of PDA/RGD coated graphene loaded PCL nanoscaffold for peripheral nerve restoration (PubMed)

) method in multi-layered porous scaffold fabrication. The scaffold is composed of single-layered graphene (SG) or multi-layered graphene (MG) and polycaprolactone (PCL). The electrically conductive 3D graphene scaffold can significantly improve neural expression both in vitro and in vivo. It promotes successful axonal regrowth and remyelination after peripheral nerve injury. These findings implicate that graphene-based nanotechnology have great potentials in peripheral nerve restoration in preclinical (...) An integrated multi-layer 3D-fabrication of PDA/RGD coated graphene loaded PCL nanoscaffold for peripheral nerve restoration As a conductive nanomaterial, graphene has huge potentials in nerve function restoration by promoting electrical signal transduction and metabolic activities with unique topological properties. Polydopamine (PDA) and arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) can improve cell adhesion in tissue engineering. Here we report an integrated 3D printing and layer-by-layer casting (LBLC

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2018 Nature communications

234. Actin Cytoskeleton Affects Schwann Cell Migration and Peripheral Nerve Regeneration (PubMed)

-related genes and the specific roles of actin cytoskeleton following peripheral nerve injury have not been fully revealed. To address this question, we made rat sciatic nerve crush surgery, collected injured sciatic nerve stumps, analyzed RNA deep sequencing outcomes, and specifically studied two significantly involved canonical pathways that were related with actin, actin cytoskeleton signaling and regulation of actin-based motility by Rho. By using bioinformatic tools and qRT-PCR, We identified (...) and validated differentially expressed genes in these two signaling pathways. Moreover, by applying actin polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin D to sciatic nerve crushed rats, we studied the in vivo effect of cytochalasin D and demonstrated that inhibiting actin polymerization would delay the migration of Schwann cells and hinder the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Overall, our data revealed the changes of actin cytoskeleton-related genes following peripheral nerve injury and stated

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2018 Frontiers in physiology

235. Effect of long-term electroacupuncture stimulation on recovery of sensorimotor function after peripheral nerve anastomosis (PubMed)

Effect of long-term electroacupuncture stimulation on recovery of sensorimotor function after peripheral nerve anastomosis Recently, application of electroacupuncture (EA) to stimulate nerve regeneration has become a mainstream treatment in clinical rehabilitation and related basic research, but the efficacy of long-term stimulation has not been confirmed.To evaluate the influence of long term EA on peripheral nerve injury (PNI) from multiple angles.Twenty-four rats were divided into three (...) groups: control, PNI and PNI+EA. In the latter two groups, PNI was modelled by transection followed by re-anastomosis of thesciatic nerve. In the PNI+EA group only,EA was delivered using a discontinuous wave with frequency 5 Hz, pulse width 2 ms, and intensity approximately 2 mA, until the affected limb was observed to twitch slightly. The treatment was given for 15 min each time, six times a week (continuously for 6 days followed by a 1-day break) for a total of 8 weeks. The effects of EA

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2018 Acupuncture In Medicine

236. Quantitative Multimodal Evaluation of Passaging Human Neural Crest Stem Cells for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration (PubMed)

Quantitative Multimodal Evaluation of Passaging Human Neural Crest Stem Cells for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Peripheral nerve injury is a major burden to societies worldwide, however, current therapy options (e.g. autologous nerve grafts) are unable to produce satisfactory outcomes. Many studies have shown that stem cell transplantation holds great potential for peripheral nerve repair, and human neural crest stem cells (hNCSCs), which give rise to a variety of tissues in the peripheral (...) , we employed a multimodal evaluation system to investigate changes in outcomes between transplantation with 5th (p5) and 6th passage (p6) NCSCs in a 15 mm rat sciatic nerve injury and repair model. Using CatWalk gait analysis, gastrocnemius muscle index, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and histomorphometric analysis, we showed that p6 NCSCs demonstrated decreased cell survival, Schwann-cell differentiation, axonal growth, and functional outcomes compared to p5 NCSCs (all p < 0.05

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2018 Stem Cell Reviews

237. Anastomotic stoma coated with chitosan film as a betamethasone dipropionate carrier for peripheral nerve regeneration (PubMed)

Anastomotic stoma coated with chitosan film as a betamethasone dipropionate carrier for peripheral nerve regeneration Scar hyperplasia at the suture site is an important reason for hindering the repair effect of peripheral nerve injury anastomosis. To address this issue, two repair methods are often used. Biological agents are used to block nerve sutures and the surrounding tissue to achieve physical anti-adhesion effects. Another agent is glucocorticosteroid, which can prevent scar growth (...) by inhibiting inflammation. However, the overall effect of promoting regeneration of the injured nerve is not satisfactory. In this regard, we envision that these two methods can be combined and lead to shared understanding for achieving improved nerve repair. In this study, the right tibial nerve was transected 1 cm above the knee to establish a rat tibial nerve injury model. The incision was directly sutured after nerve transection. The anastomotic stoma was coated with 0.5 × 0.5 cm2 chitosan sheets

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2018 Neural Regeneration Research

238. Biomimetic neural scaffolds: a crucial step towards optimal peripheral nerve regeneration (PubMed)

Biomimetic neural scaffolds: a crucial step towards optimal peripheral nerve regeneration Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease that affects more than 20 million people in the United States alone and remains a major burden to society. The current gold standard treatment for critical-sized nerve defects is autologous nerve graft transplantation; however, this method is limited in many ways and does not always lead to satisfactory outcomes. The limitations of autografts have prompted (...) and physiology have independently been shown to benefit overall nerve regeneration. Furthermore, biomimetic features of neural scaffolds have also been shown to work synergistically with other nerve regeneration therapy strategies such as growth factor supplementation, stem cell transplantation, and cell surface glycoengineering. This review summarizes the current state of neural scaffolds, highlights major advances in biomimetic technologies, and discusses future opportunities in the field of peripheral

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2018 Biomaterials science

239. Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration by Activating Repair Schwann Cells (PubMed)

Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration by Activating Repair Schwann Cells During the peripheral nerve regeneration process, a variety of neurotrophic factors play roles in nerve repair by acting on neuronal or non-neuronal cells. In this report, we investigated the role(s) of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-met, in peripheral nerve regeneration. When mice were subjected to sciatic nerve injury, the HGF protein level was highly increased (...) . Furthermore, exogenous supply of HGF around the injury site, by intramuscular injection of a plasmid DNA expressing human HGF, enhanced the myelin thickness and axon diameter in injured nerves. Taken together, our results indicate that HGF and c-met play important roles in Schwann cell-mediated nerve repair, and also that HGF gene transfer may provide a useful tool for treating peripheral neuropathy.

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2018 Scientific reports

240. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide encapsulated Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid Nanofibers: cost effective herbal medicine for potential application in peripheral nerve tissue engineering (PubMed)

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide encapsulated Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid Nanofibers: cost effective herbal medicine for potential application in peripheral nerve tissue engineering Nerve regeneration is a serious clinical challenge following peripheral nerve injury. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is the major component of wolfberry extract, which has been shown to be neuroprotective and promising in nerve recovery in many studies. Electrospun nanofibers, especially core-shell structured (...) nanofibers being capable of serving as both drug delivery system and tissue engineering scaffolds, are well known to be suitable scaffolds for regeneration of peripheral nerve applications. In this study, LBP was incorporated into core-shell structured nanofibrous scaffolds via coaxial electrospinning. Alamar blue assays were performed to investigate the proliferation of both PC12 and Schwann cells cultured on the scaffolds. The neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells was evaluated by NF200 expression

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2018 Scientific reports

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