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Periodontal Bleeding

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3121. The effects of a simplified oral hygiene regime plus supragingival irrigation with chlorhexidine or metronidazole on chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. (PubMed)

The effects of a simplified oral hygiene regime plus supragingival irrigation with chlorhexidine or metronidazole on chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. This study compared a simplified oral hygiene regime (scaling, root planing and Bass brushing) with this same regime plus 0.02% chlorhexidine (CH), 0.05% metronidazole (MD) and inactive control (PL) solutions delivered supragingivally by a pulsating water jet irrigator. 22 patients were distributed randomly into 3 groups, 0.02 (...) % chlorhexidine (CH), 0.05% metronidazole (MD), and inactive control (PL). Approximal surfaces with associated pockets greater than or equal to 4 mm were monitored at day 0, for plaque index (PII), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), baseline measurement for gingival shrinkage and probable pocket depth. All monitored surfaces were then immediately scaled and root planed. All patients received identical oral hygiene instruction (Bass brushing), with a sodium fluoride toothpaste and a multituft

1986 Journal of clinical periodontology

3122. Metronidazole: a double-blind trial in untreated human periodontal disease. (PubMed)

Metronidazole: a double-blind trial in untreated human periodontal disease. The effect of metronidazole was assessed in 20 subjects with untreated periodontitis, in a double-blind trial. Subjects received a 1-week course of drug or placebo immediately after baseline examination, and were reassessed 1 month and 3 months later. A 0.25 N constant force probe and darkfield microscopy were used. At 1 month, a difference was observed between the deepest individual pockets in experimental and control (...) groups, with regard to change in probing depth and the proportions of non-motile organisms. At 3 months, differences were observed in 1-3 mm baseline pockets, where a greater proportion of control pockets increased in probing depth, and in 4-6 mm pockets, where a greater proportion of baseline bleeding pockets had ceased to bleed in the experimental group. The differences were of limited clinical significance when compared to studies where metronidazole was used as an adjunct to other therapy

1986 Journal of clinical periodontology

3123. Effect of combined systemic antimicrobial therapy and mechanical plaque control in patients with recurrent periodontal disease. (PubMed)

therapeutic approach in a strictly selected group of refractory patients. Recurrent periodontal lesions which still displayed severe inflammation despite renewed conventional therapy showed a marked reduction in probing depths, bleeding and suppuration from the pockets, and further, a reduced presence of spirochetes and motile rods during the trial. The results indicate that the level and longevity of success is also related to whether or not self-performed oral hygiene measures are sufficiently carried (...) Effect of combined systemic antimicrobial therapy and mechanical plaque control in patients with recurrent periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of systemic antimicrobial therapy and mechanical plaque control in patients with recurrent periodontal disease. 9 patients volunteered for the combined therapy. At a baseline examination they were randomly distributed into 2 groups, one given tetracycline therapy for 2 weeks and the other metronidazole therapy

1984 Journal of clinical periodontology

3124. Short-term effect of Keyes' approach to periodontal therapy compared with modified Widman flap surgery. (PubMed)

Short-term effect of Keyes' approach to periodontal therapy compared with modified Widman flap surgery. Keyes' method of non-surgical therapy was compared with modified Widman flap surgery in 9 patients with symmetrical periodontal disease. Following an initial oral hygiene programme, baseline measurements were recorded and paired contralateral areas were subjected randomly to the 2 techniques. 42 teeth receiving surgery were compared with 40 treated by Keyes' method. 6 sites per tooth were (...) in bleeding on probing at 3 months. Both techniques gave marked improvements in health. Surprisingly, only 2 subjects preferred Keyes' technique of mechanical therapy, 6 preferred surgery, and 1 had no preference.

1987 Journal of clinical periodontology

3125. Periodic subgingival antimicrobial irrigation of periodontal pockets. II. Microbiological and radiographical observations. (PubMed)

Periodic subgingival antimicrobial irrigation of periodontal pockets. II. Microbiological and radiographical observations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological effects of repeated subgingival irrigation of deep periodontal pockets as a single measure of treatment as well as combined with mechanical debridement, and to study the concomitant radiographical changes of the alveolar bone. 2-3 interproximal sites per jaw quadrant in 10 patients showing a probing depth (...) of greater than or equal to 6 mm and bleeding on pocket probing were selected for the study. The pockets in the various quadrants were randomly assigned to professionally performed subgingival irrigation with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 3% hydrogen peroxide or saline or to non-irrigation. During a first phase of treatment, the pockets were periodically irrigated (every 2nd-3rd day during weeks 1-2 and 5-6) and no subgingival mechanical debridement was performed. During a second phase, subgingival

1987 Journal of clinical periodontology

3126. Periodontal healing after treatment with either the Titan-S sonic scaler or hand instruments. (PubMed)

depth greater than or equal to 4 mm and percentage of sites showing bleeding on probing to the bottom of the pocket, was obtained. No difference in results was observed when comparing Titan S and hand instrumentation. The time required for instrumentation was, however, shorter for Titan S than for hand instruments. Based on the results of this study, it may be concluded that, in patients with moderately advanced periodontitis, periodontal healing after scaling with the Titan S and hand instruments (...) Periodontal healing after treatment with either the Titan-S sonic scaler or hand instruments. Several types of air turbine scalers have recently been introduced as an alternative to ultrasonic equipment in periodontal therapy. The aim of this investigation was to compare clinical, periodontal healing after scaling with the Titan S air turbine scaler and hand instruments. Twelve patients referred to the School of Dental Hygiene, Jönköping, Sweden, for treatment of moderately advanced

1988 Swedish dental journal

3127. Comparison of spiramycin and tetracycline used adjunctively in the treatment of advanced chronic periodontitis. (PubMed)

Comparison of spiramycin and tetracycline used adjunctively in the treatment of advanced chronic periodontitis. This study was designed to compare both clinical and microbiological changes during the treatment of advanced periodontal disease with mechanical debridement, with or without the adjunctive use of either spiramycin or tetracycline. The study, which included 96 patients with advanced periodontitis, was performed as a controlled double-blind parallel randomized trial. All patients (...) received thorough scaling and root planing as well as adjunctive placebo or spiramycin or tetracycline. Probing depth measurements, attachment level changes, plaque level, gingival crevicular fluid, bleeding on probing and microbiological evaluation were carried out at baseline, 2-, 8-, 12- and 24-week visits. Seventy-nine patients (24 placebo, 27 tetracycline and 28 spiramycin) completed the study. At 24 weeks there were no intergroup differences in the improvement of any of the clinical parameters

1988 The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

3128. Periodic subgingival antimicrobial irrigation of periodontal pockets (I). Clinical observations. (PubMed)

irrigation when mechanically debrided. During the entire study, the patients were recalled for professional tooth cleaning once every 4 weeks. Re-examinations were carried out at 4, 6, 32, 40 and 52 weeks. The results revealed that repeated professional irrigation of unscaled periodontal pockets with chlorhexidine or hydrogen peroxide resulted in a temporarily reduced frequency of bleeding sites, but not in any clinically significant changes in probing assessments. A similar improvement of bleeding (...) Periodic subgingival antimicrobial irrigation of periodontal pockets (I). Clinical observations. The present investigation was undertaken to study the clinical effect of professionally performed periodic subgingival irrigation per se and as an adjunct to scaling and root planing. 10 patients suffering from moderate-severe periodontal disease participated in the study. Following an initial 3-month period of supervised supragingival plaque control, a total of 102 periodontal sites with probing

1987 Journal of clinical periodontology

3129. Use of antimicrobial containing acrylic strips in the treatment of chronic periodontal disease. A three month follow-up study. (PubMed)

Use of antimicrobial containing acrylic strips in the treatment of chronic periodontal disease. A three month follow-up study. Local antimicrobial therapy has been considered for use in the treatment of chronic periodontal disease. This study evaluated chlorhexidine, metronidazole, and tetracycline delivered into periodontal pockets in an acrylic resin vehicle and compared the results with root planed and untreated sites over a three-month follow-up period. One site per patient where pocketing (...) greater than or equal to 6 mm associated with a single rooted tooth was randomly allocated to one of the five possible regimens. Baseline and follow-up measurements included probing depth, loss of attachment, bleeding on probing, crevicular fluid flow, and dark-field microscopy of a subgingival plaque sample. Intratreatment evaluations revealed no significant changes in any parameter for untreated sites. Significant improvements in many parameters occurred with all four therapies although

1988 Journal of periodontology

3130. [Topical application of the controlled release strips containing ofloxacin (PT-01) in periodontal therapy]. (PubMed)

and bleeding on probing, compared to placebo-applied or control sites. These results suggest that weekly insertion of PT-01 in the periodontal pocket along with the subgingival scaling and root planing could have significant effect on the improvements in the gingival inflammation. Taken together, weekly application of PT-01 might have ameliorating effect as adjuncts of mechanical subgingival plaque control in the periodontal treatment. (...) [Topical application of the controlled release strips containing ofloxacin (PT-01) in periodontal therapy]. The association of periodontopathic bacteria in the subgingival plaque with human periodontal disease has been well established. However, past attempts at reducing the level of pathogenic bacteria by using antibiotics as well as other antibacterial substance, so far, have not been fully successful. In this study, the effect of topical application of ofloxacin (OFLX), a synthetic

1988 Nihon Shishubyo Gakkai kaishi

3131. Clinical and microbiologic effects of local tetracycline irrigation on periodontitis. (PubMed)

Clinical and microbiologic effects of local tetracycline irrigation on periodontitis. This investigation was conducted on seven individuals referred for treatment of moderate adult periodontitis. Twenty-eight sites with an average probing depth of 5.6 +/- 0.9 mm were evaluated. One tooth per jaw quadrant was randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments: (I) no treatment, i.e., control; (II) saline irrigation; (III) tetracycline irrigation and (IV) scaling and root planing (SC/RP (...) ). A plaque control program was instituted one week prior to the experimental period and reinforced throughout the eight-week study. Irrigation was performed every 48 hours during the first two weeks of the experiment for Groups II and III, and the single treatment of SC/RP was carried out immediately following the baseline examination for Group IV. Clinical and microbiologic changes were monitored every two weeks using plaque and gingival indices, gingival fluid flow, probing depths, bleeding on probing

1988 Journal of periodontology

3132. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis in periodontitis. (PubMed)

periodontitis can be differential compared to patients with chronic periodontitis and control subjects.SCE was analysed in peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomes of 13 patients with generalised aggressive periodontitis (G-AP), 10 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) and 10 control subjects. The periodontal parameters of probing depth, clinical attachment level, the presence of bleeding on probing and plaque were recorded. Peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from both patient groups and control (...) Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis in periodontitis. Emerging data indicate that genetic factors may be associated with the etiopathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is a sensitive method that might reflect an instability of DNA or a deficiency of DNA repair. The aim of the present study was to investigate SCE frequency of patients with different forms of periodontal disease and to determine whether this cytogenetic marker in patients with aggressive

2002 Journal of Clinical Periodontology

3133. Antibody-based diagnostic for 'refractory' periodontitis. (PubMed)

Antibody-based diagnostic for 'refractory' periodontitis. About 10-15% of US adults are 'refractory' to therapy for chronic periodontitis. Recently, studies suggest that these patients have elevated lysine decarboxylase activity in the sulcular microbiota. The aim of this study was to determine whether an elevated IgG antibody response to lysine decarboxylase, alone or with antibody to other bacterial antigens and baseline clinical measurements, would predict 'refractory' patients with high (...) accuracy.Chronic periodontitis patients were treated using scaling and root planing (SRP) followed by maintenance SRP and 3-monthly re-examinations. If there was a loss of mean full mouth attachment or more than three sites appeared with > 2.5 mm new loss within a year, the subjects were re-treated (modified Widman flap surgery and systemically administered tetracycline). If attachment loss as above recurred, the subjects were 'refractory'. Baseline clinical measurements and specific antibody responses were

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2002 Journal of Clinical Periodontology

3134. Residual periodontal defects distal to the mandibular second molar 6-36 months after impacted third molar extraction. (PubMed)

(excluding the subject tooth), but local periodontal defects were prevalent at the distal surface of subject mandibular second molars: mean probing pocket depth (PPD) was 5.4 +/- 1.9 mm with 67% (106 subjects) exhibiting PPD >or= 5 mm and 23% (36 subjects) exhibiting PPD >or= 7 mm; mean recession was 0.8 +/- 1.0 mm; bleeding on probing 96% and suppuration on probing 5%. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyse the effects of 12 independent variables on the PPD at the distal surface (...) Residual periodontal defects distal to the mandibular second molar 6-36 months after impacted third molar extraction. This retrospective study investigated the periodontal conditions distal to mandibular second molars 6-36 months after routine surgical extraction of adjacent impacted third molars.Subjects were randomly selected by systematic sampling from computer records of 3211 surgical mandibular third molar extractions in the Hong Kong dental teaching hospital. Records and pre-extraction

2002 Journal of Clinical Periodontology

3135. Periodontal treatment practices of Finnish dentists. (PubMed)

treatment for a patient with a bleeding, 8-mm-deep periodontal pocket and to consider the influence on their treatment decision of the six possible contraindications for periodontal surgery presented, two of which were absolute (inadequate oral hygiene and poorly controlled diabetes) and four of which were relative contraindications. The respondents' treatment decisions were compared with recommendations from textbooks and the Consensus Report from the 1996 World Workshop of Periodontology.The majority (...) Periodontal treatment practices of Finnish dentists. To evaluate the treatment practices of Finnish general practitioners (GPs) and dental teachers (DTs) regarding periodontal treatment modalities, and their knowledge of possible contraindications for periodontal surgery.A questionnaire on two periodontal cases was mailed to 400 GPs, selected by stratified randomization from the public and private sector, and to 47 DTs. The response rate was 77%. Respondents were asked to choose the optimal

2002 Journal of Clinical Periodontology

3136. Validity and limitations of self-reported periodontal health. (PubMed)

Validity and limitations of self-reported periodontal health. To study the agreement between self-reported dental conditions and clinical findings in an adult population (20-84 years of age), and thus evaluate questionnaires as a tool in epidemiological studies of oral health, in general, and periodontal health, in particular.A questionnaire was sent to 900 randomly selected subjects in the age groups 20-29, 50-59 and 75-84 years. Of these, 723 subjects (81.0%) answered the questionnaire and 20 (...) % of them underwent a clinical examination.As regards the remaining teeth, there was a mean difference of 1.4 teeth between the number indicated in the questionnaire and that found on the clinical examination. This difference was most marked in the older subjects. Eight of the nine subjects with removable dentures reported in their answers that they had removable dentures. Periodontal variables--we found significantly more subjects with pathological gingival pockets among those who stated that they had

2002 Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology

3137. Periodic health examination, 1993 update: 3. Periodontal diseases: classification, diagnosis, risk factors and prevention. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. (PubMed)

Periodic health examination, 1993 update: 3. Periodontal diseases: classification, diagnosis, risk factors and prevention. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. To review the 1979 Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination recommendations on the diagnosis and prevention of periodontal disease.Self-care at home, professional care, treatment with antimicrobial agents and management of patients at high risk.Maintaining the gingiva, alveolar bone and periodontal (...) ligament in a healthy state (absence of gingival bleeding and no loss of epithelial attachment).A literature search for articles published from 1980 to 1993 was conducted. Selected studies published before 1980 were also reviewed if there were no recent updates. Evidence was evaluated and classified as good, fair or poor according to the criteria of the task force.The task force's evidence-based rules for recommendations were used. In addition, whenever feasible, and on the basis of advice from

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1993 CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal

3138. Adjunctive periodontal treatment with Centella asiatica and Punica granatum extracts in supportive periodontal therapy. (PubMed)

Adjunctive periodontal treatment with Centella asiatica and Punica granatum extracts in supportive periodontal therapy. Centella asiatica and Punica granatum are medicinal plants that have been reported to promote tissue healing and modulate host responses. Preliminary study revealed positive clinical effects of an innovative preparation from the two herbal extracts in the form of biodegradable chips as a subgingival adjunct to scaling and root planing. The purpose of this research (...) was to evaluate further augmenting efficacy the combined herbal preparation may have among maintenance patients in comparison to standard supportive periodontal therapy (SPT), with additional monitoring of certain inflammatory markers.Fifteen patients in the recall programme who had completed conventional periodontal therapy with remaining probing pocket depths of 5-8 mm were enrolled. After baseline examination and collection of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples, SPT was provided and the target teeth

2005 Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology

3139. Periodontal maintenance in a specialist periodontal clinic and in general dental practice. (PubMed)

groups: A (n=18, periodontal maintenance provided within the specialist clinic) or B (n=17, periodontal maintenance provided by the referring general dentist in accordance with written instructions provided by the specialist). All subjects were examined at months 0 (corresponding to 6 months post-completion of non-surgical therapy), 6 and 12. Full-mouth plaque index (PI), % bleeding on probing (%BOP) and probing depth (PD) measurements were recorded. PDs were also recorded at eight test sites which (...) Periodontal maintenance in a specialist periodontal clinic and in general dental practice. To monitor the efficacy of periodontal maintenance whether conducted in a specialist periodontology clinic or in the practice of the referring general dentist.Thirty-five subjects with a diagnosis of moderate-severe chronic periodontitis who were referred to the specialist clinic received periodontal non-surgical therapy. Following a 6-month healing phase, subjects were randomly allocated to one of two

2005 Journal of clinical periodontology

3140. Effects of Nd:YAG and CO2 laser treatment and ultrasonic scaling on periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis patients. (PubMed)

Effects of Nd:YAG and CO2 laser treatment and ultrasonic scaling on periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis patients. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of Nd:YAG and CO2 laser treatment to that of ultrasonic scaling used as monotherapies by examining clinical parameters, subgingival microflora, and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF).Eighteen patients, each of whom had 2 or more sites with probing depth measuring > 5 mm, were (...) included this clinical trial. The 41 sites were randomly assigned treatment with either Nd:YAG laser alone (n = 14, 100 mj, 20 pps, 2.0 W, 120 seconds), CO2 laser alone (n = 13, 2.0 W, 120 seconds), or ultrasonic scaling alone (n = 14, maximum power, 120 seconds). At baseline and at 1, 4, and 12 weeks, clinical measurements (plaque index, PI; gingival index, GI; probing depth, PD; clinical attachment level, CAL; and bleeding on probing, BOP) were performed and subgingival plaque and GCF sampled

2003 Journal of periodontology

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