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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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181. Evaluation of the B-Smart manometer and the CompuFlo computerized injection pump technology for accurate needle-tip injection pressure measurement during peripheral nerve blockade. (PubMed)

Evaluation of the B-Smart manometer and the CompuFlo computerized injection pump technology for accurate needle-tip injection pressure measurement during peripheral nerve blockade. The exact mechanism of peripheral nerve blocks causing/leading to nerve injury remains controversial. Evidence from animal experiments suggests that intrafascicular injection resulting in high injection pressure has the potential to rupture nerve fascicles and may consequently cause permanent nerve injury

2019 Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

182. Acute pain management in trauma: anatomy, ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks and special considerations. (PubMed)

several examples of injuries, to elucidate the precise anatomy of fractured bones (osteotomes), and to elaborate on certain peripheral nerve blocks employed in pain management of trauma patients. Controversies/special considerations pertaining to peripheral nerve blocks also dictate thorough analysis: as such, acute compartment syndrome, acute peripheral nerve injuries, regional anesthesia in awake or anesthetized patients, continuous peripheral nerve blocks, positioning limitations and, finally (...) Acute pain management in trauma: anatomy, ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks and special considerations. Pain is the most common complaint amongst trauma patients throughout the perioperative period. Multimodal analgesia is currently being regarded the mainstay, with regional anesthesia techniques constituting an integral part of it. Ultrasound imaging techniques display a plethora of advantages that have pervaded regional anesthesia practice. In this review, we set out to provide

2019 Minerva anestesiologica

183. Dental pulp-derived stem cell conditioned medium to regenerate peripheral nerves in a novel animal model of dysphagia. (PubMed)

Dental pulp-derived stem cell conditioned medium to regenerate peripheral nerves in a novel animal model of dysphagia. In nerve regeneration studies, various animal models are used to assess nerve regeneration. However, because of the difficulties in functional nerve assessment, a visceral nerve injury model is yet to be established. The superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) plays an essential role in swallowing. Although a treatment for SLN injury following trauma and surgery is desirable (...) , no such treatment is reported in the literature. We recently reported that stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) have a therapeutic effect on various tissues via macrophage polarization. Here, we established a novel animal model of SLN injury. Our model was characterized as having weight loss and drinking behavior changes. In addition, the SLN lesion caused a delay in the onset of the swallowing reflex and gain of laryngeal residue in the pharynx. Systemic administration of SHED

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2018 PLoS ONE

184. Effects of caloric restriction on neuropathic pain, peripheral nerve degeneration and inflammation in normometabolic and autophagy defective prediabetic Ambra1 mice. (PubMed)

neuropathy throughout anti-inflammatory and metabolic mechanisms both in Ambra1 and in WT animals subjected to nerve injury. Moreover, we discovered that nerve lesion represents, per se, a metabolic stressor and CR reinstates glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, incomplete fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism. As autophagy inducer, CR promotes and anticipates Schwann cell autophagy via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that facilitates remyelination in peripheral nerve. In summary, we provide (...) Effects of caloric restriction on neuropathic pain, peripheral nerve degeneration and inflammation in normometabolic and autophagy defective prediabetic Ambra1 mice. There is a growing interest on the role of autophagy in diabetes pathophysiology, where development of neuropathy is one of the most frequent comorbidities. We have previously demonstrated that neuropathic pain after nerve damage is exacerbated in autophagy-defective heterozygous Ambra1 mice. Here, we show the existence

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2018 PLoS ONE

185. Peripheral nerve stimulation: black, white and shades of grey. (PubMed)

Peripheral nerve stimulation: black, white and shades of grey. Unbearable chronic neuropathic pain, which can often not be resolved by conservative pain management techniques, calls for peripheral nerve stimulation. The technique, based on the Gate control hypothesis, uses low intensity current to block depolarization and conduction of neuronal membrane. Conditions such as intractable migraine, occipital and trigeminal neuralgia, burn injury pain, transformed migraine, among others, which cause (...) intense pain can be treated by PNS, especially when the pain is localised and can be traced back to a specific nerve. Complication rates in PNS vary from 5% in some cases to 43% in others. Common complications include lead breakage, electrode migration, etc., meanwhile complications associated with every surgery like risks of anaesthesia, bleeding etc., are also present. PNS shows great potential in the treatment of intractable pain, and with its less invasiveness, high success rate, and development

2019 British Journal of Neurosurgery

186. Axillary nerve injury associated with glenohumeral dislocation: A review and algorithm for management (PubMed)

and consideration of local practice in a regional peripheral nerve injury unit, an algorithm has been developed to help identification of those patients with more severe nerve injuries.Early identification of patients with high-grade injuries allows rapid referral to peripheral nerve injury centres, allowing specialist observation or intervention at an early stage in their injury, thus aiming to maximize potential for recovery. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:70-77. DOI:10.1302/2058-5241.3.170003. (...) Axillary nerve injury associated with glenohumeral dislocation: A review and algorithm for management Axillary nerve injury is a well-recognized complication of glenohumeral dislocation. It is often a low-grade injury which progresses to full recovery without intervention. There is, however, a small number of patients who have received a higher-grade injury and are less likely to achieve a functional recovery without surgical exploration and reconstruction.Following a review of the literature

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2018 EFORT open reviews

187. Comparative Study of Nonintubated Uniport Thoracoscopic Surgery Using Thoracic Paravertebral Nerve Block Versus Intercostal Nerve Block for Peripheral Solitary Pulmonary Nodule Patients

Comparative Study of Nonintubated Uniport Thoracoscopic Surgery Using Thoracic Paravertebral Nerve Block Versus Intercostal Nerve Block for Peripheral Solitary Pulmonary Nodule Patients Comparative Study of Nonintubated Uniport Thoracoscopic Surgery Using Thoracic Paravertebral Nerve Block Versus Intercostal Nerve Block for Peripheral Solitary Pulmonary Nodule Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration (...) or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Comparative Study of Nonintubated Uniport Thoracoscopic Surgery Using Thoracic Paravertebral Nerve Block Versus Intercostal Nerve Block for Peripheral Solitary Pulmonary Nodule Patients The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor

2017 Clinical Trials

188. The role of precisely matching fascicles in the quick recovery of nerve function in long peripheral nerve defects (PubMed)

The role of precisely matching fascicles in the quick recovery of nerve function in long peripheral nerve defects Peripheral nerve injury therapy in the clinic remains less than satisfactory. The gold standard of treatment for long peripheral nerve defects is autologous nerve grafts; however, numerous clinical complications are associated with this treatment. As tissue engineering has developed, tissue-engineered nerve grafts (TENGs) have shown potential applications as alternatives (...) to autologous nerve grafts. To verify the important role of the biomimetic pathway of fascicle design in TENGs, we designed an animal model to study the role of the precise matching of fascicles in the effectiveness of nerve function recovery. 24 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into three groups (eight/group) that corresponded to 100% fascicle matching (100%FM), 50%FM and 0%FM. We selected Sprague-Dawley rat long-gap (15 mm) sciatic nerve defects. In the 6 weeks after surgery, we found

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2017 Neuroreport

189. Overlapping Mechanisms of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration and Angiogenesis Following Sciatic Nerve Transection (PubMed)

and angiogenesis post peripheral nerve injury, integrative and bioinformatic analysis was carried out for microarray data of proximal stumps after sciatic nerve transection in SD rats. Nerve regeneration and angiogenesis were activated at 1 day immediately after sciatic nerve transection simultaneously. The more obvious changes of transcription regulators and canonical pathways suggested a phase transition between 1 and 4 days of both nerve regeneration and angiogenesis after sciatic nerve transection (...) and precise molecular correlations between peripheral nerve regeneration and angiogenesis after peripheral nerve transection. Our work serves as an experimental basis and a valuable resource to further understand molecular mechanisms that define nerve injury-induced micro-environmental variation for achieving desired peripheral nerve regeneration.

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2017 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience

190. Regeneration of long-distance peripheral nerve defects after delayed reconstruction in healthy and diabetic rats is supported by immunomodulatory chitosan nerve guides (PubMed)

Regeneration of long-distance peripheral nerve defects after delayed reconstruction in healthy and diabetic rats is supported by immunomodulatory chitosan nerve guides Delayed reconstruction of transection or laceration injuries of peripheral nerves is inflicted by a reduced regeneration capacity. Diabetic conditions, more frequently encountered in clinical practice, are known to further impair regeneration in peripheral nerves. Chitosan nerve guides (CNGs) have recently been introduced (...) as a new generation of medical devices for immediate peripheral nerve reconstruction. Here, CNGs were used for 45 days delayed reconstruction of critical length 15 mm rat sciatic nerve defects in either healthy Wistar rats or diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats; the latter resembling type 2 diabetes. In short and long-term investigations, we comprehensively analyzed the performance of one-chambered hollow CNGs (hCNGs) and two-chambered CNGs (CFeCNGs) in which a chitosan film has been longitudinally introduced

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2017 BMC neuroscience

191. Accumulation of Cav3.2 T-type Calcium Channels in the Uninjured Sural Nerve Contributes to Neuropathic Pain in Rats with Spared Nerve Injury (PubMed)

Accumulation of Cav3.2 T-type Calcium Channels in the Uninjured Sural Nerve Contributes to Neuropathic Pain in Rats with Spared Nerve Injury Injuries to peripheral nerve fibers induce neuropathic pain. But the involvement of adjacent uninjured fibers to pain is not fully understood. The present study aims to investigate the possible contribution of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels in uninjured afferent nerve fibers to neuropathic pain in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI). Aβ-, Aδ- and C-fibers (...) of the uninjured sural nerve were sensitized revealed by in vivo single-unit recording, which were accompanied by accumulation of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel proteins shown by Western blotting. Application of mibefradil, a T-type calcium channel blocker, to sural nerve receptive fields increased mechanical thresholds of Aβ-, Aδ- and C-fibers, confirming the functional involvement of accumulated channels in the sural nerve in SNI rats. Finally, perineural application of mibefradil or TTA-P2 to the uninjured

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2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

192. Resveratrol Promotes Nerve Regeneration via Activation of p300 Acetyltransferase-Mediated VEGF Signaling in a Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury (PubMed)

Resveratrol Promotes Nerve Regeneration via Activation of p300 Acetyltransferase-Mediated VEGF Signaling in a Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Peripheral nerve injuries are generally associated with incomplete restoration of motor function. The slow rate of nerve regeneration after injury may account for this. Although many benefits of resveratrol have been shown in the nervous system, it is not clear whether resveratrol could promote fast nerve regeneration and motor repair after (...) peripheral nerve injury. This study showed that the motor deficits caused by sciatic nerve crush injury were alleviated by daily systematic resveratrol treatment within 10 days. Resveratrol increased the number of axons in the distal part of the injured nerve, indicating enhanced nerve regeneration. In the affected ventral spinal cord, resveratrol enhanced the expression of several vascular endothelial growth factor family proteins (VEGFs) and increased the phosphorylation of p300 through Akt signaling

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2018 Frontiers in neuroscience

193. Baseline effects of lysophosphatidylcholine and nerve growth factor in a rat model of sciatic nerve regeneration after crush injury (PubMed)

Baseline effects of lysophosphatidylcholine and nerve growth factor in a rat model of sciatic nerve regeneration after crush injury Schwann cells play a major role in helping heal injured nerves. They help clear debris, produce neurotrophins, upregulate neurotrophin receptors, and form bands of Büngner to guide the healing nerve. But nerves do not always produce enough neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors to repair themselves. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important neurotrophin (...) for the electrophysiological parameters but only differed from the control group at week 3 for the morphological parameters. The crush, crush-NGF, and crush-LPC-NGF groups did not differ from each other over the course of the study. Single injections of LPC and NGF one week apart or multiple treatments of NGF at 5, 7 and 9 days post-injury did not alter the healing rate of the sciatic nerves during weeks 1-6 of the study. These findings are important to define the baseline effects of NGF and LPC injections, as part

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2018 Neural Regeneration Research

194. Fas Ligand Gene (Faslg) Plays an Important Role in Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration After Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury (PubMed)

injury. The data showed that Faslg was up-regulated in injured nerves. Expression changed of Faslg in Schwann cells (SCs) resulted in alterations in the release of related factors. Silencing or overexpression of Faslg affected SC proliferation, migration, and apoptosis through β-catenin, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and caspase-3 pathways in vivo and in vitro. Our data suggest that Faslg is a key regulatory gene that affects nerve repair and regeneration in peripheral nerve injury. This study sheds new (...) Fas Ligand Gene (Faslg) Plays an Important Role in Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration After Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury Wallerian degeneration (WD) is associated with changes in the expression levels of a large number of genes. However, the effects of these up- or down-regulated genes are poorly understood. We have reported some key factors that are differentially regulated during WD in our previous research. Here, we explored the roles of Fas ligand gene (Faslg) in WD after rat sciatic nerve

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2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

195. NeuraGen nerve guide (Integra LifeSciences Corp.) for repair of severed peripheral nerves of the upper extremity

for the HTA database. Citation NeuraGen nerve guide (Integra LifeSciences Corp.) for repair of severed peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. Lansdale: HAYES, Inc.. Healthcare Technology Brief Publication. 2012 Authors' conclusions Peripheral nerve injury affects more than 1 million people worldwide and leads to loss or disturbance of sensory and/or motor function mediated by the injured nerve. It is usually caused by traumatic injury (~90%) but may also be caused by surgical procedures (~10 (...) %). Approximately 80% of nerve injuries occur in the upper extremities and 10% in the lower extremities. Delays in reinnervation of the associated muscle can lead to a permanent loss of muscle function. Although the distal stump of a damaged nerve degenerates, the proximal segment has the ability to regenerate, restoring nerve function. Therefore, severed peripheral nerves demand prompt surgical exploration and repair. More than 200,000 peripheral nerve repair procedures are performed annually in the United

2012 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

196. Effect of melatonin supplemented at the light or dark period on recovery of sciatic nerve injury in rats (PubMed)

Effect of melatonin supplemented at the light or dark period on recovery of sciatic nerve injury in rats Peripheral nerve injuries can cause disabilities, social or economic problems. Melatonin, the secretory product of the pineal gland has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on the recovery of sciatic nerve after injury, comparing its effect when given in the light or the dark periods. Forty adult male Albino rats (...) were allocated into four groups: control, nerve injury, nerve injury + melatonin given at light and nerve injury + melatonin given at dark. Nerve injury was initiated by clamping the sciatic nerve. Sciatic functional index (SFI) was measured preoperatively and postoperatively. Melatonin was given daily for six weeks. Recovery of the function was analyzed by functional analysis, electrophysiological analysis and biochemical measurement of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Interleukin 1-beta (IL-1 β

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2017 EXCLI journal

197. Neuroprotective effect of Azadirachta indica standardized extract in partial sciatic nerve injury in rats: Evidence from anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic studies (PubMed)

Neuroprotective effect of Azadirachta indica standardized extract in partial sciatic nerve injury in rats: Evidence from anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic studies Chronic neuropathic pain is a common and widely recognized pain syndrome for patients and difficult to manage for physicians. Azadirachta indica (AI) possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of AI standardized extract in an animal model of peripheral (...) nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) whereas chronic treatment with AI (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly attenuated (p < 0.05) these behavioral changes. Enhanced activity of oxidative-nitrosative stress, inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and NF-κB) as well as mRNA expression of Bax, Caspase-3, and iNOs were significantly attenuated (p < 0.05) by AI treatment. It also significantly increased (p < 0.05) peripheral blood oxygen content and Bcl-2 mRNA expression. The flow cytometric analysis revealed

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2017 EXCLI journal

198. Nerve injuries of the upper extremity and hand (PubMed)

the nerve regeneration process, where delicate processes occur in neurons, non-neuronal cells (i.e. Schwann cells) and other cells in the peripheral as well as the central nervous systems, is crucial for the treating surgeon.The surgical decision to perform nerve repair and/or reconstruction depends on the type of injury, the condition of the wound as well as the vascularity of the wound.To reconnect injured nerve ends, various techniques can be used, which include both epineurial and fascicular nerve (...) Nerve injuries of the upper extremity and hand A nerve injury has a profound impact on the patient's daily life due to the impaired sensory and motor function, impaired dexterity, sensitivity to cold as well as eventual pain problems.To perform an appropriate treatment of nerve injuries, a correct diagnosis must be made, where the injury is properly classified, leading to an optimal surgical approach and technique, where timing of surgery is also important for the outcome.Knowledge about

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2017 EFORT open reviews

199. Early alterations of Hedgehog signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells after peripheral nerve injury elicit blood-nerve barrier disruption, nerve inflammation and neuropathic pain development. (PubMed)

Early alterations of Hedgehog signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells after peripheral nerve injury elicit blood-nerve barrier disruption, nerve inflammation and neuropathic pain development. Changes in the nerve's microenvironment and local inflammation resulting from peripheral nerve injury participate in nerve sensitization and neuropathic pain development. Taking part in these early changes, disruption of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) allows for infiltration of immunocytes (...) in the ScN of naive rats mimicked the biochemical and functional alterations observed after CCI and was, on its own, sufficient to evoke local neuroinflammation and sustained mechanical allodynia. Alteration of the Hh signaling pathway in VEC associated with peripheral nerve injury, is involved in BNB disruption and local inflammation, and could thus participate in the early changes leading to the peripheral nerve sensitization and, ultimately, neuropathic pain development.

2015 Pain

200. ERK/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signal channels simultaneously activated in nerve cell and axon after facial nerve injury (PubMed)

ERK/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signal channels simultaneously activated in nerve cell and axon after facial nerve injury The in-vitro study indicated that ERK/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signal channels may play an important role in reparative regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. But, relevant in-vivo study was infrequent. In particular, there has been no report on simultaneous activation of ERK/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signal channels in facial nerve cell and axon after facial nerve injury.The expression (...) , but the expression levels of P-ERK and P-AKT varied as the function of the time. In particular, they were quite different in axon of the far section. It has been speculated that two signal channels might have different functions after nerve injury. However, their specific regulating effects should still be testified by further studies in regenerative process of peripheral nerve injury.

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2017 Saudi journal of biological sciences

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