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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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201. Overlapping Mechanisms of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration and Angiogenesis Following Sciatic Nerve Transection (PubMed)

and angiogenesis post peripheral nerve injury, integrative and bioinformatic analysis was carried out for microarray data of proximal stumps after sciatic nerve transection in SD rats. Nerve regeneration and angiogenesis were activated at 1 day immediately after sciatic nerve transection simultaneously. The more obvious changes of transcription regulators and canonical pathways suggested a phase transition between 1 and 4 days of both nerve regeneration and angiogenesis after sciatic nerve transection (...) and precise molecular correlations between peripheral nerve regeneration and angiogenesis after peripheral nerve transection. Our work serves as an experimental basis and a valuable resource to further understand molecular mechanisms that define nerve injury-induced micro-environmental variation for achieving desired peripheral nerve regeneration.

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2017 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience

202. Regeneration of long-distance peripheral nerve defects after delayed reconstruction in healthy and diabetic rats is supported by immunomodulatory chitosan nerve guides (PubMed)

Regeneration of long-distance peripheral nerve defects after delayed reconstruction in healthy and diabetic rats is supported by immunomodulatory chitosan nerve guides Delayed reconstruction of transection or laceration injuries of peripheral nerves is inflicted by a reduced regeneration capacity. Diabetic conditions, more frequently encountered in clinical practice, are known to further impair regeneration in peripheral nerves. Chitosan nerve guides (CNGs) have recently been introduced (...) as a new generation of medical devices for immediate peripheral nerve reconstruction. Here, CNGs were used for 45 days delayed reconstruction of critical length 15 mm rat sciatic nerve defects in either healthy Wistar rats or diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats; the latter resembling type 2 diabetes. In short and long-term investigations, we comprehensively analyzed the performance of one-chambered hollow CNGs (hCNGs) and two-chambered CNGs (CFeCNGs) in which a chitosan film has been longitudinally introduced

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2017 BMC neuroscience

203. Accumulation of Cav3.2 T-type Calcium Channels in the Uninjured Sural Nerve Contributes to Neuropathic Pain in Rats with Spared Nerve Injury (PubMed)

Accumulation of Cav3.2 T-type Calcium Channels in the Uninjured Sural Nerve Contributes to Neuropathic Pain in Rats with Spared Nerve Injury Injuries to peripheral nerve fibers induce neuropathic pain. But the involvement of adjacent uninjured fibers to pain is not fully understood. The present study aims to investigate the possible contribution of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels in uninjured afferent nerve fibers to neuropathic pain in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI). Aβ-, Aδ- and C-fibers (...) of the uninjured sural nerve were sensitized revealed by in vivo single-unit recording, which were accompanied by accumulation of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel proteins shown by Western blotting. Application of mibefradil, a T-type calcium channel blocker, to sural nerve receptive fields increased mechanical thresholds of Aβ-, Aδ- and C-fibers, confirming the functional involvement of accumulated channels in the sural nerve in SNI rats. Finally, perineural application of mibefradil or TTA-P2 to the uninjured

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2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

204. Resveratrol Promotes Nerve Regeneration via Activation of p300 Acetyltransferase-Mediated VEGF Signaling in a Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury (PubMed)

Resveratrol Promotes Nerve Regeneration via Activation of p300 Acetyltransferase-Mediated VEGF Signaling in a Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Peripheral nerve injuries are generally associated with incomplete restoration of motor function. The slow rate of nerve regeneration after injury may account for this. Although many benefits of resveratrol have been shown in the nervous system, it is not clear whether resveratrol could promote fast nerve regeneration and motor repair after (...) peripheral nerve injury. This study showed that the motor deficits caused by sciatic nerve crush injury were alleviated by daily systematic resveratrol treatment within 10 days. Resveratrol increased the number of axons in the distal part of the injured nerve, indicating enhanced nerve regeneration. In the affected ventral spinal cord, resveratrol enhanced the expression of several vascular endothelial growth factor family proteins (VEGFs) and increased the phosphorylation of p300 through Akt signaling

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2018 Frontiers in neuroscience

205. Baseline effects of lysophosphatidylcholine and nerve growth factor in a rat model of sciatic nerve regeneration after crush injury (PubMed)

Baseline effects of lysophosphatidylcholine and nerve growth factor in a rat model of sciatic nerve regeneration after crush injury Schwann cells play a major role in helping heal injured nerves. They help clear debris, produce neurotrophins, upregulate neurotrophin receptors, and form bands of Büngner to guide the healing nerve. But nerves do not always produce enough neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors to repair themselves. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important neurotrophin (...) for the electrophysiological parameters but only differed from the control group at week 3 for the morphological parameters. The crush, crush-NGF, and crush-LPC-NGF groups did not differ from each other over the course of the study. Single injections of LPC and NGF one week apart or multiple treatments of NGF at 5, 7 and 9 days post-injury did not alter the healing rate of the sciatic nerves during weeks 1-6 of the study. These findings are important to define the baseline effects of NGF and LPC injections, as part

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2018 Neural Regeneration Research

206. Fas Ligand Gene (Faslg) Plays an Important Role in Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration After Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury (PubMed)

injury. The data showed that Faslg was up-regulated in injured nerves. Expression changed of Faslg in Schwann cells (SCs) resulted in alterations in the release of related factors. Silencing or overexpression of Faslg affected SC proliferation, migration, and apoptosis through β-catenin, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and caspase-3 pathways in vivo and in vitro. Our data suggest that Faslg is a key regulatory gene that affects nerve repair and regeneration in peripheral nerve injury. This study sheds new (...) Fas Ligand Gene (Faslg) Plays an Important Role in Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration After Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury Wallerian degeneration (WD) is associated with changes in the expression levels of a large number of genes. However, the effects of these up- or down-regulated genes are poorly understood. We have reported some key factors that are differentially regulated during WD in our previous research. Here, we explored the roles of Fas ligand gene (Faslg) in WD after rat sciatic nerve

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2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

207. NeuraGen nerve guide (Integra LifeSciences Corp.) for repair of severed peripheral nerves of the upper extremity

for the HTA database. Citation NeuraGen nerve guide (Integra LifeSciences Corp.) for repair of severed peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. Lansdale: HAYES, Inc.. Healthcare Technology Brief Publication. 2012 Authors' conclusions Peripheral nerve injury affects more than 1 million people worldwide and leads to loss or disturbance of sensory and/or motor function mediated by the injured nerve. It is usually caused by traumatic injury (~90%) but may also be caused by surgical procedures (~10 (...) %). Approximately 80% of nerve injuries occur in the upper extremities and 10% in the lower extremities. Delays in reinnervation of the associated muscle can lead to a permanent loss of muscle function. Although the distal stump of a damaged nerve degenerates, the proximal segment has the ability to regenerate, restoring nerve function. Therefore, severed peripheral nerves demand prompt surgical exploration and repair. More than 200,000 peripheral nerve repair procedures are performed annually in the United

2012 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

208. Study of Radial Nerve Injury Caused By Gunshot Wounds and Explosive Injuries among Iraqi Soldiers (PubMed)

Study of Radial Nerve Injury Caused By Gunshot Wounds and Explosive Injuries among Iraqi Soldiers Gunshot wounds and blast injuries to the upper limbs produce complex wounds requiring management by multiple surgical specialities.We sought to determine the pattern of peripheral nerve injuries among Iraqi soldiers in the war.We performed a 3 year retrospective cohort analysis based on medical records of patients with sustaining gunshot wounds and blast injuries to the upper limbs. Ethical (...) , of which 127 patients were included with an open fracture and 191 patients with closed lesions. All 127 patients with a transected radial nerve had an open humerus fracture and were part of a complex upper-extremity injury. 113 of 127 subjects had primary repair of the radial nerve and recovered well. 14 of 127 subjects were not recovered. 3 of them had iatrogenic radial nerve injury due to the internal fixation device. Furthermore, all 191 patients with closed injuries recovered well. The average time

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2018 Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences

209. Effect of melatonin supplemented at the light or dark period on recovery of sciatic nerve injury in rats (PubMed)

Effect of melatonin supplemented at the light or dark period on recovery of sciatic nerve injury in rats Peripheral nerve injuries can cause disabilities, social or economic problems. Melatonin, the secretory product of the pineal gland has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on the recovery of sciatic nerve after injury, comparing its effect when given in the light or the dark periods. Forty adult male Albino rats (...) were allocated into four groups: control, nerve injury, nerve injury + melatonin given at light and nerve injury + melatonin given at dark. Nerve injury was initiated by clamping the sciatic nerve. Sciatic functional index (SFI) was measured preoperatively and postoperatively. Melatonin was given daily for six weeks. Recovery of the function was analyzed by functional analysis, electrophysiological analysis and biochemical measurement of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Interleukin 1-beta (IL-1 β

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2017 EXCLI journal

210. Neuroprotective effect of Azadirachta indica standardized extract in partial sciatic nerve injury in rats: Evidence from anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic studies (PubMed)

Neuroprotective effect of Azadirachta indica standardized extract in partial sciatic nerve injury in rats: Evidence from anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic studies Chronic neuropathic pain is a common and widely recognized pain syndrome for patients and difficult to manage for physicians. Azadirachta indica (AI) possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of AI standardized extract in an animal model of peripheral (...) nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) whereas chronic treatment with AI (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly attenuated (p < 0.05) these behavioral changes. Enhanced activity of oxidative-nitrosative stress, inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and NF-κB) as well as mRNA expression of Bax, Caspase-3, and iNOs were significantly attenuated (p < 0.05) by AI treatment. It also significantly increased (p < 0.05) peripheral blood oxygen content and Bcl-2 mRNA expression. The flow cytometric analysis revealed

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2017 EXCLI journal

211. Nerve injuries of the upper extremity and hand (PubMed)

the nerve regeneration process, where delicate processes occur in neurons, non-neuronal cells (i.e. Schwann cells) and other cells in the peripheral as well as the central nervous systems, is crucial for the treating surgeon.The surgical decision to perform nerve repair and/or reconstruction depends on the type of injury, the condition of the wound as well as the vascularity of the wound.To reconnect injured nerve ends, various techniques can be used, which include both epineurial and fascicular nerve (...) Nerve injuries of the upper extremity and hand A nerve injury has a profound impact on the patient's daily life due to the impaired sensory and motor function, impaired dexterity, sensitivity to cold as well as eventual pain problems.To perform an appropriate treatment of nerve injuries, a correct diagnosis must be made, where the injury is properly classified, leading to an optimal surgical approach and technique, where timing of surgery is also important for the outcome.Knowledge about

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2017 EFORT open reviews

212. Early alterations of Hedgehog signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells after peripheral nerve injury elicit blood-nerve barrier disruption, nerve inflammation and neuropathic pain development. (PubMed)

Early alterations of Hedgehog signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells after peripheral nerve injury elicit blood-nerve barrier disruption, nerve inflammation and neuropathic pain development. Changes in the nerve's microenvironment and local inflammation resulting from peripheral nerve injury participate in nerve sensitization and neuropathic pain development. Taking part in these early changes, disruption of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) allows for infiltration of immunocytes (...) in the ScN of naive rats mimicked the biochemical and functional alterations observed after CCI and was, on its own, sufficient to evoke local neuroinflammation and sustained mechanical allodynia. Alteration of the Hh signaling pathway in VEC associated with peripheral nerve injury, is involved in BNB disruption and local inflammation, and could thus participate in the early changes leading to the peripheral nerve sensitization and, ultimately, neuropathic pain development.

2015 Pain

213. Sham surgeries for central and peripheral neural injuries persistently enhance pain-avoidance behavior as revealed by an operant conflict test. (PubMed)

Sham surgeries for central and peripheral neural injuries persistently enhance pain-avoidance behavior as revealed by an operant conflict test. Studies using rodent models of neuropathic pain use sham surgery control procedures that cause deep tissue damage. Sham surgeries would thus be expected to induce potentially long-lasting postsurgical pain, but little evidence for such pain has been reported. Operant tests of voluntary behavior can reveal negative motivational and cognitive aspects (...) surgeries for 2 neural injury models: thoracic spinal cord injury and chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. Pitting the combined motivations to avoid the bright light and to explore the novel device against pain from crossing noxious probes disclosed a conflicting, hyperalgesia-related reluctance to repeatedly cross the probes after injury. Rats receiving standard sham surgeries demonstrated enhanced pain-like avoidance behavior compared with naive controls, and this behavior was similar

2019 Pain

214. ERK/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signal channels simultaneously activated in nerve cell and axon after facial nerve injury (PubMed)

ERK/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signal channels simultaneously activated in nerve cell and axon after facial nerve injury The in-vitro study indicated that ERK/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signal channels may play an important role in reparative regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. But, relevant in-vivo study was infrequent. In particular, there has been no report on simultaneous activation of ERK/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signal channels in facial nerve cell and axon after facial nerve injury.The expression (...) , but the expression levels of P-ERK and P-AKT varied as the function of the time. In particular, they were quite different in axon of the far section. It has been speculated that two signal channels might have different functions after nerve injury. However, their specific regulating effects should still be testified by further studies in regenerative process of peripheral nerve injury.

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2017 Saudi journal of biological sciences

215. Effect of Spp1 on nerve degeneration and regeneration after rat sciatic nerve injury (PubMed)

Effect of Spp1 on nerve degeneration and regeneration after rat sciatic nerve injury Wallerian degeneration (WD) in injured peripheral nerves is associated with a large number of up- or down-regulated genes, but the effects of these changes are poorly understood. In our previous studies, we reported some key factors that are differentially expressed to activate nerve degeneration and regeneration during WD. Here, we determined the effects of secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1) on WD after rat (...) sciatic nerve injury.Spp1 was upregulated from 6 h to 14 days after sciatic nerve injury. Altered expression of Spp1 in Schwann cells (SC) resulted in altered mRNA and protein expression levels for cytokines, c-Fos, PKCα and phospho-ERK/ERK and affected SC apoptosis in vitro. Silencing of Spp1 expression in SCs using siRNA technology reduced proliferation and promoted migration of SCs in vitro. By contrast, overexpression of Spp1 promoted proliferation and reduced migration in SCs in vitro

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2017 BMC neuroscience

216. Combination therapy using evening primrose oil and electrical stimulation to improve nerve function following a crush injury of sciatic nerve in male rats (PubMed)

Combination therapy using evening primrose oil and electrical stimulation to improve nerve function following a crush injury of sciatic nerve in male rats Peripheral nerve injuries with a poor prognosis are common. Evening primrose oil (EPO) has beneficial biological effects and immunomodulatory properties. Since electrical activity plays a major role in neural regeneration, the present study investigated the effects of electrical stimulation (ES), combined with evening primrose oil (EPO (...) significantly in rats with sciatic nerve injury in the injury + EPO + ES group than in the EPO or ES group. Totally speaking, the combined use of EPO and ES may produce an improving effect on the function of sciatic nerves injured by a crush. The increased expression of P0 may have contributed to improving the functional effects of combination therapy with EPO and ES as well as the electrophysiological and histopathological features of the injured peripheral nerve.

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2017 Neural Regeneration Research

217. Recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-2 promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after mental nerve crush injury (PubMed)

Recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-2 promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after mental nerve crush injury Several studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) can directly affect axon regeneration after peripheral nerve damage. In this study, we performed sensory tests and histological analyses to study the effect of recombinant human FGF-2 (rhFGF2) treatment on damaged mental nerves. The mental nerves of 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were crush-injured (...) for 1 minute and then treated with 10 or 50 μg/mL rhFGF2 or PBS in crush injury area with a mini Osmotic pump. Sensory test using von Frey filaments at 1 week revealed the presence of sensory degeneration based on decreased gap score and increased difference score. However, at 2 weeks, the gap score and difference score were significantly rebounded in the mental nerve crush group treated with 10 μg/mL rhFGF2. Interestingly, treatment with 10 μg/mL rhFGF had a more obviously positive effect

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2017 Neural Regeneration Research

218. Dexmedetomidine to Help Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury Model (PubMed)

Dexmedetomidine to Help Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury Model Several studies have shown that dexmedetomidine (DXM), a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, also has neuroprotective effects. However, its effect on impaired peripheral nerve regeneration has not been studied.Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 (control SHAM), group 2 (sciatic nerve injury + normal saline), and group 3 (sciatic nerve injury + DXM). The rats of group 3 were (...) subdivided into the following three groups: DXM 0.5, 6, and 20 μg·kg-1 (groups 3A, 3B, and 3C, resp.). The sciatic nerve injury was assessed for nerve regeneration at 2 and 6 weeks.There were no differences between groups 2 and 3 in their sciatic functional index (SFI) values or histological findings at 2 weeks postinjury. However, SFI differences were statistically significant at 6 weeks postinjury in group 3. The gross findings with H&E staining showed that the number of axons was higher in group 3

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2017 Pain research & management

219. Surgery for nerve injury: current and future perspectives. (PubMed)

been a paradigm shift in surgical nerve repair, wherein surgeons are not only directing the repair at the injury zone, but also are deliberately performing distal-targeted nerve transfers as a preferred alternative in an attempt to restore function. The peripheral rewiring approach allows the surgeon to convert a very proximal injury with long regeneration distances and (often) uncertain outcomes to a distal injury and repair with a greater potential of regenerative success and functional recovery (...) Surgery for nerve injury: current and future perspectives. In this review article, the authors offer their perspective on nerve surgery for nerve injury, with a focus on recent evolution of management and the current surgical management. The authors provide a brief historical perspective to lay the foundations of the modern understanding of clinical nerve injury and its evolving management, especially over the last century. The shift from evaluation of the nerve injury using macroscopic

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2019 Journal of Neurosurgery

220. Dexmedetomidine enhances ropivacaine-induced sciatic nerve injury in diabetic rats. (PubMed)

nerve injury in diabetic rats that is greatly potentiated by high-dose dexmedetomidine. Although the dose of dexmedetomidine used in this study is considerably higher than that used in clinical practice, our data suggest that further studies to assess ropivacaine (alone and in combination with dexmedetomidine) use for peripheral nerve blockade in diabetic patients are warranted.Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved. (...) Dexmedetomidine enhances ropivacaine-induced sciatic nerve injury in diabetic rats. Previous studies suggest that dexmedetomidine has a protective effect against local anaesthetic-induced nerve injury in regional nerve blocks. Whether this potentially protective effect exists in the context of diabetes mellitus is unknown.A diabetic state was established in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Injections of ropivacaine 0.5%, dexmedetomidine 20 μg kg-1

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2019 British Journal of Anaesthesia

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