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Peripheral Nerve Injury

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1. Peripheral nerve blocks are not associated with increased risk of perioperative peripheral nerve injury in a Veterans Affairs inpatient surgical population. (Abstract)

Peripheral nerve blocks are not associated with increased risk of perioperative peripheral nerve injury in a Veterans Affairs inpatient surgical population. Perioperative peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a known complication in patients undergoing surgery with or without regional anesthesia. The incidence of new PNI in a Veterans Affairs (VA) inpatient surgical population has not been previously described; therefore, the incidence, risk factors, and clinical course of new PNI in this cohort (...) are unknown. We hypothesized that peripheral nerve blocks do not increase PNI incidence.We conducted a 5-year review of a Perioperative Surgical Home database including all consecutive surgical inpatients. The primary outcome was new PNI between groups that did or did not have peripheral nerve blockade. Potential confounders were first examined individually using logistic regression, and then included simultaneously together within a mixed-effects logistic regression model. Electronic records of patients

2019 Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

2. Processed nerve allografts to repair peripheral nerve discontinuities

Processed nerve allografts to repair peripheral nerve discontinuities Processed nerv Processed nerve allogr e allografts to repair peripher afts to repair peripheral al nerv nerve discontinuities e discontinuities Interventional procedures guidance Published: 22 November 2017 nice.org.uk/guidance/ipg597 Y Y our responsibility our responsibility This guidance represents the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, healthcare (...) allografts to repair peripheral nerve discontinuities is adequate to support the use of this procedure for digital nerves provided that standard arrangements are in place for clinical governance, consent and audit. © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 1 of 71.2 The evidence on the safety of processed nerve allografts to repair peripheral nerve discontinuities in other sites raises no major safety concerns

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Interventional Procedures

3. Periorbital and Temporal Anatomy, “Targeted Fat Grafting,” and How a Novel Circulatory System in Human Peripheral Nerves and Brain May Help Avoid Nerve Injury and Blindness During Routine Facial Augmentation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Periorbital and Temporal Anatomy, “Targeted Fat Grafting,” and How a Novel Circulatory System in Human Peripheral Nerves and Brain May Help Avoid Nerve Injury and Blindness During Routine Facial Augmentation 28595323 2018 09 25 2018 11 13 1527-330X 37 8 2017 09 01 Aesthetic surgery journal Aesthet Surg J Periorbital and Temporal Anatomy, "Targeted Fat Grafting," and How a Novel Circulatory System in Human Peripheral Nerves and Brain May Help Avoid Nerve Injury and Blindness During Routine (...) , Gainesville, FL. Heldermon Coy D CD Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Aesthetic Surgery Journal. Division of Hematology and Oncology, The University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL. eng Editorial Comment England Aesthet Surg J 9707469 1090-820X IM Aesthet Surg J. 2017 Sep 1;37(8):855-862 28520850 Brain Cardiovascular System Face Facial Nerve Humans 2017 6 9 6 0 2018 9 27 6 0 2017 6 9 6 0 ppublish 28595323 3862695 10.1093/asj/sjx089

2017 Aesthetic surgery journal

4. Nerve-Specific, Xenogeneic Extracellular Matrix Hydrogel Promotes Recovery Following Peripheral Nerve Injury: Peripheral Nerve-Specific Extracellular Matrix Hydrogel Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nerve-Specific, Xenogeneic Extracellular Matrix Hydrogel Promotes Recovery Following Peripheral Nerve Injury: Peripheral Nerve-Specific Extracellular Matrix Hydrogel Peripheral nerve possesses the inherent ability to regrow and recover following injury. However, nerve regeneration is often slow and incomplete due to limitations associated with the local microenvironment during the repair process. Manipulation of the local microenvironment at the site of nerve repair, therefore, represents (...) a significant opportunity for improvement in downstream outcomes. Macrophages and Schwann cells play a key role in the orchestration of early events after peripheral nerve injury. We describe the production, characterization, and use of an injectable, peripheral nerve-specific extracellular matrix-based hydrogel (PNSECM) for promoting modulation of the local macrophage and Schwann cell responses at the site of nerve repair in a rodent model of sciatic nerve injury. We show that PNSECM hydrogels largely

2017 Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A

5. Inhibition of peripheral macrophages by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists suppresses spinal microglial activation and neuropathic pain in mice with peripheral nerve injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inhibition of peripheral macrophages by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists suppresses spinal microglial activation and neuropathic pain in mice with peripheral nerve injury Neuro-immune interaction underlies chronic neuroinflammation and aberrant sensory processing resulting in neuropathic pain. Despite the pathological significance of both neuroinflammation-driven peripheral sensitization and spinal sensitization, the functional relationship between these two distinct events has (...) the upregulation of inflammatory microglia-dominant molecules, such as CD68, interferon regulatory factor 5, and IL-1β in the SDH after PSL.These findings support the notion that pharmacological inhibition of inflammatory macrophages using an α4β2 nAChR agonist exhibit a wide therapeutic window on neuropathic pain after nerve injury, and it could be nominated as a novel pharmacotherapy to relieve intractable pain.

2018 Journal of neuroinflammation

6. Corrigendum to "Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom <i>Hericium erinaceus</i> (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae)". Full Text available with Trip Pro

Corrigendum to "Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae)". [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ecam/neq062.].

2018 Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM)

7. An update–tissue engineered nerve grafts for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries Full Text available with Trip Pro

An update–tissue engineered nerve grafts for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) are caused by a range of etiologies and result in a broad spectrum of disability. While nerve autografts are the current gold standard for the reconstruction of extensive nerve damage, the limited supply of autologous nerve and complications associated with harvesting nerve from a second surgical site has driven groups from multiple disciplines, including biomedical engineering (...) , neurosurgery, plastic surgery, and orthopedic surgery, to develop a suitable or superior alternative to autografting. Over the last couple of decades, various types of scaffolds, such as acellular nerve grafts (ANGs), nerve guidance conduits, and non-nervous tissues, have been filled with Schwann cells, stem cells, and/or neurotrophic factors to develop tissue engineered nerve grafts (TENGs). Although these have shown promising effects on peripheral nerve regeneration in experimental models, the autograft

2018 Neural Regeneration Research

8. Chitosan conduit combined with hyaluronic acid prevent sciatic nerve scar in a rat model of peripheral nerve crush injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chitosan conduit combined with hyaluronic acid prevent sciatic nerve scar in a rat model of peripheral nerve crush injury In the present study, the effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) combined with chitosan conduit on peripheral nerve scarring and regeneration were investigated in a rat model of peripheral nerve crush injury. A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups (15 rats in each group), in which the nerve was either not treated (control group) or treated (...) with chitosan conduit, hyaluronic acid, or chitosan conduit coupled with hyaluronic acid following clamp injury to the sciatic nerve. The surgical sites were evaluated by assessing the sciatic functional index, the degree of scar adhesions, the numbers of myelinated nerve fibers, the average diameter of myelinated nerve fibers and the myelin sheath thickness. Larger epineurial scar thickness was observed in the control groups compared with the treatment groups at 4, 8 and 12 weeks following surgery

2018 Molecular medicine reports

9. Electrospun nerve guide conduits have the potential to bridge peripheral nerve injuries in vivo Full Text available with Trip Pro

Electrospun nerve guide conduits have the potential to bridge peripheral nerve injuries in vivo Electrospinning can be used to mimic the architecture of an acellular nerve graft, combining microfibers for guidance, and pores for cellular infiltration. We made electrospun nerve guides, from polycaprolactone (PCL) or poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), with aligned fibers along the insides of the channels and random fibers around them. We bridged a 10 mm rat sciatic nerve defect with the guides (...) , and, in selected groups, added a cell transplant derived from autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF). For control, we compared to hollow silicone tubes; or autologous nerve grafts. PCL nerve guides had a high degree of autotomy (8/43 rats), a negative indicator with respect to future usefulness, while PLLA supported axonal regeneration, but did not outperform autologous nerve grafts. Transplanted cells survived in the PLLA nerve guides, but axonal regeneration was not enhanced as compared to nerve guides

2018 Scientific reports

10. Peripheral Nerve Injury-Induced Astrocyte Activation in Spinal Ventral Horn Contributes to Nerve Regeneration Full Text available with Trip Pro

Peripheral Nerve Injury-Induced Astrocyte Activation in Spinal Ventral Horn Contributes to Nerve Regeneration Accumulating evidences suggest that peripheral nerve injury (PNI) may initiate astrocytic responses in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the response of astrocytes in the spinal ventral horn and its potential role in nerve regeneration after PNI remain unclear. Herein, we firstly illustrated that astrocytes in the spinal ventral horn were dramatically activated in the early (...) immediately after injury. Furthermore, administering fluorocitrate to inhibit astrocyte activation resulted in decreased neurotrophin expression in the spinal ventral horn and delayed axonal regeneration in the nerve as well as motor function recovery. Overall, the present study indicates that peripheral nerve injury can initiate astrocyte activation accompanied with neurotrophin upregulation in the spinal ventral horn. The above responses mainly occur in the early stage of PNI and may contribute to nerve

2018 Neural plasticity

11. Heterologous fibrin sealant potentiates axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury with reduction in the number of suture points. (Abstract)

Heterologous fibrin sealant potentiates axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury with reduction in the number of suture points. The use of suture associated with heterologous fibrin sealant has been highlighted for reconstruction after peripheral nerve injury, having the advantage of being safe for clinical use. In this study we compared the use of this sealant associated with reduced number of stitches with conventional suture after ischiatic nerve injury. 36 Wistar rats were divided (...) into 4 groups: Control (C), Denervated (D), ischiatic nerve neurotmesis (6 mm gap); Suture (S), epineural anastomosis after 7 days from neurotmesis, Suture + Fibrin Sealant (SFS), anastomosis with only one suture point associated with Fibrin Sealant. Catwalk, electromyography, ischiatic and tibial nerve, soleus muscle morphological and morphometric analyses were performed. The amplitude and latency values of the Suture and Suture + Fibrin Sealant groups were similar and indicative of nerve

2019 Injury

12. Risk Factors for Peripheral Nerve Injury After 207,000 Total Hip Arthroplasties Using a New York State Database (Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System). (Abstract)

Risk Factors for Peripheral Nerve Injury After 207,000 Total Hip Arthroplasties Using a New York State Database (Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System). Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a devastating complication following total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for PNI after THA using a New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS).The SPARCS database was queried to identify patients who had undergone THA from

2019 Journal of Arthroplasty

13. Perineural injection of botulinum toxin-A in painful peripheral nerve injury - a case-series: pain relief, safety, sensory profile, and sample size recommendation. (Abstract)

Perineural injection of botulinum toxin-A in painful peripheral nerve injury - a case-series: pain relief, safety, sensory profile, and sample size recommendation. Objectives: Subcutaneous injection of botulinum toxin-A (sBONT-A) is a novel treatment for peripheral neuropathic pain. While its analgesic effects are well documented, this treatment is often not comfortable and fails in patients who show signs of sensory loss but rarely allodynia. There are some case reports about perineural BONT

2019 Current medical research and opinion

14. Incidence and Risk Factors for Peripheral Nerve Injury After 383,000 Total Knee Arthroplasties Using a New York State Database (SPARCS). (Abstract)

Incidence and Risk Factors for Peripheral Nerve Injury After 383,000 Total Knee Arthroplasties Using a New York State Database (SPARCS). Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a devastating complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for PNI after TKA using a New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System.The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database was queried to identify patients who had undergone TKA

2019 Journal of Arthroplasty

15. Pulsed radiofrequency to the dorsal root ganglion or the sciatic nerve reduces neuropathic pain behavior, decreases peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines and spinal β-catenin in chronic constriction injury rats. (Abstract)

Pulsed radiofrequency to the dorsal root ganglion or the sciatic nerve reduces neuropathic pain behavior, decreases peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines and spinal β-catenin in chronic constriction injury rats. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) is a minimal neurodestructive interventional pain therapy. However, its analgesic mechanism remains largely unclear. We aimed to investigate the peripheral and spinal mechanisms of PRF applied either adjacent to the ipsilateral L5 dorsal root ganglion (PRF (...) -DRG) or PRF to the sciatic nerve (PRF-SN) in the neuropathic pain behavior induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats.On day 0, CCI or sham surgeries were performed. Rats then received either PRF-DRG, PRF-SN, or sham PRF treatment on day 4. Pain behavioral tests were conducted before surgeries and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 14. After the behavioral tests, the rats were sacrificed. The venous blood or sciatic nerve samples were collected for ELISAs and the dorsal horns of the L4

2019 Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

16. SETD7 mediates spinal microgliosis and neuropathic pain in a rat model of peripheral nerve injury. (Abstract)

SETD7 mediates spinal microgliosis and neuropathic pain in a rat model of peripheral nerve injury. Gene transcription regulation is critical for the development of spinal microgliosis and neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Using a model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, this study characterized the role of SET domain containing lysine methyltransferase 7 (SETD7) which monomethylates histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me1), a marker for active gene transcription (...) -induced neuropathic pain. However, this effect was observed in male but not in female rats. These results demonstrate a critical role of SETD7 in the development of spinal microgliosis and neuropathic pain subsequently to peripheral nerve injury. The pharmacological approach further suggests that SETD7 is a new target for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The underlying mechanisms may involve H3K4me1-dependent regulation of inflammatory gene expression in microglia.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All

2019 Brain, behavior, and immunity

17. A Touch-Observation and Task-Based Mirror Therapy Protocol to Improve Sensorimotor Control and Functional Capability of Hands for Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injury. (Abstract)

A Touch-Observation and Task-Based Mirror Therapy Protocol to Improve Sensorimotor Control and Functional Capability of Hands for Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injury. To develop a practical program in the early phase after nerve repair for more rapid return of function.To investigate the effects of touch-observation and task-based mirror therapy on the sensorimotor outcomes of patients with nerve repair.An assessor-blinded study with a randomized controlled design.University hospital.We (...) in patients with peripheral nerve injury.Copyright © 2019 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

2019 The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

18. Rapid-stretch injury to peripheral nerves: implications from an animal model. (Abstract)

Rapid-stretch injury to peripheral nerves: implications from an animal model. Rapid-stretch nerve injuries are among the most devastating lesions to peripheral nerves, yielding unsatisfactory functional outcomes. No animal model has yet been developed that uses only stretch injury for investigation of the pathophysiology of clinical traction injuries. The authors' objective was to define the behavioral and histopathological recovery after graded rapid-stretch nerve injury.Four groups of male B6 (...) .Cg-Tg(Thy1-YFP)HJrs/J mice were tested: sham injury (n = 11); stretch within elastic limits (elastic group, n = 14); stretch beyond elastic limits but before nerve rupture (inelastic group, n = 14); and stretch-ruptured nerves placed in continuity (rupture group, n = 16). Mice were injured at 8 weeks of age, comparable with human late adolescence. Behavioral outcomes were assessed using the sciatic functional index (SFI), tapered-beam dexterity, Von Frey monofilament testing, and the Hargreaves

2019 Journal of Neurosurgery

19. Tendon transfers after peripheral nerve injuries: my preferred techniques. (Abstract)

Tendon transfers after peripheral nerve injuries: my preferred techniques. While there is now keen interest in restoring function lost through irreparable nerve injury by performing nerve-to-nerve transfer, for some time to come, tendon transfers will remain the primary reconstructive procedure for paralytic injuries of the upper limb. A career spanning more than 50 years has permitted the author to try many tendon transfers promoted by past and present colleagues for the three common nerve (...) injuries (median, radial and ulnar) affecting hand function and, eventually, to settle upon those which have provided the most predictable and consistent outcomes. This article describes the author's preferred tendon transfers for high radial and low median and ulnar palsies, providing the rationale behind these choices, operative details supplemented with illustrations, technical tips and advice regarding postoperative rehabilitation.

2019 Journal of Hand Surgery - European

20. Reversal of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain and cognitive dysfunction via genetic and tomivosertib targeting of MNK. (Abstract)

Reversal of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain and cognitive dysfunction via genetic and tomivosertib targeting of MNK. Neuropathic pain caused by nerve injury presents with severe spontaneous pain and a variety of comorbidities, including deficits in higher executive functions. None of these clinical problems are adequately treated with current analgesics. Targeting of the mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase (MNK1/2) and its phosphorylation target, the mRNA cap (...) binding protein eIF4E, attenuates many types of nociceptive plasticity induced by inflammatory mediators and chemotherapeutic drugs but inhibiting this pathway does not alter nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia. We used genetic manipulations and pharmacology to inhibit MNK-eIF4E activity in animals with spared nerve injury, a model of peripheral nerve injury (PNI)-induced neuropathic pain. We assessed the presence of spontaneous pain using conditioned place preference. We also tested performance

2019 Neuropsychopharmacology

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