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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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181. Evaluation of the B-Smart manometer and the CompuFlo computerized injection pump technology for accurate needle-tip injection pressure measurement during peripheral nerve blockade. (Abstract)

Evaluation of the B-Smart manometer and the CompuFlo computerized injection pump technology for accurate needle-tip injection pressure measurement during peripheral nerve blockade. The exact mechanism of peripheral nerve blocks causing/leading to nerve injury remains controversial. Evidence from animal experiments suggests that intrafascicular injection resulting in high injection pressure has the potential to rupture nerve fascicles and may consequently cause permanent nerve injury

2019 Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

182. Acute pain management in trauma: anatomy, ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks and special considerations. (Abstract)

several examples of injuries, to elucidate the precise anatomy of fractured bones (osteotomes), and to elaborate on certain peripheral nerve blocks employed in pain management of trauma patients. Controversies/special considerations pertaining to peripheral nerve blocks also dictate thorough analysis: as such, acute compartment syndrome, acute peripheral nerve injuries, regional anesthesia in awake or anesthetized patients, continuous peripheral nerve blocks, positioning limitations and, finally (...) Acute pain management in trauma: anatomy, ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks and special considerations. Pain is the most common complaint amongst trauma patients throughout the perioperative period. Multimodal analgesia is currently being regarded the mainstay, with regional anesthesia techniques constituting an integral part of it. Ultrasound imaging techniques display a plethora of advantages that have pervaded regional anesthesia practice. In this review, we set out to provide

2019 Minerva anestesiologica

183. Peripheral nerve stimulation: black, white and shades of grey. (Abstract)

Peripheral nerve stimulation: black, white and shades of grey. Unbearable chronic neuropathic pain, which can often not be resolved by conservative pain management techniques, calls for peripheral nerve stimulation. The technique, based on the Gate control hypothesis, uses low intensity current to block depolarization and conduction of neuronal membrane. Conditions such as intractable migraine, occipital and trigeminal neuralgia, burn injury pain, transformed migraine, among others, which cause (...) intense pain can be treated by PNS, especially when the pain is localised and can be traced back to a specific nerve. Complication rates in PNS vary from 5% in some cases to 43% in others. Common complications include lead breakage, electrode migration, etc., meanwhile complications associated with every surgery like risks of anaesthesia, bleeding etc., are also present. PNS shows great potential in the treatment of intractable pain, and with its less invasiveness, high success rate, and development

2019 British Journal of Neurosurgery

184. Macrophage Biology in the Peripheral Nervous System after Injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Macrophage Biology in the Peripheral Nervous System after Injury. Neuroinflammation has positive and negative effects. This review focuses on the roles of macrophage in the PNS. Transection of PNS axons leads to degeneration and clearance of the distal nerve and to changes in the region of the axotomized cell bodies. In both locations, resident and infiltrating macrophages are found. Macrophages enter these areas in response to expression of the chemokine CCL2 acting on the macrophage receptor (...) CCR2. In the distal nerve, macrophages and other phagocytes are involved in clearance of axonal debris, which removes molecules that inhibit nerve regeneration. In the cell body region, macrophage trigger the conditioning lesion response, a process in which neurons increase their regeneration after a prior lesion. In mice in which the genes for CCL2 or CCR2 are deleted, neither macrophage infiltration nor the conditioning lesion response occurs in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Macrophages exist

2018 Progress in Neurobiology

185. Development and validation of an in vitro model system to study peripheral sensory neuron development and injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

nociceptive neurons that include tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium currents and repetitive action potentials. Moreover, the derived cells associate with human donor Schwann cells and can be used as a model system to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal death following peripheral nerve injury. The quick and efficient derivation of genetically diverse peripheral sensory neurons from human embryonic stem cells offers unlimited access to these specialised cell types and provides an invaluable (...) Development and validation of an in vitro model system to study peripheral sensory neuron development and injury The ability to discriminate between diverse types of sensation is mediated by heterogeneous populations of peripheral sensory neurons. Human peripheral sensory neurons are inaccessible for research and efforts to study their development and disease have been hampered by the availability of relevant model systems. The in vitro differentiation of peripheral sensory neurons from human

2018 Scientific reports

186. Locally Produced BDNF Promotes Sclerotic Change in Alveolar Bone after Nerve Injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Locally Produced BDNF Promotes Sclerotic Change in Alveolar Bone after Nerve Injury. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is released due to nerve injury, is known to promote the natural healing of injured nerves. It is often observed that damage of mandibular canal induces local sclerotic changes in alveolar bone. We reported that peripheral nerve injury promotes the local production of BDNF; therefore, it was possible to hypothesize that peripheral nerve injury affects sclerotic (...) and osteocytes, continued after 28 days. In conclusion, BDNF stimulated the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and it promoted new bone formation and maturation. These results suggested that local BDNF produced by peripheral nerve injury contributes to accelerating sclerotic changes in the alveolar bone.

2017 PLoS ONE

187. Nerve injury in severe trauma with upper extremity involvement: evaluation of 49,382 patients from the TraumaRegister DGU® between 2002 and 2015. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nerve injury in severe trauma with upper extremity involvement: evaluation of 49,382 patients from the TraumaRegister DGU® between 2002 and 2015. Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) as an adjunct lesion in patients with upper extremity trauma has not been investigated in a Central European setting so far, despite of its devastating long-term consequences. This study evaluates a large multinational trauma registry for prevalence, mechanisms, injury severity and outcome characteristics of upper limb (...) nerve lesions.After formal approval the TraumaRegister DGU® (TR-DGU) was searched for severely injured cases with upper extremity involvement between 2002 and 2015. Patients were separated into two cohorts with regard to presence of an accompanying nerve injury. For all cases demographic data, trauma mechanism, concomitant lesions, severity of injury and outcome characteristics were obtained and group comparisons performed.About 3,3% of all trauma patients with upper limb affection (n = 49,382

2018 Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine

188. Atypical sensory processing pattern following median or ulnar nerve injury - a case-control study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Atypical sensory processing pattern following median or ulnar nerve injury - a case-control study. Due to brain plasticity a transection of a median or ulnar nerve results in profound changes in the somatosensory areas in the brain. The permanent sensory deprivation after a peripheral nerve injury might influence the interaction between all senses. The aim of the study was to investigate if a median and/or ulnar nerve injury gives rise to a changed sensory processing pattern. In addition we (...) in this Quadrant compared to 16% of the controls. No correlation between atypical sensory processing pattern and age or time since injury was seen.A peripheral nerve injury entails altered sensory processing pattern with increased proportion of patients with low registration to sensory stimulus overall. Our results can guide us into more client centered rehabilitation strategies.

2018 BMC Neurology

189. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exosomes as a Cell-Free Therapy for Nerve Injury-Induced Pain in Rats. (Abstract)

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exosomes as a Cell-Free Therapy for Nerve Injury-Induced Pain in Rats. Nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain is difficult to treat. In this study, we used exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (UCMSC) as a cell-free therapy for nerve injury-induced pain in rats. Isolated UCMSC exosomes range in size from 30 to 160 nm and contain CD63, HSP60, and CD81 exosome markers. After L5/6 spinal nerve ligation surgery, single intrathecal injection (...) of exosomes reversed nerve ligation-induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivities of right hindpaw of rats at initial and well-developed pain stages. Moreover, continuous intrathecal infusion of exosomes achieved excellent preventive and reversal effects for nerve ligation-induced pain. In immunofluorescent study, lots of Exo-green-labelled exosomes could be found majorly in the ipsilateral L5 spinal dorsal horn, dorsal root ganglion, and peripheral axons, suggesting the homing ability of UCMSC

2018 Pain

190. Home Neuromodulation of the Neurogenic Bladder in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury With Transcutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation

incontinence (ex: UTI, bladder stones, multiple sclerosis, etc.) 2+ pitting edema that does not resolve Known peripheral neuropathy or injury to the path of the tibial nerve Demand-type cardiac pacemaker or implanted defibrillator Cancer in the tibial nerve path and/or bladder Inability to elicit toe/plantar flexion with electric stimulation during the clinic visit. Inability to understand directions Non-English speaking Contacts and Locations Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine (...) Home Neuromodulation of the Neurogenic Bladder in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury With Transcutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation Home Neuromodulation of the Neurogenic Bladder in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury With Transcutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum

2018 Clinical Trials

191. Restoring Hand Function Utilizing Nerve Transfers in Persons With Cervical Spinal Cord Injuries

With Cervical Spinal Cord Injuries Actual Study Start Date : April 1, 2018 Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 31, 2022 Estimated Study Completion Date : December 31, 2022 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: Upper extremity nerve transfer surgery Upper extremity nerve transfer surgery is a surgical procedure where axons from an intact, functioning upper extremity peripheral nerve are moved (...) to a target muscle that demonstrates significant weakness or paralysis as a result of spinal cord injury. After allowing time for recovery from surgery and for nerve growth to occur, the patient undergoes hand/occupational therapy in order to retrain motor skills. Procedure: Upper extremity nerve transfer surgery Upper extremity nerve transfer surgery is a surgical procedure where axons from an intact, functioning upper extremity peripheral nerve are moved to a target muscle that demonstrates significant

2018 Clinical Trials

192. Cortico-anorectal, Spino-anorectal, and Cortico-spinal Nerve Conduction and Locus of Neuronal Injury in Patients With Fecal Incontinence. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cortico-anorectal, Spino-anorectal, and Cortico-spinal Nerve Conduction and Locus of Neuronal Injury in Patients With Fecal Incontinence. The neuropathophysiology of fecal incontinence (FI) is incompletely understood. We examined the efferent brain-anorectal and spino-anorectal motor-evoked potentials (MEP) to characterize the locus of neuronal injury in patients with FI.We performed bilateral transcranial, translumbar, and transsacral magnetic stimulations in 27 patients with FI (19 female (...) function or defects.Patients with FI have significant neuropathy that affects the cortico-anorectal and spino-anorectal efferent pathways. The primary loci are the lumbo-rectal, lumbo-anal, sacro-rectal, and sacro-anal nerves; the cortico-spinal segment appears intact. Peripheral spino-anal and spino-rectal neuropathy might therefore contribute to the pathogenesis of FI.Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

193. Intraoperative Local Administration of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) during Neurolysis Surgery for the Treatment of Digital Nerve Crush Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

, is a new treatment option for peripheral nerve injury. We hypothesized that PRP could stimulate healing of digital nerve injuries. In the current case report, intraoperative local administration of PRP was performed during neurolysis surgery for a healthy 28-year-old woman with digital nerve crush injury. Five weeks postinjury, surgery was performed due to severe uncontrollable neuropathic pain and no sensory nerve action potential derivation of the index finger. Therapeutic effects were assessed (...) by physical examination, visual analog scale for pain, and nerve conduction study. Postoperatively, early neuropathic pain relief and good functional recovery were obtained with no PRP-related adverse events. This case report demonstrates the therapeutic potential of intraoperative PRP to enhance the healing process of nerve crush injury in the acute phase and to decrease the neuropathic pain, thus enhancing healing of peripheral nerve crush injury.

2018 Case reports in orthopedics

194. Administration of CoCl2 Improves Functional Recovery in a Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Transection Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Administration of CoCl2 Improves Functional Recovery in a Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Transection Injury Peripheral nerve injury is known to activate the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway as one of pro-regenerative transcriptional programs, which could stimulate multiple injury-induced gene expression and contribute to axon regeneration and functional recovery. However, the role of HIF-1α in peripheral nerve regeneration remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, rats were divided (...) at mRNA levels; as well as HIF-1α, the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK), the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK), BDNF and NGF were measured at protein level at 4 weeks postoperatively. Systemic administration of CoCl2 (15 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally) significantly promoted functional recovery of rats with sciatic nerve transection injury. This study demonstrated in rats treated with CoCl2, the expression of HIF-1α, GDNF, BDNF and NGF was significantly increased at mRNA level

2018 International journal of medical sciences

195. Environmental enrichment reduces adolescent anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of rats subjected to infant nerve injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Environmental enrichment reduces adolescent anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of rats subjected to infant nerve injury Infant nerve injury causes delayed adolescent neuropathic pain, but whether it also leads to psychiatric illness is unknown. Environmental enrichment (EE) increases social communication and activity. Thus, our goal was to test anxiety- and depression-like behaviors after infant peripheral nerve injury and evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment on these models (...) of affective disorders.Open field, elevated plus maze, sucrose preference, and pain behaviors (paw withdrawal threshold, spontaneous guarding score, and cold response to acetone) were measured in rats that received infant spared nerve injury (SNI). Enzyme-linked immune absorbent assay of cytokines was performed to evaluate the inflammatory response in the brain. Then, the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of a microglia inhibitor, minocycline (MIN), and EE (a free-running wheel

2018 Journal of neuroinflammation

196. Transcriptomic differential lncRNA expression is involved in neuropathic pain in rat dorsal root ganglion after spared sciatic nerve injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

lncRNA gene. A total of 26 novel lncRNAs were found. Known lncRNA gene rno-Cntnap2 and novel lncRNA AC111653.1 were involved in neuropathic pain of DRGs after spared sciatic nerve injury. They contributed to peripheral nerve regeneration via the putative mechanisms. (...) Transcriptomic differential lncRNA expression is involved in neuropathic pain in rat dorsal root ganglion after spared sciatic nerve injury Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons regenerate spontaneously after traumatic or surgical injury. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in various biological regulation processes. Conditions of lncRNAs in DRG neuron injury deserve to be further investigated. Transcriptomic analysis was performed by high-throughput Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing to profile

2018 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research

197. Silencing of circRNA.2837 Plays a Protective Role in Sciatic Nerve Injury by Sponging the miR-34 Family via Regulating Neuronal Autophagy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Silencing of circRNA.2837 Plays a Protective Role in Sciatic Nerve Injury by Sponging the miR-34 Family via Regulating Neuronal Autophagy Circular RNAs (circRNAs) represent a class of non-coding RNAs that are involved in transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene expression regulation and associated with different kinds of human diseases. However, the characterization and function of circular RNAs in peripheral nerve injuries remain elusive. Here, we established a rat sciatic nerve injury (...) model and identified at least 4,942 distinct circular RNA candidates and a series of circular RNAs that were differentially expressed in injured nerve tissues compared with matched normal tissues. We characterized one frequently downregulated circular RNA, circRNA.2837, and further investigated its function in sciatic nerve injury. We found that circRNA.2837 regulated autophagy in neurons in vitro and in vivo, and downregulation of circRNA.2837 alleviated sciatic nerve injury via inducing autophagy

2018 Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids

198. In vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging, and Tractography of a Sciatic Nerve Injury Model in Rat at 9.4T Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging, and Tractography of a Sciatic Nerve Injury Model in Rat at 9.4T Peripheral nerve injuries result in severe loss of sensory and motor functions in the afflicted limb. There is a lack of standardised models to non-invasively study degeneration, regeneration, and normalisation of neuronal microstructure in peripheral nerves. This study aimed to develop a non-invasive evaluation of peripheral nerve injuries, using diffusion tensor (...) imaging (DTI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), and tractography on a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. 10 female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to sciatic nerve neurotmesis and studied using a 9.4 T magnet, by performing DTI and DKI of the sciatic nerve before and 4 weeks after injury. The distal nerve stump showed a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean kurtosis (MK), axonal water fraction (AWF), and radial and axonal kurtosis (RK, AK) after injury. The proximal stump showed a significant

2018 Scientific reports

199. Diosgenin improves functional recovery from sciatic crushed nerve injury in rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diosgenin improves functional recovery from sciatic crushed nerve injury in rats Peripheral nerve injuries are commonly encountered clinical problem and often result in chronic pain and severe functional deficit. Diosgenin is a plant steroidal saponin and has anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of diosgenin on functional recovery following sciatic crushed nerve injury in rats. Walking track analysis for the functional recovery which can (...) and functional recovery following peripheral nerve injury.

2018 Journal of exercise rehabilitation

200. Environmental enrichment alleviates chronic pain in rats following a spared nerve injury to induce neuropathic pain. A preliminary study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Environmental enrichment alleviates chronic pain in rats following a spared nerve injury to induce neuropathic pain. A preliminary study In mice, chronic pain can be alleviated with enriched environments (EEs). The purpose of this preliminary study is to investigate whether pain behaviors in rats with peripheral neuropathy would be altered when keeping these animals in either 1) standard laboratory cages or in 2) a significantly EE.Two groups of rats (n=8/group) underwent a spare nerve injury (...) surgery of the right hind leg; one group (n=8) was returned to standard ventilated cages (2 rats/cage), the other (n=8) placed in an EE (8 rats/ferret cage with toys). A third group (n=8) underwent a sham surgery and was used as control. These animals were returned to standard ventilated cages (2 rats per cage). Spare nerve injury surgery consisted of ligation/transection of the tibial and common peroneal branches of the sciatic nerve of the right leg only. Von Frey Filaments were applied to test

2018 Veterinary Medicine : Research and Reports

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