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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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181. Actin Cytoskeleton Affects Schwann Cell Migration and Peripheral Nerve Regeneration (Full text)

-related genes and the specific roles of actin cytoskeleton following peripheral nerve injury have not been fully revealed. To address this question, we made rat sciatic nerve crush surgery, collected injured sciatic nerve stumps, analyzed RNA deep sequencing outcomes, and specifically studied two significantly involved canonical pathways that were related with actin, actin cytoskeleton signaling and regulation of actin-based motility by Rho. By using bioinformatic tools and qRT-PCR, We identified (...) and validated differentially expressed genes in these two signaling pathways. Moreover, by applying actin polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin D to sciatic nerve crushed rats, we studied the in vivo effect of cytochalasin D and demonstrated that inhibiting actin polymerization would delay the migration of Schwann cells and hinder the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Overall, our data revealed the changes of actin cytoskeleton-related genes following peripheral nerve injury and stated

2018 Frontiers in physiology

182. The role of undifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells in peripheral nerve repair (Full text)

The role of undifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells in peripheral nerve repair Peripheral nerve injuries impose significant health and economic consequences, yet no surgical repair can deliver a complete recovery of sensory or motor function. Traditional methods of repair are less than ideal: direct coaptation can only be performed when tension-free repair is possible, and transplantation of nerve autograft can cause donor-site morbidity and neuroma formation. Cell-based therapy delivered (...) via nerve conduits has thus been explored as an alternative method of nerve repair in recent years. Stem cells are promising sources of the regenerative core material in a nerve conduit because stem cells are multipotent in function, abundant in supply, and more accessible than the myelinating Schwann cells. Among different types of stem cells, undifferentiated adipose-derived stem cell (uASC), which can be processed from adipose tissue in less than two hours, is a promising yet underexplored cell

2018 Neural Regeneration Research

183. Comparative transcriptomic profiling of peripheral efferent and afferent nerve fibres at different developmental stages in mice (Full text)

Comparative transcriptomic profiling of peripheral efferent and afferent nerve fibres at different developmental stages in mice Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor and sensory function in humans, and its functional recovery largely depends on the axonal outgrowth required for the accurate reinnervation of appropriate targets. To better understand how motor and sensory nerve fibres select their terminal pathways, an unbiased cDNA microarray analysis was conducted to examine differential gene (...) of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. The aim of this study was to generate a framework of gene networks regulated during motor and sensory neuron differentiation/maturation. These data may provide new clues regarding the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that determine the intrinsic capacity of neurons to regenerate after peripheral nerve injury. Our findings may thus facilitate further development of a potential intervention to manipulate the therapeutic efficiency of peripheral

2018 Scientific reports

184. An Optimized Collagen-Fibrin Blend Engineered Neural Tissue Promotes Peripheral Nerve Repair (Full text)

to formulations with higher and lower fibrin content. Initial in vivo tests in an 8 mm rat sciatic nerve model using rolled collagen-fibrin EngNT rods revealed a significantly enhanced axonal count in the midsection of the repair, as well as in the distal part of the nerve after 4 weeks. This optimized collagen-fibrin blend therefore provides a novel way to improve the capacity of EngNT to promote regeneration following peripheral nerve injury. (...) An Optimized Collagen-Fibrin Blend Engineered Neural Tissue Promotes Peripheral Nerve Repair Tissue engineering approaches in nerve regeneration often aim to improve results by bridging nerve defects with conduits that mimic key features of the nerve autograft. One such approach uses Schwann cell self-alignment and stabilization within collagen gels to generate engineered neural tissue (EngNT). In this study, we investigated whether a novel blend of fibrin and collagen could be used to form

2018 Tissue engineering. Part A

185. Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration by Activating Repair Schwann Cells (Full text)

Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration by Activating Repair Schwann Cells During the peripheral nerve regeneration process, a variety of neurotrophic factors play roles in nerve repair by acting on neuronal or non-neuronal cells. In this report, we investigated the role(s) of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-met, in peripheral nerve regeneration. When mice were subjected to sciatic nerve injury, the HGF protein level was highly increased (...) . Furthermore, exogenous supply of HGF around the injury site, by intramuscular injection of a plasmid DNA expressing human HGF, enhanced the myelin thickness and axon diameter in injured nerves. Taken together, our results indicate that HGF and c-met play important roles in Schwann cell-mediated nerve repair, and also that HGF gene transfer may provide a useful tool for treating peripheral neuropathy.

2018 Scientific reports

186. Biomimetic neural scaffolds: a crucial step towards optimal peripheral nerve regeneration (Full text)

Biomimetic neural scaffolds: a crucial step towards optimal peripheral nerve regeneration Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease that affects more than 20 million people in the United States alone and remains a major burden to society. The current gold standard treatment for critical-sized nerve defects is autologous nerve graft transplantation; however, this method is limited in many ways and does not always lead to satisfactory outcomes. The limitations of autografts have prompted (...) and physiology have independently been shown to benefit overall nerve regeneration. Furthermore, biomimetic features of neural scaffolds have also been shown to work synergistically with other nerve regeneration therapy strategies such as growth factor supplementation, stem cell transplantation, and cell surface glycoengineering. This review summarizes the current state of neural scaffolds, highlights major advances in biomimetic technologies, and discusses future opportunities in the field of peripheral

2018 Biomaterials science

187. Finger Tapping Outperforms the Traditional Scale in Patients With Peripheral Nerve Damage (Full text)

Finger Tapping Outperforms the Traditional Scale in Patients With Peripheral Nerve Damage Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether there exist the limits of finger tapping frequency in the peripheral nerve injury detection in upper limb, and the effects of rehabilitation treatment on upper limb with peripheral nerve injury through finger tapping. Methods: Here, 54 patients with peripheral nerve injury in upper limb were selected. We conducted finger tapping frequency test and Lind (...) -mark hand function assessment score on the 54 subjects, and recorded the data 2-week before and after rehabilitation treatment. Results: Finger tapping frequency and Lind-mark hand function assessment score have a high positive correlation regardless of the side of upper limb with peripheral nerve injury before and after the rehabilitation treatment. Finger tapping frequency of the right affected hand after treatment is significantly higher than that of before treatment (male: P < 0.05; female: P

2018 Frontiers in physiology

188. Ivermectin Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration during Wound Healing (Full text)

Ivermectin Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration during Wound Healing Peripheral nerves have the capacity to regenerate due to the presence of neuroprotective glia of the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells. Upon peripheral nerve injury, Schwann cells create a permissive microenvironment for neuronal regrowth by taking up cytotoxic glutamate and secreting neurotrophic signaling molecules. Impaired peripheral nerve repair is often caused by a defective Schwann cell response after injury (...) that localized ivermectin treatment in a dermal wound site induced the upregulation of both glial and neuronal markers upon healing. Taken together, we demonstrate that ivermectin promotes peripheral nerve regeneration by inducing fibroblasts to adopt a glia-like phenotype.

2018 ACS Omega

189. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide encapsulated Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid Nanofibers: cost effective herbal medicine for potential application in peripheral nerve tissue engineering (Full text)

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide encapsulated Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid Nanofibers: cost effective herbal medicine for potential application in peripheral nerve tissue engineering Nerve regeneration is a serious clinical challenge following peripheral nerve injury. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is the major component of wolfberry extract, which has been shown to be neuroprotective and promising in nerve recovery in many studies. Electrospun nanofibers, especially core-shell structured (...) nanofibers being capable of serving as both drug delivery system and tissue engineering scaffolds, are well known to be suitable scaffolds for regeneration of peripheral nerve applications. In this study, LBP was incorporated into core-shell structured nanofibrous scaffolds via coaxial electrospinning. Alamar blue assays were performed to investigate the proliferation of both PC12 and Schwann cells cultured on the scaffolds. The neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells was evaluated by NF200 expression

2018 Scientific reports

190. The synaptic receptor Lrp4 promotes peripheral nerve regeneration (Full text)

The synaptic receptor Lrp4 promotes peripheral nerve regeneration Early during PNS regeneration, regenerating axons emerge from the proximal nerve stump, yet whether they extend simultaneously or whether pioneering axons establish a path for follower axons remains unknown. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying robust regeneration are incompletely understood. Using live imaging, we demonstrate that in zebrafish pioneering axons establish a regenerative path for follower axons. We find (...) Schwann cells with regenerating axons, consistent with a model by which Lrp4 is repurposed to promote sustained peripheral nerve regeneration via axon-glia interactions.

2018 Nature communications

191. Controlled release of FK506 from micropatterned PLGA films: potential for application in peripheral nerve repair (Full text)

Controlled release of FK506 from micropatterned PLGA films: potential for application in peripheral nerve repair After decades of research, peripheral nerve injury and repair still frequently results in paralysis, chronic pain and neuropathies leading to severe disability in patients. Current clinically available nerve conduits only provide crude guidance of regenerating axons across nerve gap without additional functionality. FK506 (Tacrolimus), an FDA approved immunosuppressant, has been (...) shown to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration but carries harsh side-effects when delivered systemically. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a bioresorbable drug delivery system capable of local extended delivery of FK506 that also provides topological guidance cues to guide axon growth via microgrooves. Photolithography was used to create micropatterned poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films embedded with FK506. Non-patterned, 10/10 μm (ridge/groove width), and 30/30 μm

2018 Neural Regeneration Research

192. An allogeneic ‘off the shelf’ therapeutic strategy for peripheral nerve tissue engineering using clinical grade human neural stem cells (Full text)

An allogeneic ‘off the shelf’ therapeutic strategy for peripheral nerve tissue engineering using clinical grade human neural stem cells Artificial tissues constructed from therapeutic cells offer a promising approach for improving the treatment of severe peripheral nerve injuries. In this study the effectiveness of using CTX0E03, a conditionally immortalised human neural stem cell line, as a source of allogeneic cells for constructing living artificial nerve repair tissue was tested (...) . CTX0E03 cells were differentiated then combined with collagen to form engineered neural tissue (EngNT-CTX), stable aligned sheets of cellular hydrogel. EngNT-CTX sheets were delivered within collagen tubes to repair a 12 mm sciatic nerve injury model in athymic nude rats. Autologous nerve grafts (autografts) and empty tubes were used for comparison. After 8 weeks functional repair was assessed using electrophysiology. Further, detailed histological and electron microscopic analysis of the repaired

2018 Scientific reports

193. Effect of long-term electroacupuncture stimulation on recovery of sensorimotor function after peripheral nerve anastomosis (Full text)

Effect of long-term electroacupuncture stimulation on recovery of sensorimotor function after peripheral nerve anastomosis Recently, application of electroacupuncture (EA) to stimulate nerve regeneration has become a mainstream treatment in clinical rehabilitation and related basic research, but the efficacy of long-term stimulation has not been confirmed.To evaluate the influence of long term EA on peripheral nerve injury (PNI) from multiple angles.Twenty-four rats were divided into three (...) groups: control, PNI and PNI+EA. In the latter two groups, PNI was modelled by transection followed by re-anastomosis of thesciatic nerve. In the PNI+EA group only,EA was delivered using a discontinuous wave with frequency 5 Hz, pulse width 2 ms, and intensity approximately 2 mA, until the affected limb was observed to twitch slightly. The treatment was given for 15 min each time, six times a week (continuously for 6 days followed by a 1-day break) for a total of 8 weeks. The effects of EA

2018 Acupuncture In Medicine

194. Age-related changes in the peripheral retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (Full text)

-related reduction in peripheral-to-peripapillary RNFL thickness ratios (P<0.001 and P<0.02 for nasal and temporal sides, respectively) was also detected.The age-related decline should be taken into consideration when determining the glaucoma-related alterations in peripheral RNFL thickness. Continued analysis in patients with ocular hypertension and glaucoma should help determine whether RNFL in the periphery with lower nerve tissue reserve might be more susceptible to injury, whether injury (...) Age-related changes in the peripheral retinal nerve fiber layer thickness This pilot cross-sectional study aimed to determine age-related changes of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in retinal periphery by swept-source optical coherence tomography-based analysis.Forty eyes of 40 healthy subjects were studied in three age groups, group 1 (20-40 years, n=15), group 2 (41-60 years, n=14), and group 3 (≥61 years, n=11). Wide-angle swept-source optical coherence tomography scans

2018 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

195. Egr2-dependent microRNA-138 is dispensable for peripheral nerve myelination (Full text)

Egr2-dependent microRNA-138 is dispensable for peripheral nerve myelination Recent studies have elucidated the crucial role for microRNAs in peripheral nerve myelination by ablating components of the microRNA synthesis machinery. Few studies have focused on the role of individual microRNAs. To fill this gap, we focused this study on miR-138, which was shown to be drastically reduced in Dicer1 and Dgcr8 knockout mice with hypomyelinating phenotypes and to potentially target the negative (...) regulators of Schwann cell differentiation. Here, we show that of two miR-138 encoding loci, mir-138-1 is the predominant locus transcribed in Schwann cells. mir-138-1 is transcriptionally upregulated during myelination and downregulated upon nerve injury. EGR2 is required for mir-138-1 transcription during development, and both SOX10 and EGR2 bind to an active enhancer near the mir-138-1 locus. Based on expression analyses, we hypothesized that miR-138 facilitates the transition between undifferentiated

2018 Scientific reports

196. Heparin-Poloxamer Thermosensitive Hydrogel Loaded with bFGF and NGF Enhances Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Diabetic Rats (Full text)

Heparin-Poloxamer Thermosensitive Hydrogel Loaded with bFGF and NGF Enhances Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Diabetic Rats Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a major burden to society with limited therapeutic options, and novel biomaterials have great potential for shifting the current paradigm of treatment. With a rising prevalence of chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus (DM), treatment of PNI is further complicated, and only few studies have proposed therapies suitable for peripheral (...) nerve regeneration in DM. To provide a supportive environment to restore structure and/or function of nerves in DM, we developed a novel thermo-sensitive heparin-poloxamer (HP) hydrogel co-delivered with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in diabetic rats with sciatic nerve crush injury. The delivery vehicle not only had a good affinity for large amounts of growth factors (GFs), but also controlled their release in a steady fashion, preventing degradation in vitro

2018 Biomaterials

197. Peripheral Nerve Stimulation(PNS) for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome(SIS)

1.0 hr. sessions of physical therapy (PT) over a 4-wk period from a therapist blinded to Peripheral Nerve Stimulation (PNS) treatment assignment. Each participant also performs home exercises. The primary objective of physical therapy (PT) and the home exercise program is to prevent re-injury by educating and training participants in the biomechanics and proper use of the shoulder and upper limb. During each in-lab session, participants are trained in the implementation of these exercises, which (...) Peripheral Nerve Stimulation(PNS) for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome(SIS) Peripheral Nerve Stimulation(PNS) for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome(SIS) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2018 Clinical Trials

198. Selective Fiber Degeneration in the Peripheral Nerve of a Patient With Severe Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Full text)

Selective Fiber Degeneration in the Peripheral Nerve of a Patient With Severe Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Aims: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by chronic debilitating pain disproportional to the inciting event and accompanied by motor, sensory, and autonomic disturbances. The pathophysiology of CRPS remains elusive. An exceptional case of severe CRPS leading to forearm amputation provided the opportunity to examine nerve histopathological features of the peripheral (...) nerves. Methods: A 35-year-old female developed CRPS secondary to low voltage electrical injury. The CRPS was refractory to medical therapy and led to functional loss of the forelimb, repeated cutaneous wound infections leading to hospitalization. Specifically, the patient had exhausted a targeted conservative pain management programme prior to forearm amputation. Radial, median, and ulnar nerve specimens were obtained from the amputated limb and analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy

2018 Frontiers in neuroscience

199. Stimulating effect of thyroid hormones in peripheral nerve regeneration: research history and future direction toward clinical therapy (Full text)

Stimulating effect of thyroid hormones in peripheral nerve regeneration: research history and future direction toward clinical therapy Injury to peripheral nerves is often observed in the clinic and severe injuries may cause loss of motor and sensory functions. Despite extensive investigation, testing various surgical repair techniques and neurotrophic molecules, at present, a satisfactory method to ensuring successful recovery does not exist. For successful molecular therapy in nerve (...) regeneration, it is essential to improve the intrinsic ability of neurons to survive and to increase the speed of axonal outgrowth. Also to induce Schwann cell phenotypical changes to prepare the local environment favorable for axonal regeneration and myelination. Therefore, any molecule that regulates gene expression of both neurons and Schwann cells could play a crucial role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Clinical and experimental studies have reported that thyroid hormones are essential

2018 Neural Regeneration Research

200. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells versus adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration (Full text)

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells versus adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration Studies have confirmed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used for treatment of several nervous system diseases. However, isolation of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) is an invasive and painful process and the yield is very low. Therefore, there is a need to search for other alterative stem cell sources. Adipose-derived MSCs (ADSCs) have (...) phenotypic and gene expression profiles similar to those of BMSCs. The production of ADSCs is greater than that of BMSCs, and ADSCs proliferate faster than BMSCs. To compare the effects of venous grafts containing BMSCs or ADSCs on sciatic nerve injury, in this study, rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham (only sciatic nerve exposed), Matrigel (MG; sciatic nerve injury + intravenous transplantation of MG vehicle), ADSCs (sciatic nerve injury + intravenous MG containing ADSCs), and BMSCs

2018 Neural Regeneration Research

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