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Periodic Limb Movement

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3081. Laryngeal mask insertion during target-controlled infusion of propofol. (Abstract)

conditions (mouth opening, gagging, coughing, head or limb movement, laryngospasm, overall ease of insertion) were assessed, and hemodynamic responses were evaluated until 3 minutes after LMA insertion. Total dose of propofol, EC, and elapsed time since the start of TCI were recorded at five times: at the loss of consciousness and eyelash reflex, at 2.5 microg/mL of EC, and immediately, 1 minute, and 3 minutes after the insertion of LMA.There was no significant difference between the two groups (...) in insertion conditions, despite the significantly larger total dose and shorter elapsed time (2.6 +/- 0.08 mg/kg and 109 +/- 5.0 s) in Group 2 than those (2.1 +/- 0.02 mg/kg and 140 +/- 4.1 s) in Group 1 at 2.5 microg/mL of EC (p < 0.05). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased and heart rate increased significantly throughout the study period in both groups (p < 0.05). But there was a significant decrease in arterial pressure in Group 2 compared with Group 1 1 and 3 minutes after the insertion (p

2001 Journal of clinical anesthesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3082. Influence of supervised and nonsupervised training on postural control after an acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture: a three-year longitudinal prospective study. (Abstract)

of pressure movements) and a one-leg hop test for distance after 6 weeks (stabilometry only), and after 3, 12, and 36 months, and were compared to a control group.Regardless of treatment, center of pressure amplitude was persistently higher in both the injured and uninjured legs during the 3-year follow-up, but average speed was less affected or unaffected compared to the control group. The one-leg hop had normalized in the neuromuscular group at the 12-month follow-up, but was shorter in both legs (...) throughout the 3-year period in the self-monitored group. The median value (quartiles) for injured/uninjured legs at 3 months was 150 cm (120-174 cm)/177 cm (140-199 cm), at 12 months was 174 cm (140-200 cm)/180 cm (150-202 cm), and at 36 months was 172 cm (146-200 cm)/178 cm (150-200 cm) in the self-monitored group, compared to the control group (median 186 cm, quartiles 177-216 cm).The higher center of pressure amplitude in both legs over the 3-year period indicate persistently impaired postural

2001 The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3083. Reproducibility of the measurement of the muscle ergoreflex activity in chronic heart failure. (Abstract)

-min submaximal handgrip and leg exercises. On one run the subjects recovered normally (control recovery), while on the other a post-exercise regional circulatory occlusion (PE-RCO) was induced in the exercising limb, to isolate the stimulation of the metaboreceptor after exercise. The metaboreflex was quantified as the difference in ventilation between the PE-RCO and the control recovery periods with respect to rest. The existence of a mechanoreflex was sought by comparing the ventilatory (...) increment per unit of active work (dV(E)/dVO(2) ratio) between leg passive movement and active low level exercise. The coefficients of variation (CV) were computed to express the reproducibility of these reflexes in heart failure.The metaboreflex was overactive in patients vs. normals during both arm (7.2+/-2.8 l/min vs. 0.06+/-0.3 l/min) and leg (5.6+/-1.2 l/min vs. 0.5+/-0.2 l/min) tests. The mechanoreflex was not different between patients and normals: dV(E)/dVO(2) during passive movement 48.9+/-18.3

2003 European journal of heart failure Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3084. Tactile/kinesthetic stimulation effects on preterm neonates. (Abstract)

of the limbs for three, 15-minute periods per day for a 10 days. The stimulated neonates averaged a 47% greater weight gain per day (mean 25 g v 17 g), were more active and alert during sleep/wake behavior observations, and showed more mature habituation, orientation, motor, and range of state behavior on the Brazelton scale than control infants. Finally, their hospital stay was 6 days shorter, yielding a cost savings of approximately $3,000 per infant. These data suggest that tactile/kinesthetic (...) Tactile/kinesthetic stimulation effects on preterm neonates. Tactile/kinesthetic stimulation was given to 20 preterm neonates (mean gestational age, 31 weeks; mean birth weight, 1,280 g; mean time in neonatal intensive care unit, 20 days) during transitional ("grower") nursery care, and their growth, sleep-wake behavior, and Brazelton scale performance was compared with a group of 20 control neonates. The tactile/kinesthetic stimulation consisted of body stroking and passive movements

1986 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3085. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of clonidine in restless legs syndrome. (Abstract)

minutes) (p = 0.028). There were no significant changes in total sleep time, stage 1 and 2 sleep, sleep efficiency, awakenings, arousals or periodic limb movements in sleep. There was a nonstatistical trend toward and increase in stage 3 and 4 sleep and a decrease in motor activity as measured by actigraphic recordings. Globally, seven out of 10 patients felt clonidine was more effective than placebo. Four patients chose to continue clonidine after the study. Clonidine may be an effective treatment (...) for RLS patients who don't have large numbers of sleep-disrupting periodic limb movements but have delayed sleep onset due to leg sensations and subsequent motor restlessness.

1996 Sleep Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3086. Long-term, nightly benzodiazepine treatment of injurious parasomnias and other disorders of disrupted nocturnal sleep in 170 adults. (Abstract)

sleepwalking and sleep terrors (69); rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (52); chronic, severe insomnia (25); and restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movement disorder (24).Complete/substantial control of the sleep disorders was achieved by 146 patients (86%); 8% had adverse effects requiring medication changes; 2% had relapses of alcohol or chemical abuse requiring hospitalization; another 2% at times misused their medications. A total of 136 patients received clonazepam nightly for a mean 3.5 (...) Long-term, nightly benzodiazepine treatment of injurious parasomnias and other disorders of disrupted nocturnal sleep in 170 adults. To assess the efficacy, dose stability, safety, and abuse potential of long-term, nightly benzodiazepine treatment of chronic disorders of disrupted nocturnal sleep.During a 12-year period, one author evaluated and treated 170 adult referrals for > or = 6 months with nightly benzodiazepine therapy for longstanding, sleep-disruptive disorders: injurious

1996 The American journal of medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3087. [Rapid sequence intubation in emergency: is there any place for fentanyl?]. (Abstract)

signs arrival (respiratory movements, eyes opening, spontaneous limb movements), Ramsay score assessment, and haemody namics. Attempt at intubation and vomiting incident were also measured. Discrete data were compared by chi-2 analysis, continuous data were compared with two-way analysis of variance. A p value < 0.05 was the significant threshold.Thirty-six patients were enrolled and completed the study. All the included patients presented awakening signs. The use of fentanyl did not prevent (...) [Rapid sequence intubation in emergency: is there any place for fentanyl?]. Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) with the association of etomidate and succinylcholine is the French "Gold standard" for urgent "full stomach" endotracheal intubations. The aim of this study is to assess the fentanyl as a co-induction agent to take over the sedation between the RSI and the keeping of sedation, which is a critical period in which harmful neuro-vegetatives events, and awakening signs are frequently

2002 Annales francaises d'anesthesie et de reanimation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3088. A new design of a polysomnography-based multi-center treatment study for the restless legs syndrome. (Abstract)

A new design of a polysomnography-based multi-center treatment study for the restless legs syndrome. Periodic limb movements (PLM) cause sleep disorders and daytime symptoms and are frequently associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Treatment of RLS with increased PLM during sleep (PLMS) has been evaluated in studies limited in size, methodology and study length. This long-term, placebo-controlled, multi-center, study with polysomnography (PSG) recordings has been designed in order

2002 Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3089. Evaluating the role of botulinum toxin in the management of focal hypertonia in adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of symptoms 35 months (range 3 months to 22 years). Diagnoses included cerebrovascular accidents (23), head injury (12), incomplete spinal cord injury (six), tumour (five), cerebral palsy (three), and anoxic episodes (three).For each variable an overall score for the treatment period was computed by summing the scores from the 3, 6, 9, and 12 week assessments. These overall scores were significantly better in the treated group for the Ashworth scale, percentage passive range of movement, Rivermead lower (...) limb, and subjective rating of problem severity. The significant treatment effect on the Ashworth scale was seen on analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 3 weeks and the subjective rating of problem severity at 3 and 6 weeks. The goal attainment scale score in both groups was similar at 12 weeks.Selective use of botulinum toxin to weaken muscles can lead to a reduction in resistance to passive movement about a distal limb joint. This allows for improvements in passive range of movement and focal

2000 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3090. Longitudinal effects of nortriptyline on EEG sleep and the likelihood of recurrence in elderly depressed patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and EEG sleep measures and the recurrence of major depression. Our results show that nortriptyline acutely and persistently decreased REM sleep, increased phasic REM activity, decreased sleep apnea, and had no effect on periodic limb movements during sleep. Recurrence on maintenance nortriptyline was associated with lower phasic REM activity during early continuation therapy, but EEG sleep measures did not predict recurrence during placebo maintenance therapy. Patients treated with nortriptyline had

1996 Neuropsychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3091. Efficacy of diclofenac in lateral epicondylitis of the elbow also treated with immobilization. The University of Montreal Orthopaedic Research Group. (Abstract)

21 days.The experimental group was treated with a daily dose of diclofenac sodium (150 mg) for 28 days, while the control group received a placebo during the same period. In addition, both groups were immobilized in a cast for 14 days and were told not to perform repetitive movements of the involved limb for 21 days.Measuring instruments consisted of grip strength measurements with a squeeze dynamometer, a visual analog pain scale, a visual analog function scale, and an 8-item pain-free function (...) of lateral epicondylitis beyond and over rest in an experimental group compared with a control group after 4 weeks of treatment.Recruitment from urban general practices and referrals to 4 university hospitals.During a 1-year period, 206 subjects aged 18 to 60 years with lateral epicondylitis were recruited from the clientele treated by family physicians. Thirty subjects refused to participate and 47 presented with exclusion criteria, leaving 129 subjects who entered the study. One subject withdrew after

1997 Archives of family medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

3092. Effect of severity of arm impairment on response to additional physiotherapy early after stroke. Full Text available with Trip Pro

given over a five-week period. The treatment approach reflected current usual British practice. 'Blind' outcome assessment was performed after intervention, and at three and six months after stroke.Rivermead Motor Assessment Arm Scale, Action Research Arm Test.In more severe patients, no benefits of additional treatment were detected. In less severe patients, significant benefits were found in those who completed treatment with the trained assistant. However, a considerable number of patients did (...) not complete the additional treatment. The content of treatment differed between the QPT and APT groups. Treatment of less severe APT patients emphasized repetitive supervised practice of movements and functional tasks. No significant effects of additional treatment were found in terms of shoulder pain or spasticity.Regardless of whether additional physiotherapy was given or not, patients with severe arm impairment improved very little in arm function. Enabling adaptation to loss of arm function may

1999 Clinical rehabilitation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3093. Rapid onset of action of levodopa in restless legs syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, crossover trial. (Abstract)

Rapid onset of action of levodopa in restless legs syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, crossover trial. To investigate the efficacy and safety of levodopa plus benserazide in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS), in terms of the frequency of periodic limb movements (PLMs), objective and subjective criteria of sleep, onset of action, and withdrawal effects.A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, crossover trial, with two 4-week treatment (...) treatment for a further 4 weeks; the dose could be doubled if required. The average dosages were 159 +/- 31 mg of levodopa and 1.56 +/- 0.29 capsules of placebo.Levodopa/benserazide significantly reduced the number of PLMs per hour (p<0.0001), increased the time in bed without limb movements (p<0.0001), and improved subjective quality of sleep (p=0.0004). The onset of action was rapid after the first dose, and full efficacy was achieved within the first few days of therapy; these improvements

1999 Sleep Controlled trial quality: predicted high

3094. Open-label trial of oral nalmefene therapy for the pruritus of cholestasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of limb movements, was recorded continuously for 24-hour periods before and during treatment with an initial ameliorating dose of nalmefene. Simultaneously, during these periods, visual analogue scores (VASs) of pruritus were recorded every 4 hours while patients were awake. The dose of nalmefene, which initially was 2 mg orally twice daily, was increased during the study, usually until a satisfactory clinical response was achieved. Five patients experienced a transient opioid withdrawal-like reaction

1998 Hepatology

3095. A controlled study of additional sr-L-dopa in L-dopa-responsive restless legs syndrome with late-night symptoms. (Abstract)

A controlled study of additional sr-L-dopa in L-dopa-responsive restless legs syndrome with late-night symptoms. To investigate whether a combination treatment of regular-release levodopa (rr-L-dopa) and sustained-release levodopa (sr-L-dopa) compared with monotherapy of rr-L-dopa improves sleep quality and reduces periodic limb movements (PLM) in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and problems with maintaining sleep.Reappearance of RLS symptoms during the second half of the night while (...) being treated with rr-L-dopa is a common problem in the treatment of sleep disturbances caused by RLS.A randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover trial was undertaken. Eligible patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of the International RLS Study Group, and met an actigraphically confirmed higher number of PLM per hour time in bed (PLM index) during the second half compared with the first half of the night under treatment with rr-L-dopa. During the crossover periods the patients received

1999 Neurology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3096. Effects of creatine monohydrate ingestion in sedentary and weight-trained older adults. (Abstract)

programme. The strength training programme consisted of three sets of eight repetitions at 80% of one-repetition maximum, for leg press, leg extension and chest press, 3 days a week. The 52-day supplementation programme consisted of 20 g of creatine monohydrate (or glucose) and 8 g of glucose per day for the initial 5 days followed by 3 g of creatine monohydrate (or glucose), and 2 g of glucose per day. Prior to and after the training and supplementation periods, body mass, body fat, lower limb muscular (...) volume, 1-, 12-repetitions maxima and isometric intermittent endurance tests for leg press, leg extension and chest press were determined. In all groups, no significant changes in anthropometric parameters were observed. For all movements, the increases in 1- and 12-repetitions maxima were greater (P < 0.02) in trained than control subjects. No significant interactions (supplementation/training/time) were observed for the 1-, 12-repetitions maxima, and the isometric intermittent endurance, whatever

1998 Acta physiologica Scandinavica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3097. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pergolide in restless legs syndrome. (Abstract)

of treatment (days 17 and 18).As a group, pergolide recipients showed significant improvement clinically and statistically in all outcome measures when compared with baseline or with placebo treatment. On the other hand, placebo treatment led to no significant improvements in any outcome measures.Pergolide treatment significantly improved clinical symptoms and sleep efficiency, and reduced periodic limb movements of sleep in patients with RLS. (...) schedule that ranged from 0.05 to 0.65 mg/day. Outcome variables included the patient's rating of symptom improvement, duration of RLS symptoms throughout the day, and objective sleep assessments from an all-night polysomnogram (percent sleep efficiency and periodic leg movements). Baseline was assessed for 2 days before starting treatment. Dose adjustments were made over the first 14 days and were then held constant for 5 days, with repeat assessment for treatment effects on the last 2 days

1998 Neurology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

3098. Response of neonates to vibroacoustic stimulation. (Abstract)

of limb movements. Heart rate increased by 19.5 +/- 9.7 beats/min (mean +/- SD) for a mean duration of 21.4 +/- 11.9 seconds. The five newborns with severe neurologic deficits did not show any response to vibroacoustic stimulation, and auditory brainstem evoked responses were also absent. We conclude that this technique may be useful as a screening procedure in the evaluation of the neurologic integrity of newborn infants. (...) Response of neonates to vibroacoustic stimulation. The response to vibroacoustic stimulation was evaluated in 30 healthy full-term newborns and in five newborns with severe neurologic deficits. The stimulus was applied during a period of quite sleep and a subsequent period of quiet sleep served as the control. All 30 healthy newborns reacted by changing from a state of quite sleep to an active sleep state as determined by heart rate acceleration, irregular respiration, and the appearance

1993 American journal of perinatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3099. Postoperative epidural fentanyl infusion--is the addition of 0.1% bupivacaine of benefit? Full Text available with Trip Pro

) bupivacaine. After an initial 50 micrograms bolus of fentanyl, infusion rate was adjusted according to need between 2 and 10 ml/hr for 48 hours. The two groups (n = 40) were similar with regard to age, weight and preoperative status. Analgesia both at rest and with movement were significantly better in group FB (P < 0.0001) during the first 24 hours postoperatively, the greatest difference occurring in the 4 to 16 hour period. There was no significant difference between groups from 24 to 48 hours (...) postoperatively. Fentanyl utilisation was significantly lower in group FB (median 41 versus 53 micrograms/hr, P < 0.001), although clinically the fentanyl dose-sparing effect of bupivacaine was small and did not reduce opioid-induced side-effects. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to side-effects or lower limb weakness, although fewer patients in group FB could be mobilised on the morning of the first postoperative day (P < 0.01). Nevertheless, all study patients were ambulant

1994 Anaesthesia and intensive care Controlled trial quality: predicted high

3100. Effects of bromocriptine in human narcolepsy. (Abstract)

, or psychomotor performance was observed during bromocriptine administration. Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) were significantly reduced during bromocriptine condition. These results suggest that D2 receptors are unlikely to play a major role in the physiopathology of human narcolepsy, and support the hypothesis that dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in PLMS.

1993 Clinical neuropharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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